News Article | April 24, 2017
CAVAILLON, France--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Regulatory News: ID Logistics (Paris:IDL) (ISIN: FR0010929125, Ticker: IDL) ID Logistics, one of the European leaders in contract logistics, has reported Q1 2017 revenues of €321.9 million, up 45.3% and up 12.9% on a like-for-like basis (at comparable scope and exchange rates). Eric Hémar, Chairman and CEO of ID Logistics, commented: “This good start to the year reflects a highly positive contribution from Logiters, acquired on 1 September 2016, and strong or
News Article | May 2, 2017
VANCOUVER, BC--(Marketwired - May 02, 2017) - I-Minerals lnc. (TSX VENTURE: IMA) ( : IMAHF) ( : 61M) (the "Company") is pleased to announce that further to its press release of April 5, 2017 wherein the company reported it had re-filed its Operation and Reclamation Plan ("ORP") with the Idaho Department of Lands (the "IDL"), the amended ORP has been accepted by the IDL. The approval of the ORP, together with the recently received water permit from the Idaho Department of Water Resources ("IDWR") positions the Company to be able to begin construction, subject to financing and certain bonding requirements. "This is an exceptional achievement for I-Minerals and the result of many months of hard work, by our staff and our environmental engineering consultant HDR Engineering, Inc.," stated Thomas Conway, President and CEO of I-Minerals Inc. "Few exploration companies ever get their projects to the full feasibility stage and those that do often face long permitting challenges, particularly in US jurisdictions. I-Minerals completed the Feasibility and Permitting tasks in just over two years, which speaks volumes to the quality of our project, our team and the abilities of the permitting agencies to recognize that the Bovill Kaolin Project, which will be a non-metal mine, has less impacts than most mines. Plus, we have gone above and beyond what otherwise might be required through good environmental stewardship methodologies such as dry stacking of the tailings and a zero water discharge operation." The ORP was approved subject to standard terms including: 1. All refuse, chemical and petroleum products to be stored in designated location at least 100 feet from any surface water; 2. State water quality standards to be maintained at all times during the life of the operation 3. Erosions and non-point source pollution shall be minimized by careful design and implementing Best Management practices 4. A reclamation bond of approximately $3,000,000 being submitted to, approved by and maintained by the IDL prior to conducting any mining activities. 5. Obtaining all other necessary permits and approvals from state and federal authorities (e.g. Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan; air quality, consultation with fisheries and US Army Corp of Engineers 404 Permit and Stream Channel Alteration Permits) as required for each production process. "With this very important milestone having been successfully achieved we are anxious to finish the last few stages of our ongoing strategic market studies and continue to advance the project as expeditiously as possible," continued Thomas Conway. "This is a relatively easy mine to build with a short construction time frame and we are reviewing opportunities to shorten the time to production by starting work on the FEED study and detailed engineering advance of securing all funds necessary for the CAPEX." The Company would like to thank the Idaho Department of Lands and the Idaho Land Board for their diligence in reviewing our permitting documentation and the attention to detail with timely responses. Based upon the March 2016 Feasibility Study by GBM Engineers, the Bovill Kaolin Project is expected to create 100 jobs in the construction phase and 90 full time jobs over the 25+ year mine life. The project is expected to make an appreciable contribution to Latah County and generate additional revenue for the State of Idaho. "With respect to mineral marketing, we are very pleased with the way markets for our products are firming up," noted Thomas Conway. "As we have seen in recent press releases, high value applications for our halloysite developing in Europe in life science and gas absorption technologies. Our pilot plant work indicates K-spar is poised to be the highest K O- feldspar available, and there is a pronounced shortage of fly ash as a pozzolan in the western cement markets that bodes well for our metakaolin. We have never felt better about our Bovill Kaolin Project." A. Lamar Long, CPG, is a qualified person ("QP") for I-Minerals Inc. and has reviewed and approved the contents of this release. I-Minerals is developing multiple deposits of high purity, high value halloysite, quartz, potassium feldspar and kaolin at its strategically located Helmer-Bovill property in north Idaho. A 2016 Feasibility Study on the Bovill Kaolin Deposit led by GBM Engineers LLC, who were responsible for overall project management and the process plant and infrastructure design, including OPEX and CAPEX calculated an After Tax NPV of US$249.8 million with a 25.8% After Tax IRR. Initial CAPEX was estimated at $108.3 million with a 3.7 year After Tax payback. Other engineering services were provided by HDR Engineering, Inc. (all environmental components; hydrology / hydrogeology; road design); Tetra Tech, Inc. (tailings storage facility design); Mine Development Associates (mine modelling; ore scheduling; mineral reserve estimation); and SRK Consulting (U.S.) Inc. (mineral resource estimation). Permitting work with the State of Idaho is well underway. This News Release includes certain "forward looking statements" within the meaning of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Without limitation, statements regarding potential mineralization and resources, exploration results, and future plans and objectives of the Company are forward looking statements that involve various risks. Actual results could differ materially from those projected as a result of the following factors, among others: changes in the world wide price of mineral market conditions, risks inherent in mineral exploration, risk associated with development, construction and mining operations, the uncertainty of future profitability and uncertainty of access to additional capital. NEITHER THE TSX VENTURE EXCHANGE NOR ITS REGULATION SERVICES PROVIDER (AS THAT TERM IS DEFINED IN THE POLICIES OF THE TSX VENTURE EXCHANGE) ACCEPTS RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS NEWS RELEASE
