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Villeneuve-la-Rivière, France

Al Hadi R.,University of Wuppertal | Sherry H.,University of Wuppertal | Sherry H.,STMicroelectronics | Grzyb J.,University of Wuppertal | And 6 more authors.
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits | Year: 2012

A 1 k-pixel camera chip for active terahertz video recording at room-temperature has been fully integrated in a 65-nm CMOS bulk process technology. The 32x32 pixel array consists of 1024 differential on-chip ring antennas coupled to NMOS direct detectors operated well-beyond their cutoff frequency based on the principle of distributed resistive self-mixing. It includes row and column select and integrate-and-dump circuitry capable of capturing terahertz videos up to 500 fps. The camera chip has been packaged together with a 41.7-dBi silicon lens (measured at 856 GHz) in a 5x5x3 cm 3 camera module. It is designed for continuous-wave illumination (no lock-in technique required). In this video-mode the camera operates up to 500 fps. At 856 GHz it achieves a responsivity Rv of about 115 kV/W (incl. a 5-dB VGA gain) and a total noise equivalent power (NEPtotal) of about 12 nW integrated over its 500-kHz video bandwidth. At a 5-kHz chopping frequency (non-video mode) a single pixel can provide a maximum responsivity Rv of 140 kV/W (incl. a 5-dB VGA gain) and a minimum noise equivalent power (NEP) of 100 pW/√Hz at 856 GHz. The wide-band antenna and pixel design achieves a 3-dB bandwidth of at least 790-960 GHz. © 2012 IEEE.

Houfaf F.,STMicroelectronics | Houfaf F.,University of Twente | Egot M.,STMicroelectronics | Kaiser A.,IEMN | And 2 more authors.
Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference | Year: 2012

As of today, the highest cut-off frequency low-pass continuous-time analog filters are in the frequency band of 1 to 3GHz [2,4-6], targeting applications like UWB communications or hard disk drives. Nevertheless, bands much higher, of about 10GHz, are to be addressed in the near future. This paper demonstrates an active low-pass filter tunable from 1 to 10GHz in 65nm CMOS, which is to our knowledge the highest ever cutoff frequency reported. © 2012 IEEE.

Lampin E.,IEMN | Krzeminski C.,IEMN
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2011

Classical molecular dynamics simulations are applied to the study of amorphous silicon regrowth in a nanodevice. A simplified atomistic amorphous nanostructure presenting the main features of a FinFET device is designed. A thermal treatment is used to simulate the annealing of the atomic model. The structure after annealing is very close to what observed experimentally, with perfect crystal near the silicon seed, an intermediate crystalline layer presenting [111] twins, and an upper terminal region of polysilicon. The comparison with 2D system suggests surface proximity effects that impact the probability to form grains and twins. As a consequence, it seems like the solid phase epitaxy was arrested in the nanostructure. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Lapierre F.,IEMN | Piret G.,University of Lille Nord de France | Drobecq H.,Institute Of Biologie Of Lille | Melnyk O.,Institute Of Biologie Of Lille | And 3 more authors.
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2011

We present for the first time an electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) microfluidic system coupled to a surface-assisted laser desorption-ionization (SALDI) silicon nanowire-based interface for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of small biomolecules. Here, the transfer of analytes has been achieved on specific locations on the SALDI interface followed by their subsequent mass spectrometry analysis without the use of an organic matrix. To achieve this purpose, a device comprising a digital microfluidic system and a patterned superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic silicon nanowire interface was developed. The digital microfluidic system serves for the displacement of the droplets containing analytes, via an electrowetting actuation, inside the superhydrophilic patterns. The nanostructured silicon interface acts as an inorganic target for matrix-free laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry analysis of the dried analytes. The proposed device can be easily used to realize several basic operations of a Lab-on-Chip such as analyte displacement and rinsing prior to MS analysis. We have demonstrated that the analysis of low molecular weight compounds (700 m/z) can be achieved with a very high sensitivity (down to 10 fmol μL-1). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

We present calculations of impact ionization rates, carrier multiplication yields, and solar-power conversion efficiencies in solar cells based on quantum dots (QDs) of a semimetal, β-Sn. Using these results and previous ones on PbSe and PbS QDs, we discuss a strategy to select QDs with the highest carrier multiplication rate for more efficient solar cells. We suggest using QDs of materials with a close to zero band gap and a high multiplicity of the bands in order to favor the relaxation of photoexcited carriers by impact ionization. Even in that case, the improvement of the maximum solar-power conversion efficiency appears to be a challenging task. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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