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Roomruangwong C.,Chulalongkorn University | Kanchanatawan B.,Chulalongkorn University | Sirivichayakul S.,Chulalongkorn University | Anderson G.,CRC Scotland and London | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2017

There is some evidence that lowered tryptophan and an activated tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway play a role in depression, somatoform disorder, and postpartum blues. The aim of this study is to delineate the associations between the TRYCAT pathway and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and perinatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms. We examine the associations between end of term serum IgM and IgA responses to tryptophan and 9 TRYCATs in relation to zinc, C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin and prenatal physio-somatic (previously known as psychosomatic) symptoms (fatigue, back pain, muscle pain, dyspepsia, obstipation) and prenatal and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms as measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory (STAI). We included pregnant females with (n = 24) and without depression (n = 25) and 24 non-pregnant females. There were no significant associations between the IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan and TRYCATs and prenatal and postnatal depression/anxiety symptoms, except for lowered IgA responses to anthranilic acid in prenatal depression. A large part of the variance in IgA responses to most TRYCATs was explained by PMS and haptoglobin (positively) and CRP (inversely) levels. The IgA responses to TRYCATs were significantly increased in PMS, in particular picolinic, anthranilic, xanthurenic and kynurenic acid, and 3OH-kynurenine. Variance (62.5%) in physio-somatic symptoms at the end of term was explained by PMS, previous depressions, zinc (inversely), CRP and haptoglobin (both positively), and the IgM responses to quinolinic acid (positively), anthranilic acid, and tryptophan (both negatively). The results suggest that mucosa-derived TRYCAT pathway activation is significantly associated with PMS, but not with perinatal depression/anxiety symptoms. Physio-somatic symptoms in pregnancy have an immune-inflammatory pathophysiology. Induction of the TRYCAT pathway appears to be more related to physio-somatic than to depression symptoms. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Kanchanatawan B.,Chulalongkorn University | Sirivichayakul S.,Chulalongkorn University | Ruxrungtham K.,Chulalongkorn University | Carvalho A.F.,Federal University of Ceará | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2017

Evidence suggests that activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, no previous study examined whether TRYCAT pathway activation is associated with deficit schizophrenia. We measured IgA responses to TRYCATs, namely quinolinic acid, picolinic acid, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, and anthranilic acid and 3-OH-kynurenine, in 40 healthy controls and in schizophrenic patients with (n = 40) and without (n = 40) deficit, defined according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS). Primary deficit schizophrenia is accompanied by an activated TRYCAT pathway as compared to controls and nondeficit schizophrenia. Participants with deficit schizophrenia show increased IgA responses to xanthurenic acid, picolinic acid, and quinolinic acid and relatively lowered IgA responses to kynurenic and anthranilic acids, as compared to patients with nondeficit schizophrenia. Both schizophrenia subgroups show increased IgA responses to 3-OH-kynurenine as compared to controls. The IgA responses to noxious TRYCATs, namely xanthurenic acid, picolinic acid, quinolinic acid, and 3-OH-kynurenine, but not protective TRYCATS, namely anthranilic acid and kunyrenic acid, are significantly higher in deficit schizophrenia than in controls. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are significantly and positively associated with increased IgA responses directed against picolinic acid and inversely with anthranilic acid, whereas no significant associations between positive symptoms and IgA responses to TRYCATs were found. In conclusion, primary deficit schizophrenia is characterized by TRYCAT pathway activation and differs from nondeficit schizophrenia by a highly specific TRYCAT pattern suggesting increased excitotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and neurotoxicity, as well as inflammation and oxidative stress. The specific alterations in IgA responses to TRYCATs provide further insight for the biological delineation of deficit versus nondeficit schizophrenia. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Kanchanatawan B.,Chulalongkorn University | Sirivichayakul S.,Chulalongkorn University | Ruxrungtham K.,Chulalongkorn University | Carvalho A.F.,Federal University of Ceará | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2017

Deficit schizophrenia is accompanied by mucosa-associated activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway, as indicated by increased IgA responses to noxious (NOX) TRYCATs, but not regulatory or protective (PRO) TRYCATs, suggesting increased neurotoxic, excitotoxic, inflammatory, and oxidative potential. No previous studies examined IgM-mediated autoimmune responses to the TRYCAT pathway in deficit versus nondeficit schizophrenia. We measured IgM responses to NOX TRYCATs, namely, quinolinic acid (QA), 3-OH-kynurenine (3HK), picolinic acid (PA), and xanthurenic (XA) acid, and PRO TRYCATs, including kynurenic acid (KA) and anthranilic acid (AA), in 40 healthy controls and 40 deficit and 40 nondeficit schizophrenic patients. We computed the IgM responses to NOX (QA + PA + 3HK + XA)/PRO (AA + KA) ratio and ∆ differences in IgA − IgM TRYCAT values and NOX/PRO ratio. Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by significantly attenuated IgM responses to all TRYCATs and NOX/PRO ratio and highly increased ∆IgA − IgM NOX/PRO ratio as compared to nondeficit schizophrenia and healthy controls. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are significantly and positively associated with increased IgM responses directed against the KA/3HK ratio and ∆IgA − IgM NOX/PRO ratio. The findings support the view that deficit schizophrenia is a distinct subtype of schizophrenia that may be significantly discriminated from nondeficit schizophrenia. Deficit schizophrenia is accompanied by a highly specific defect in IgM isotype-mediated regulatory responses directed to the TRYCAT pathway. Lowered IgM regulatory responses together with mucosa-derived activation of the TRYCAT pathway may contribute to neuroprogression, negative symptoms, and deficit schizophrenia. All in all, a highly specific defect in the compensatory (anti-)inflammatory reflex system (CIRS), namely, natural IgM-mediated regulatory responses, may underpin deficit schizophrenia. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Roomruangwong C.,Chulalongkorn University | Barbosa D.S.,State University Londrina | Matsumoto A.K.,State University Londrina | Nogueira A.D.S.,State University Londrina | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2017