News Article | April 24, 2017
CAVAILLON, France--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Regulatory News: ID Logistics (Paris:IDL) (ISIN : FR0010929125, Mnémo : IDL) un des leaders européens de la logistique contractuelle, annonce un chiffre d’affaires pour le 1er trimestre 2017 de 321,9 M€, en progression de +45,3% et de +12,9% à données comparables (périmètre et changes constants). Eric Hémar, Président Directeur Général d’ID Logistics commente : « Ce bon début d’année bénéficie de la contribution très positive de Logiters, acquis au 1er septem
News Article | May 4, 2017
SANTA CLARA, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Agilent Technologies Inc. (NYSE: A) today, announced that it received three awards at the Annual Conference of China Scientific Instruments (ACCSI 2017) in Nanjing, China. Agilent received the following awards: Green Product of the Year, Most Popular Scientific Instrument, and Most Influential Foreign Manufacturer. This year’s ACCSI conference brought together leaders from diverse industries to discuss topics that ranged from bioscience to food safety and environmental monitoring. Agilent has attended ACCSI since 2008 and has received 28 awards to date. The innovative Agilent Intuvo 9000 Gas Chromatograph (GC) System was selected as the Green Product of the Year. Designed together with customers, for customers, this transformational gas chromatograph makes complex technology easy to use. Click-and-run connections eliminate ferrules, guard-chip technology extends column life, and the trim-free column reduces retention time shifts due to column trimming maintenance. “ We are pleased to receive the Green Product of the Year Award from the 2017 ACCSI conference,” said Shanya Kane, Agilent global vice president and general manager of Gas Chromatography. “ The basis for this award corroborates the customer feedback we are receiving from labs across the globe regarding Intuvo’s contributions to laboratory throughput, space, and power efficiencies, as well as the designed-in simplicity of the user interface and operation.” The Agilent 5977B GC/MS System won the award for Most Popular Scientific Instrument. This single quadrupole GC/MS system features a high-efficiency ion source, which maximizes the number of ions that are created and transferred out of the source body and into the quadrupole analyzer, resulting in 10 times greater sensitivity and detection limits as low as 1.5 fg IDL. Additionally, for the second year in a row, Agilent was recognized at ACCSI as the Most Influential Foreign Manufacturer. “ We have made significant investments to provide innovative new offerings to the China market. We are driven to further improve our customers’ experiences, so we are proud that our efforts are being recognized by external agencies,“ said Mike McMullen, Agilent president, and CEO. Agilent Technologies Inc. (NYSE: A), a global leader in life sciences, diagnostics and applied chemical markets, is the premier laboratory partner for a better world. Agilent works with customers in more than 100 countries, providing instruments, software, services and consumables for the entire laboratory workflow. The company generated revenues of $4.20 billion in fiscal 2016 and employs about 12,500 people worldwide. Information about Agilent is available at www.agilent.com.
News Article | April 21, 2017
CALGARY, AB / ACCESSWIRE / April 21, 2017 / Imaging Dynamics Company Ltd. ("IDC" or the "Company") (TSX-V: IDL) is pleased to announce that it received notification that Health Canada has approved its Digital Radiography ("DR") products - Aquarius 8600 1717TC and Aquarius 8600 1417TC for sale in Canada. These products were also approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration on February 22, 2017 for sales into the US. IDC is a global medical imaging technology provider and innovative force in the high growth field of digital radiography (DR) technology. The Company has thousands of installations in 50 countries of its proprietary, award winning direct capture DR technology, which replaces conventional film-based diagnostic imaging and provides a cost-effective solution for medical facilities of all sizes to provide high quality diagnostic X-ray images and improve the level of healthcare for their patients. Throughout its history, IDC has been recognized by multiple industry organizations and research analysts such as: Frost & Sullivan and Deloitte Technology; for its dedication to innovation, global market growth, and customer focused value proposition. The Company has its corporate office in Calgary, Canada, a sales and marketing office in Beijing, China, and also operations, research and development centres in Calgary, Canada and Shanghai, China. Visit the IDC web site: www.imagingdynamics.com For more information, please contact: Mr. Eugene Woychyshyn Statements in this release which describe IDC's intentions, expectations or predictions, or which relate to matters that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties which may cause the actual results, performances or achievements of IDC to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed in or implied by such forward-looking statements. IDC may update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or changing market and business conditions. Known and unknown risks and uncertainties include: IDC's ability to manufacture its products with a sufficient level of quality and in volumes which satisfy market demand; the ability of IDC to establish direct and indirect sales channels; the ability of IDC to establish industry partnerships; IDC's ability to attract and retain key personnel; the strength and breadth of IDC's patents; and other factors relating to general economic conditions, specific industry conditions and IDC's particular situation. Neither TSXV nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSXV) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.
