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Waltham, MA, United States

Two forested catchments in the Bohemian Forest (Šumava Mts.) were investigated according to the species composition of herb layer and aboveground plant biomass. The bark-beetle gradation was observed in the Plešné Lake catchment during this study. The community dynamics depends mainly on the altitudinal zone of the site. Variability in the species composition was more pronounced in the sites of natural broadleaved mixed forests than in the sites of natural Norway spruce forests. Three processes were recorded after the tree layer damage: Tree regeneration (very rapid), appearance of some species typical of the clear-cuts (only limited, mainly after windthrows) and disappearance of some species (limited, probably for a short time only). The aboveground biomass was variable. Some relations to the canopy decline were observed for Vaccinium myrtillus. The stock changes depend on the population features of this species and can differ (increase or decrease) according to individual localities. Source

Rossi G.,University of Florence | Catani F.,University of Florence | Leoni L.,University of Florence | Leoni L.,IDS Inc | And 2 more authors.
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science

HIRESSS (HIgh REsolution Slope Stability Simulator) is a physically based distributed slope stability simulator for analyzing shallow landslide triggering conditions in real time and on large areas using parallel computational techniques. The physical model proposed is composed of two parts: hydrological and geotechnical. The hydrological model receives the rainfall data as dynamical input and provides the pressure head as perturbation to the geotechnical stability model that computes the factor of safety (FS) in probabilistic terms. The hydrological model is based on an analytical solution of an approximated form of the Richards equation under the wet condition hypothesis and it is introduced as a modeled form of hydraulic diffusivity to improve the hydrological response. The geotechnical stability model is based on an infinite slope model that takes into account the unsaturated soil condition. During the slope stability analysis the proposed model takes into account the increase in strength and cohesion due to matric suction in unsaturated soil, where the pressure head is negative. Moreover, the soil mass variation on partially saturated soil caused by water infiltration is modeled.

The model is then inserted into a Monte Carlo simulation, to manage the typical uncertainty in the values of the input geotechnical and hydrological parameters, which is a common weak point of deterministic models. The Monte Carlo simulation manages a probability distribution of input parameters providing results in terms of slope failure probability. The developed software uses the computational power offered by multicore and multiprocessor hardware, from modern workstations to supercomputing facilities (HPC), to achieve the simulation in reasonable runtimes, compatible with civil protection real time monitoring.

A first test of HIRESSS in three different areas is presented to evaluate the reliability of the results and the runtime performance on large areas. © 2013 Author(s). Source

Warne D.,North Dakota State University | Kaur J.,Mayo Medical School | Perdue D.,IDS Inc
Journal of Cancer Education

Members of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes have a unique political status in the United States in terms of citizenship, and that political status determines eligibility for certain unique healthcare services. The AI/AN population has a legal right to healthcare services based on treaties, court decisions, acts of Congress, Executive Orders, and other legal bases. Although the AI/AN population has a right to healthcare services, the Indian Health Service (the federal agency responsible for providing healthcare to AI/ANs) is severely underfunded, limiting access to services (including cancer care). In order to overcome distinct cancer health disparities, policy changes will be needed. This paper reviews the historical pattern of AI/AN healthcare and the challenges of the complex care needed from prevention through end-of-life care for cancer. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

Vacek S.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Matejka K.,IDS Inc
Journal of Forest Science

Damage to beech, mixed (beech with spruce to spruce with beech) and spruce stands in the Krkonoše Mts. is described on the basis of evaluation of transition matrices describing the probability of a change in the assessment of defoliation of particular trees in defoliation classes. The condition and development of health status were evaluated in the long run on PRP 1-32 in the Krkonoše Mts. by foliage and degrees of defoliation. Features describing the health status of the tree crown (damage by snow, frost, wood-decaying fungi, and insects) were also evaluated. Average defoliation, standard deviation of defoliation, estimation of minimum defoliation, and frequency of the tree number in defoliation classes were calculated for each plot, and each year. Three characteristic periods were distinguished according to different trend of foliage dynamics: period of the first symptoms of damage (1976-1980) - a decrease in foliage on average max. by 1% per year, period of great damage (1981-1988) - annual defoliation on average around 3-16%, period of damage abatement (1989-2009) - annual defoliation on average between 0% and 4%. The incomparably higher resistance of autochthonous stands to air pollution stress culminating in the eighties of the last century was demonstrated unambiguously. Source

IDS Inc and Woosung IB. Co. | Date: 2013-10-23

The present invention is directed to an escape and survival capsule that provides protection to occupants from, e.g., cataclysmic natural events such as tsunamis, flooding, monsoon, typhoons, tornadoes, hurricanes, water spouts, earthquakes and mudslides. The capsule may be designed to be inflatable with durable and rugged materials providing protection against hazardous environmental factors during one or more of the preceding cataclysmic events. The capsule may be designed to be easily stowable, transportable and deployable so that it can serve its intended purpose within minutes after the occurrence of any of the preceding or other cataclysmic events.

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