Objectives To examine oxidative & nitrosative stress (O&NS) biomarkers at the end of term in relation to perinatal affective symptoms, neuro-immune biomarkers and pregnancy-related outcome variables. Methods We measured plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), -sulfhydryl (-SH), peroxides (LOOH) and paraoxonase (PON)1 activity in pregnant women with and without prenatal depression and non-pregnant controls. Results Pregnancy is accompanied by significantly increased AOPP and NOx, and lowered TRAP, -SH and LOOH. Increased O&NS and lowered LOOH and -SH levels are associated with prenatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms (fatigue, pain, dyspepsia, gastro-intestinal symptoms). Increased AOPP and NOx are significantly associated with lowered –SH, TRAP and zinc, and with increased haptoglobin and C-reactive protein levels. Increased O&NS and lowered TRAP and PON 1 activity, at the end of term predict mother (e.g. hyperpigmentation, labor duration, caesarian section, cord length, breast milk flow) and baby (e.g. sleep and feeding problems) outcome characteristics. Conclusions Pregnancy is accompanied by interrelated signs of O&NS, lowered antioxidant defenses and activated neuro-immune pathways. Increased O&NS at the end of term is associated with perinatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms and may predict obstetric and behavioral complications in mother and baby. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Roomruangwong C.,Chulalongkorn University | Kanchanatawan B.,Chulalongkorn University | Carvalho A.F.,Federal University of Ceará | Sirivichayakul S.,Chulalongkorn University | And 7 more authors.
World Journal of Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Objectives: The aim of the present study is to delineate the associations between body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women and immune-inflammatory biomarkers, i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc and IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan and tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). Methods: We assessed 49 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant females and assessed Body Image Satisfaction (BIS) scores at the end of term (T1), and 2–4 days (T2) and 4–6 weeks (T3) after delivery. Subjects were divided in those with a lowered BIS score (≤ 3) versus those with a higher score. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that a lowered T1 BIS score was predicted by CRP levels and IgA responses to tryptophan (negative) and TRYCATs (positive), perinatal depression, body mass index (BMI) and age. The sum of quinolinic acid, kynurenine, 3-OH-kynurenine and 3-OH-anthranilic acid (reflecting brain quinolinic acid contents) was the single best predictor. In addition, a large part of the variance in the T1, T2 and T3 BIS scores was explained by IgA responses to tryptophan and TRYCATs, especially quinolinic acid. Conclusions: Body image dissatisfaction is strongly associated with inflammation and mucosa-derived IDO activation independently from depression, pregnancy, BMI and age. IgA responses to peripheral TRYCATs, which determine brain quinolinic acid concentrations, also predict body image dissatisfaction. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Mangas A.,Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y Leon INCYL | Vecino E.,University of the Basque Country | Rodriguez F.D.,University of Salamanca | Geffard M.,IDRPHT | Covenas R.,Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y Leon INCYL
Neurological Research | Year: 2013

Objectives: Chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in rats to evaluate the potential protective effect of GEMSP, a mixture made up of fatty acids (FA), vitamins, and amino acids or their derivatives, linked to Poly-L-Lysine, on the myelin sheath of the optic nerve. Methods: To evaluate the effects of GEMSP on the optic nerve, animals were divided into three experimental groups: (1) EAE rats treated with GEMSP; (2) EAE rats treated with 0·9% NaCl; and (3) control, non-EAE rats. Using electron microscopy, we investigated the possibility that this new drug candidate has a myelin-protective role. Results: A marginally significant reduction in the thickness of the myelin around optic nerve medium-size axons (diameter between 0.8-1.3 μm) was found in EAE rats. Treatment of EAE rats with GEMSP ameliorated myelin damage. Significantly increased myelin thickness was found when animals in groups 2 and 3 were compared. However, the number of myelinated axons studied was not altered in groups 1 or 2 when compared to controls. Discussion: Our results suggest that in a model of demyelination, GEMSP protects and enhances the formation of the myelin sheath of the optic nerve and therefore could be a potential drug candidate to reduce optic nerve pathogenesis in multiple sclerosis (MS). © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2013.