News Article | April 22, 2017
A Canadian-headquartered company, Pacific Exploration and Production, has pulled out of a huge oil and gas concession overlapping a new national park in the Peruvian Amazon. The concession, Lot 135, includes approximately 40% of the Sierra del Divisor national park established in 2015. The concession has provoked opposition in Peru and just across the border in Brazil for many years, including regular statements since 2009 from indigenous Matsés people in both countries and a lawsuit recently filed by regional indigenous federation ORPIO. Both Lot 135 and the park overlap territory used by the Matsés and a proposed reserve for indigenous people living in “isolation.” Pacific signed a contract for the concession in 2007, the year after a significant chunk of it had been declared a supposedly “protected natural area” but eight years before it became a national park. The company’s decision to pull out was made public by UK-headquartered NGO Survival International. Institutional Relations and Sustainability Manager Alejandro Jimenez Ramirez told Survival in a letter dated 13 March 2017: Perupetro confirmed to the Guardian that Pacific has pulled out, stating that the last day of its contract was 13 March, when the company wrote to Survival. “That is the reason why Lot 135 now doesn’t appear on our [March 2017] map,” says Perupetro’s communications officer Candice Suarez Oppe. ORPIO’s David Freitas called Pacific’s decision “good news”, but warned that the concession still exists - and therefore another company could be contracted to operate there. “The essential thing is for Lot 135 to be annulled,” Freitas told the Guardian. “It can be done. More pressure [is required].” ORPIO’s lawsuit, supported by the Lima-based Instituto de Defensa Legal (IDL), requests the judge to order the Energy Ministry and Perupetro to re-draw the boundaries of Lot 135 so the proposed reserve for indigenous peoples in “isolation” is excluded. It also requests the judge to order the state entity running the park, SERNANP, to modify the management plan so the proposed reserve - and another proposed reserve - become “strictly protected” zones. The lawsuit was filed in November 2016, but to date the judge has not formally responded. “We hope that the judge, Jose Enrique Reategui, will admit our lawsuit and then emit his sentence as soon as possible,” says IDL’s Maritza Quispe. “The indigenous peoples in isolation and initial contact in the proposed reserves are put at serious risk by the park and the superimposition of the oil concessions.” Sierra del Divisor is Peru’s third biggest national park, adjacent to the border with Brazil. It is home to numerous eco-systems, an extraordinary range of flora and fauna, and river headwaters feeding into key Amazon tributaries. It boasts the “only mountainous region” in the lowland rainforest, according to Peruvian NGO Instituto del Bien Comun, and its most iconic topographical feature, El Cono, can be seen from the Andes on a clear day. In 2012 and 2013 Pacific explored in what is now the north of the park and, according to ORPIO’s Freitas, it had been planning further exploration as recently as mid-2016. Freitas told the Guardian that operations by the company - including seismic tests - almost certainly drove some of the people in “isolation” across the border into Brazil’s Javari Valley. “They don’t acknowledge the border,” he says. “There’s a great deal of protection [on the Brazilian side] and they can live peacefully there. Maybe, for now, those who went into Brazil will come back [to Peru].” Survival’s statement implied that Pacific pulled out partly because of a campaign it has been running against operations in Lot 135 as well as opposition from the Rainforest Foundation Norway and Peruvian indigenous federations ORPIO, AIDESEP and ORAU, but the company reportedly disputes that. “The firm says its decision came down to business not public pressure,” states a Reuters article published in March. “It decided not to develop one million hectares of land deep in the jungle on the Peru-Brazil border because of financial concerns, a company spokeswoman said. . . “We made operational decisions not to pursue this concession. . . it has nothing to do with pressure,” the Pacific Exploration spokeswoman told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.” Pacific was US$5.4 billion in debt as of late 2015, according to company documents. It filed for bankruptcy in April 2016 and was then restructured. Asked by the Guardian why the company abandoned Lot 135, Pacific sent a statement saying it has new management which evaluated “current opportunities” and decided to “focus on its assets in Colombia and other concessions in different parts of Peru.” Lot 135 extends for more than one million hectares and is estimated by Perupetro to hold prospective deposits of almost one billion barrels of oil.
News Article | January 6, 2016
The overall observational strategy is similar for each of the eight targets in the Large HST programme (GO-12473; principal investigator D.K.S.), which have been presented for WASP-19b14, HAT-P-1b12, 13, WASP-12b3, WASP-31b4 and WASP-6b11 with the details summarized here and applied to the remaining targets HAT-P-12b, WASP-17b and WASP-39b. We observed two transits of each target with the HST STIS G430L grating, and one with the STIS G750L. The G430L and G750L data sets contain typically 43 to 53 spectra, which span either four or five spacecraft orbits and were taken with a wide 52 arcsec × 2 arcsec slit to minimize slit light losses. Both gratings have resolutions of R of λ/Δλ = 530–1,040 (~2 pixels is 5.5 Å for G430L and ~2 pixels is 9.8 Å for G750L). The G430L grating covers the wavelength range from 2,900 Å to 5,700 Å, while the G750L grating covers 5,240 Å to 10,270 Å. The visits of HST were scheduled such that the third and/or fourth spacecraft orbits contain the transit, providing good coverage between second and third contact, as well as an out-of-transit baseline time series before and after the transit. Exposure times of 279 s were used in conjunction with a 128-pixel-wide sub-array, which reduces the readout time between exposures to 21 s, providing a 93% overall duty cycle. The STIS data set was pipeline-reduced with the latest version of CALSTIS, and cleaned for cosmic ray detections with a customized procedure11. The G750L data set was defringed using contemporaneous fringe flats. The spectral aperture extraction was done with IRAF, using a 13-pixel-wide aperture with no background subtraction, which minimizes the out-of-transit standard deviation of the white-light curves. The extracted spectra were then Doppler-corrected to a common rest frame through cross-correlation, which helped remove sub-pixel wavelength shifts in the dispersion direction. The STIS spectra were then used to create both a white-light photometric time series and custom wavelength bands covering the spectra, integrating the appropriate wavelength flux from each exposure for different bandpasses. Observations of HAT-P-1b and WASP-31b were also conducted in the infrared with the HST WFC3 instrument as part of GO-12473 and are detailed in refs 4 and 13. The observations use the infrared G141 grism in forward spatial scan mode over five HST orbits. Spatial scanning is done by slewing the telescope in the cross-dispersion direction during integration in a similar manner for each exposure, which increases the duty cycle and greatly increases the counts obtained per exposure. We used the ‘ima’ outputs from the CALWFC3 pipeline, which performs reference pixel subtraction, zero-read and dark current subtraction, and a nonlinearity correction. For the spectral extraction, we trimmed a wide box around each spectral image, with the spectra extracted using custom routines from the programming language IDL, similar to IRAF’s procedure from the APALL program. The aperture width was determined by minimizing the standard deviation of the fitted white-light curve. The aperture was traced around a computed centring profile, which was found to be consistent in the y axis with an error of <0.1 pixels. Background subtraction was applied using a clean region of the untrimmed image. For wavelength calibration, direct images were taken in the F139M narrow-band filter at the beginning of the observations. We assumed that all pixels in the same column have the same effective wavelength, as the spatial scan varied in the x-axis direction by less than one pixel, resulting in a spectral range from 1.1 μm to 1.7 μm. This wavelength range was later restricted to avoid the strongly sloped edges of the grism response, which results in much lower signal-to-noise light curves. For the comparative study, we also included the WFC3 observations for WASP-19b14, HD 209458b1, HAT-P-12b2 and WASP-17b31 (GO-12181; principal investigator D.D.). The WFC3 observations of WASP-12b3 were also included (GO-12230; principal investigator M. R. Swain), as was HD 189733b5 (GO-12881; principal investigator P. R. McCullough). The WFC3 observations of WASP-12b, WASP-17b, WASP-19b and HAT-P-12b were observed in stare mode, rather than with spatial scanning, and therefore have generally poorer overall photometric precision. See Extended Data Table 1 for a list of all observations. The eight targets in the large HST survey were also all covered by Spitzer transit observations as part of an Exploration Science Programme (90092; principal investigator J.-M. Désert) obtained using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) instrument with the 3.6-μm and 4.5-μm channels in subarray mode (32 × 32 pixels). Photometry was extracted from the basic calibrated FITS data cubes, produced by the IRAC pipeline after dark subtraction, flat-fielding, linearization and flux calibration. The images contain 64 exposures taken in sequence and have per-image integration times of 1.92 s. Both channels generally show a strong ramp feature at the beginning of the time series, and we elected to trim the first ~20 min of data to allow the detector to stabilize. We performed outlier filtering for hot (energetic) or cold (low-count values) pixels in the data by examining the time series of each pixel and subtracted the background flux from each image11. We measured the position of the star on the detector in each image incorporating the flux-weighted centroiding method using the background subtracted pixels from each image, for a circular region with a radius of 3 pixels centred on the approximate position of the star. We extracted photometric measurements from our data using both aperture photometry from a grid of apertures ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 pixels (in increments of 0.1) and time-variable aperture photometry. The best result was selected by measuring the flux scatter of the out-of-transit portion of the light curves for both channels after filtering the data for 5σ outliers with a width of 20 data points. All the transit light curves were modelled with analytical transit models15. For the white-light curves, the central transit time, orbital inclination, stellar density, planet-to-star radius contrast, stellar baseline flux and instrument systematic trends were fitted simultaneously. The period was initially fixed to a literature value, before being updated, with our final fits adopting the values obtained from an updated transit ephemeris. Both G430L transits were fitted simultaneously with a common inclination, stellar density and planet-to-star radius contrast. The results from the HST white-light curve and Spitzer fits were then used in conjunction with literature results to refine the orbital ephemeris and overall planetary system properties. To account for the effects of limb-darkening on the transit light curve, we adopted the four-parameter nonlinear limb-darkening law, calculating the coefficients with stellar