PubMed | Chulalongkorn University, IDRPHT, CRC Scotland and London and Federal University of Ceará
Type: | Journal: Molecular neurobiology | Year: 2016

There is some evidence that lowered tryptophan and an activated tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway play a role in depression, somatoform disorder, and postpartum blues. The aim of this study is to delineate the associations between the TRYCAT pathway and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and perinatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms. We examine the associations between end of term serum IgM and IgA responses to tryptophan and 9 TRYCATs in relation to zinc, C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin and prenatal physio-somatic (previously known as psychosomatic) symptoms (fatigue, back pain, muscle pain, dyspepsia, obstipation) and prenatal and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms as measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Spielbergers State Anxiety Inventory (STAI). We included pregnant females with (n=24) and without depression (n=25) and 24 non-pregnant females. There were no significant associations between the IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan and TRYCATs and prenatal and postnatal depression/anxiety symptoms, except for lowered IgA responses to anthranilic acid in prenatal depression. A large part of the variance in IgA responses to most TRYCATs was explained by PMS and haptoglobin (positively) and CRP (inversely) levels. The IgA responses to TRYCATs were significantly increased in PMS, in particular picolinic, anthranilic, xanthurenic and kynurenic acid, and 3OH-kynurenine. Variance (62.5%) in physio-somatic symptoms at the end of term was explained by PMS, previous depressions, zinc (inversely), CRP and haptoglobin (both positively), and the IgM responses to quinolinic acid (positively), anthranilic acid, and tryptophan (both negatively). The results suggest that mucosa-derived TRYCAT pathway activation is significantly associated with PMS, but not with perinatal depression/anxiety symptoms. Physio-somatic symptoms in pregnancy have an immune-inflammatory pathophysiology. Induction of the TRYCAT pathway appears to be more related to physio-somatic than to depression symptoms.


Geffard M.,IDRPHT | Duleu S.,IDRPHT | Mangas A.,Institute of Neuroscience of Castilla y Len | Sevin F.,IDRPHT | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2010

In Alzheimer's disease, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan hydroxylase are known to induce an overproduction of neurotoxic compounds, such as quinolinic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine from the former, and 5-hydroxytryptophol and 5-methoxytryptophol from the latter. Other compounds, such as kynurenic acid, serotonin, and melatonin are produced via the same pathways. An improved ELISA method identified circulating antibodies directed against these compounds, linked to proteins, as previously described for other chronic diseases. This describes how only the A isotype of circulating immunoglobulins recognized a pattern of conjugated tryptophan metabolites in the sera of Alzheimer patients. These data indirectly confirmed the involvement of tryptophan derivatives in the pathogenic processes of Alzheimer's disease. Further studies are required to evaluate the relevance of these antibody patterns in monitoring this disease. Copyright © 2010 S. Duleu et al.


PubMed | e GEMAC, Chulalongkorn University, IDRPHT and Federal University of Ceará
Type: | Journal: The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2016

The aim of the present study is to delineate the associations between body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women and immune-inflammatory biomarkers, i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc and IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan and tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs).We assessed 49 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant females and assessed Body Image Satisfaction (BIS) scores at the end of term (T1), and 2-4 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery. Subjects were divided in those with a lowered BIS score (3) versus those with a higher score.Logistic regression analysis showed that a lowered T1 BIS score was predicted by CRP levels and IgA responses to tryptophan (negative) and TRYCATs (positive), perinatal depression, body mass index (BMI) and age. The sum of quinolinic acid, kynurenine, 3-OH-kynurenine and 3-OH-anthranilic acid (reflecting brain quinolinic acid contents) was the single best predictor. In addition, a large part of the variance in the T1, T2 and T3 BIS scores was explained by IgA responses to tryptophan and TRYCATs, especially quinolinic acid.Body image dissatisfaction is strongly associated with inflammation and mucosa-derived IDO activation independently from depression, pregnancy, BMI and age. IgA responses to peripheral TRYCATs, which determine brain quinolinic acid concentrations, also predict body image dissatisfaction.


PubMed | IDRPHT
Type: | Journal: International journal of Alzheimer's disease | Year: 2010

In Alzheimers disease, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan hydroxylase are known to induce an overproduction of neurotoxic compounds, such as quinolinic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine from the former, and 5-hydroxytryptophol and 5-methoxytryptophol from the latter. Other compounds, such as kynurenic acid, serotonin, and melatonin are produced via the same pathways. An improved ELISA method identified circulating antibodies directed against these compounds, linked to proteins, as previously described for other chronic diseases. This describes how only the A isotype of circulating immunoglobulins recognized a pattern of conjugated tryptophan metabolites in the sera of Alzheimer patients. These data indirectly confirmed the involvement of tryptophan derivatives in the pathogenic processes of Alzheimers disease. Further studies are required to evaluate the relevance of these antibody patterns in monitoring this disease.

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