models32, 33. As in our past STIS studies, we applied orbit-to-orbit flux corrections by fitting for a low-order polynomial to the photometric time series phased on the HST orbital period. The baseline flux level of each visit was free to vary in time linearly, described by two fit parameters. In addition, for the G750L we found it justified by the Bayesian Information Criteria34 to also linearly fit for two further systematic trends which correlated with the x and y detector positions of the spectra, as determined from a linear spectral trace in IRAF. The orders of the fit polynomials were statistically justified based on the Bayesian Information Criteria34, and the systematic trends were fitted simultaneously with the transit parameters. The errors on each data point were initially set to the pipeline values, which are dominated by photon noise but also includes readout noise. The best-fitting parameters were determined simultaneously with a Levenberg–Marquardt least-squares algorithm35 using the unbinned data. After the initial fits, the uncertainties for each data point were rescaled based on the standard deviation of the residuals and any measured systematic errors correlated in time (‘red noise’), thus taking into account any underestimated errors calculated by the reduction pipeline in the data points. The uncertainties on the fitted parameters were calculated using the covariance matrix from the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, which assumes that the probability space around the best-fitting solution is well described by a multivariate Gaussian distribution and equivalent results were found when using an Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis36. Inspection of the two-dimensional probability distributions from both methods indicated that there were no significant correlations between the planet-to-star radius contrasts and systematic trend parameters. In an additional analysis step compared to our previous results4, 11, 12, we also marginalized over the systematic models37 for the spectra of WASP-17b, WASP-39b, HAT-P-1b, HAT-P-12b and HD 209458b. Under this approach, we effectively averaged the results obtained from a suite of systematics models in a coherent manner. For each systematic model used to correct the data, we calculated the evidence of fit, which is then used to apply a weight to the parameter of interest (R /R ) measured using that model. In doing so, we marginalized over our uncertainty as to selecting which model is actually the ‘correct’ model. For the STIS data we included all combinations of factors up to the 4th order in both HST phase, 3rd order in detector positions x and y, 3rd order in wavelength shift, and 1st order in time. For the WFC3 data, our grid of parameterized models includes all combinations of factors up to the fourth order in both HST phase, to correct for ‘HST breathing’ effects, and up to the fourth order in wavelength shift, in addition to the visit-long linear trend. In addition, we also included exponential HST phase models, with a linear and squared planetary phase trend. For the Spitzer data, we included all combinations of the x and y positions of the stellar point spread function on the detector, including the cross-product from polynomials of x and y up to a second-order. We note that the best-fitting systematics models for HST and Spitzer are generally well constrained and the marginalized results were very similar to those based on model selection by the Bayesian Information Criteria34. For HD 209458b, lightcurve analyses and marginalization were performed using Gaussian process models38. Owing to the flexibility of Gaussian process models, a broad range of systematics behaviours can be captured without the need to provide an explicit functional form. The results of a single Gaussian process model are thus comparable to marginalizing over many simpler parametric systematics models, as was done for the other lightcurves37. The synthetic spectra17, 39 used for this study include isothermal models as well as those with a self-consistent treatment of radiative transfer and chemical equilibrium of neutral and ionic species. Chemical mixing ratios and opacities were calculated assuming local thermochemical equilibrium accounting for condensation and thermal ionization but not photoionization40, 41, 42, 43, for both solar metallicity and sub-solar metallicity abundances. A simplified treatment adding in small aerosol haze particles was performed by including a Rayleigh scattering opacity (that is, σ = σ (λ/λ )−4) that had a cross-section which was 10×, 100× and 1,000×the cross-section of molecular hydrogen gas (σ = 5.31 × 10−27 cm2 at λ = 350 nm; ref. 44). Similarly, to include the effects of a flat cloud deck we included a wavelength-independent cross-section, which was 1×, 10× and 100× the cross-section of molecular hydrogen gas at 350 m (see Extended Data Fig. 4). To enable a direct comparison between planets, the transmission spectra have been plotted on a common scale by dividing the measured wavelength-dependent altitude of the transmission spectra, z(λ), by the planet’s atmospheric scale height (H , the vertical distance over which the gas pressure drops by a factor of e) estimated using the equilibrium temperature. The analytical relation for the wavelength-dependent transit-measured altitude z(λ) of a hydrostatic atmosphere is44: where ε is the abundance of the absorbing or scattering species, P is the pressure at a reference altitude, σ(λ) is the wavelength-dependent cross-section, τ is the optical thickness at the effective transit-measured radius, k is Boltzmann’s constant, T is the local gas temperature, μ is the mean mass of the atmospheric particles, g the planetary surface gravity, R the planetary radius, and H = kT/μg is the atmospheric pressure scale height. The altitude difference measured between two wavelength regions (λ and λ′) in a transmission spectrum is proportional to the quantity: where α is the absorption plus scattering extinction coefficient: Thus, the quantity ΔZ = z(λ) − z(λ′) is related to the ratio of the total scattering plus absorption of the atoms and molecules between the wavelength regions λ and λ′, and we use the quantity ΔZ /H = ln(α/α′) as a metric to intercompare the atmospheric extinction for the different planets in our survey. Note that the temperature and scale height of the upper atmosphere can differ from the equilibrium value, especially at high altitudes where hot upper layers in hot Jupiters have been found45, 46, 47, 48. We defined indices around three main wavelength regions (see Table 1). We used a blue-optical band consisting of the G430L grating, which is sensitive between 0.3 μm and 0.57 μm and roughly covers the Johnson U and B photometric bandpasses. This wavelength region is almost always exclusively dominated by scattering for clear, cloudy and hazy exoplanets (see Extended Data Fig. 4). The second is a near-infrared band between 1.22 μm and 1.33 μm, which has overlap with the Johnson J photometric band, and is located between the strong H O absorption bands centred around 1.15 μm and 1.4 μm. This wavelength region is sensitive to the scattering continuum in hazy, cloudy and highly sub-solar models and the H O continuum in clear atmospheres with abundances near solar (see Extended Data Fig. 4). We also used a third wavelength region in the mid-infrared between 3 μm and 5 μm, which overlaps with the Johnson L and M photometric bandpasses and consists of the two Spitzer IRAC photometric channels 1 and 2. This wavelength region is highly sensitive to strong H O, CO and CH absorption bands, which are the main active molecular species expected in hot Jupiters17, 18, 19, and only sensitive to scattering in the cloudiest cases, making it an overall effective measure of the total molecular extinction (see Extended Data Fig. 4). From the data, ΔZ was measured taking the difference between the planet radius measured in the blue-optical HST data using the G430L grating (UB, wavelengths 0.3–0.57 μ m) and the weighted-average value of the radii measured in Spitzer IRAC photometric channels 1 and 2 (LM, wavelengths 3–5 μ m). Δ Z was measured similarly, although using the near-infrared WFC3 data (J, wavelengths 1.22–1.33 μ m). In addition, we also measured the amplitude of the near-infrared H O absorption band using the WFC3 spectra (see Table 1), measuring the average radii in a band containing strong H O absorption (between 1.34 μm and 1.49 μm) compared to an adjacent band between strong H O features (1.22 μm and 1.33 μm). The measured H O amplitude for each exoplanet was then divided by the value predicted by atmospheric models17, 39 calculated for each planet using a planet-averaged temperature–pressure profile assuming clear atmospheres and solar abundances. From Fig. 3, a likely inverse correlation is seen between the H O amplitude and the ΔZ /H index, with the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient measured to be − 0.76 which has a false alarm probability of 2.8%. We note that this false alarm probability is not the probability that the water depletion scenario is correct, as that is excluded with Fig. 3 to a much higher degree (5.9σ significance). A much weaker inverse correlation of − 0.48 is found with ΔZ in Extended Data Fig. 2, although that has a high false alarm probability of 23%. As stellar activity can affect the measurement of a transmission spectrum, we photometrically monitored the activity levels of our target stars with the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 1.3-m telescope for the southern targets14 and the Tennessee State University Celestron 14-inch (C14) Automated Imaging Telescope (AIT) located at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona for the northern targets49. All but two of our targets showed low levels of stellar activity, with observed photometric variations or upper limits which are sufficiently small that their effects on measuring the transmission spectra are minimal compared to the measurement errors3, 4, 11, 12, 13. The two most active stars in the survey, WASP-19A and HD 189733A, were corrected for occulted and un-occulted star spots10, 14. As no contemporaneous photometric monitoring of WASP-19A is available for the July 2011 WFC3 spectra from ref. 14, we matched the spectra to the spot-corrected transit depth of R /R = 0.14019 ± 0.00073 as measured using HST WFC3 on 12 June 2014 from GO-13431 (principal investigator C. M. Huitson), which had simultaneous CTIO activity monitoring. We also normalized the differential transit depths of the WFC3 spectra5 to a transit depth value consistent with ref. 10, which has a uniform treatment between the HST and Spitzer data sets of system parameters, limb-darkening and activity correction. As effects of stellar activity could potentially mimic an optical scattering slope in a transmission spectra5, 10, 28, 45, we searched for a relationship between the activity levels of the stars in our survey and the presence of a strong optical slope. If stellar activity were the main cause of the enhanced optical slopes, rather than scattering by hazes or clouds, then it is expected that highly active stars would have higher levels of spots and plages, and should show preferentially larger transmission spectral slopes. As an additional measure of stellar activity, we used the strength of the Ca II H and K emission lines as a stellar activity indicator (logR′ ), as measured by Keck HIRES50, 51; see Table 1. We searched for a correlation with the chromospheric activity index logR′ , as it is correlated with the stellar photometric variability52 and can be used to quantify stars with low activity levels, for which the photometric variations would be undetectable. We found no significant correlation with logR′ activity and either the presence of haze or the strength of optical transmission spectral slope, as measured with the Δ Z index (Extended Data Fig. 3). This suggests that the effects of stellar activity are not the overall cause of the strong optical slopes seen in some of the transmission spectra. There are also other indications that stellar activity does not have a dominant role. For one, while changing stellar activity levels should have an effect on the transmission spectra, no significant variations were seen between the three epochs of the HST STIS spectra, which has an overlapping wavelength region, for all of our targets, including active stars. In addition, the atmospheric temperature can be derived by measuring the transmission spectral slope in an atmosphere dominated by Rayleigh scattering3, 4, 11, 45, and the temperatures found fitting a Rayleigh scattering slope for HD 189733b, HAT-P-12b and WASP-6b (1,340 ± 150 K, 1,010 ± 80 K and 973 ± 144 K, respectively) are in good agreement with the planetary temperatures T expected (1,196 K, 958 K and 1,183 K, respectively). This agreement is consistent with the atmospheric temperature, rather than stellar activity, being probed by the scattering haze. For these three stars, where HAT-P-12 has a much lower activity than the other two, the individual activity levels would have to be finely tuned for the spectral slopes to mimic the planetary temperatures. In addition to condensation chemistry53, hazes can also form through photochemical processes resulting in hydrocarbon aerosols54. This process is more effective for cooler exoplanets55 and the incident stellar ultraviolet irradiation also plays an important factor in hydrocarbon formation54. Our results indicate no correlation with the presence of haze to either the atmospheric temperature or levels of ultraviolet irradiation (as traced by stellar activity indicators), which generally favours condensation chemistry over photochemical processes as the general source of the observed hazes and clouds. We have opted not to make the customized IDL codes used to produce the spectra publicly available owing to their undocumented intricacies.
News Article | February 23, 2017
CALGARY, AB / ACCESSWIRE / February 22, 2017 / Imaging Dynamics Company Ltd. ("IDC" or the "Company") (TSX-V: IDL) is pleased to announce that it received notification today that the United States Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") has granted Market Clearance (510k) approval for its new Digital Radiography ("DR") product line - Aquarius 8600 1717TC and Aquarius 8600 1417TC. These products utilize and integrate into IDC's proprietary Magellan Software and Work Stations. This approval now allows these products to be marketed for Human Use in the United States. "IDC is excited to provide new and innovative technology to the US market. This is the foundation for a new beginning for IDC and is the result of a dynamic team effort," said Ms. Nicole Wherry, IDC's Chief Regulatory Officer. This is a significant milestone for IDC as it allows the Company to offer its own proprietary flat panel DR products as an upgrade option to existing install bases. IDC is a global medical imaging technology provider and innovative force in the high growth field of digital radiography (DR) technology. The Company has thousands of installations in 50 countries of its proprietary, award winning direct capture DR technology, which replaces conventional film-based diagnostic imaging and provides a cost-effective solution for medical facilities of all sizes to provide high quality diagnostic X-ray images and improve the level of healthcare for their patients. Throughout its history, IDC has been recognized by multiple industry organizations and research analysts such as: Frost & Sullivan and Deloitte Technology; for its dedication to innovation, global market growth, and customer focused value proposition. The Company has its corporate office in Calgary, Canada, a sales and marketing office in Beijing, China, and also operations, research and development centres in Calgary, Canada and Shanghai, China. Visit the IDC web site: www.imagingdynamics.com For more information, please contact: Statements in this release which describe IDC's intentions, expectations or predictions, or which relate to matters that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties which may cause the actual results, performances or achievements of IDC to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed in or implied by such forward-looking statements. IDC may update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or changing market and business conditions. Known and unknown risks and uncertainties include: IDC's ability to manufacture its products with a sufficient level of quality and in volumes which satisfy market demand; the ability of IDC to establish direct and indirect sales channels; the ability of IDC to establish industry partnerships; IDC's ability to attract and retain key personnel; the strength and breadth of IDC's patents; and other factors relating to general economic conditions, specific industry conditions and IDC's particular situation. Neither TSXV nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSXV) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.
News Article | August 31, 2016
We observed the transit of TRAPPIST-1c followed 12 minutes later by the transit of TRAPPIST-1b on 4 May 2016. Observations were conducted using the HST/WFC3 infrared G141 grism (1.1–1.7 μm) in round-trip scanning mode10. Using the round-trip scanning mode involves exposing the telescope during an initial forward slew in the cross-dispersion direction, and exposing during an equivalent slew in the reverse direction (details on the trade-offs behind round-trip scanning are below). Scans were conducted at a rate of ∼0.236 pixels per second, with a final spatial scan covering ∼26.4 pixels in the cross-dispersion direction on the detector. We use the IMA output files from the CalWF3 pipeline, which have been calibrated using flat fields and bias subtraction. We applied two different extraction techniques which lead to the same conclusions. The first technique extracts the flux for TRAPPIST-1 from each exposure by taking the difference between successive non-destructive reads. A top-hat filter27 is then applied around the target spectrum, measured ±18 pixels from the centre of the TRAPPIST-1 scan, and sets all external pixels to zero. Next, the images are reconstructed by adding the individual reads per exposure back together. Using the reconstructed images, we extracted the spectra with an aperture of 31 pixels around the computed centring profile for both forward and reverse scan observations. The centring profile is calculated on the basis of the pixel flux boundaries of each exposure, which was found to be fully consistent across the spectrum for both scan directions. The second technique uses the final science image for each exposure and determines for each frame the centroid of the spectrum in a box 28 pixels by 136 pixels, which corresponds to the dimensions of the irradiated region of WFC3’s detector for our present observations. It then extracts the flux for 120 apertures of sizes ranging along the dispersion direction from 24 pixels to 38 pixels (with 1-pixel increments), and along the cross-dispersion direction from 120 pixels to 176 pixels (with 8-pixel increments)—we found the SDNR to be mostly insensitive to the aperture size along the dispersion direction. The best aperture was selected via minimization of the SDNR of the white-light-curve best fit, which is minimum for an aperture of 32 pixels by 157 pixels. Both techniques subtract the background for each frame by selecting a region well away from the target spectrum, calculating the median flux, and cleaning cosmic-ray detections with a customized procedure28. Our observations present three cosmic-ray detections that were not flagged by the CalWF3 pipeline. The exposure times were converted from Julian date in universal time (jd ) to the barycentric Julian date in the barycentric dynamical time (bjd ) system29. Both extraction methods result in the same relative flux measurements from the star and SDNR (~240 p.p.m. in the white-light curve), as the build-up of flux over successive reads is stable. We elected to obtain our observations using the round-trip scan mode in order to increase the integration efficiency compared with the standard forward scan mode. We note that, owing to slight differences in scan length/position and to the way in which the detector is read out (that is, if the direction of the scan is in the same direction as the column readout, then the integration time will be marginally longer than if the reverse were true10), round-trip scan mode results in measurable differences in the total flux of the forward scan exposures compared with the reverse scan exposures. This effect has been seen for previous WFC3 observations14, 30 in round-trip mode, and has been corrected for in two main ways. The first method involves splitting the data into two sets, one for forward scan exposures and one for reverse scan exposures, effectively halving the number of exposures per light curve, but doubling the number of light curves obtained. Each of these data sets is then analysed separately and the results combined at the end14. The second method uses the median of each scan direction to normalize the two light curves, which are then recombined and normalized before the light-curve analysis to obtain the transit parameters30. In the TRAPPIST-1 data, we measure a ~0.1% difference in flux level between the two scans. Because of the limited phase coverage of the combined transits, to retain the most information about the combined and separate effects of each planet (the transit of TRAPPIST-1c followed by that of TRAPPIST-1b), we cannot apply the first method. However, by applying the second method we found significant remaining structure in the residuals, suggesting that the correction is only partial. Previous observations using the round-trip scan30 show that the offset between the light curves obtained with each scan varies significantly from orbit to orbit, suggesting that correcting via a median combine across visits is not optimal. In addition, the total flux is affected asymmetrically by other instrumental systematics—for example, the detector ramp consistently yields a first measurement in the forward direction that is significantly lower than average—thus biasing the median combine. Therefore, we corrected for the flux offset induced by the round-trip scan mode on the basis of the offset in the residuals for each HST orbit individually. To do so, we estimate in our forward model the ‘intermediate residuals’, based on the data corrected for the transit model and the instrumental systematics. For each orbit, we estimate the mean of these residuals for each scan direction (m and m , for the mean of the residuals of the forward-scan exposures and the reverse-scan exposures, respectively). The ratio of the fluxes measured in reverse-scan exposures to the shared baseline level is 1 + m ; the ratio is 1 + m for forward-scan exposures. We therefore correct for their offsets by dividing each set of exposures by their respective ratio. We first analysed the white-light curve by summing the flux across all wavelengths. We fitted the transits of TRAPPIST-1b and TRAPPIST-1c by using the transit model of ref. 17, while correcting for instrumental systematics. We followed the standard procedure for analysing HST/WFC3 data by fixing the planets’ orbital configurations—all but the orbital inclinations, which are currently poorly constrained for TRAPPIST-1’s planets—to the ones reported in the discovery report3, while determining the transit times and depths. We used priors on the band-integrated limb-darkening coefficients (LDCs) derived from the PHOENIX model intensity spectra15, and on the planets’ orbital inclinations—these parameters being potentially correlated with the transit depth estimates—to adequately account for our present state of knowledge on TRAPPIST-1. We used different analysis methods to confirm the robustness of our conclusions. The first method uses a least-squares minimization fitting (L–M) implementation12 to investigate a large sample of systematic models—which include corrections in time, HST orbital phase, and positional shifts in wavelength on the detector—and marginalize over all possible combinations to obtain the transit parameters. The L–M implementation fits the light curves for each systematic model and approximates the evidence-based weight of each systematic model using the Akaike information criterion31. It does so while keeping the LDCs fixed to the best estimates presented below, and the orbital inclinations fixed to the estimates from ref. 3. The highest weighted systematic models include linear corrections in time, as well as linear corrections in HST orbital phase or in the shift in wavelength position over the course of the visit. Therefore, using marginalization across a grid of stochastic models allows us to account for all tested combinations of systematics and to obtain robust transit depths for both planets, separately and in combination. For this data set, the evidence-based weight approximated for each of the systematic models applied to the data indicates that all of the systematic models fit equally well to the data, and that no one systematic model contributes to the majority of the corrections required to obtain the precision presented (Extended Data Fig. 1). In other words, instrumental systematics affect our observations only marginally. We carried out independent analyses of the data by using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implementations32, 33. For each HST light curve, the transit models17 of TRAPPIST-1b and TRAPPIST-1c are multiplied by baseline models that account for the visit-long trend observed in WFC3 light curves, WFC3’s ramp, and the ‘HST breathing’ effect12. For these analyses, priors are used for the LDCs and the orbital inclinations. We find that the visit-long trend is adequately accounted for with a linear function of time, the ramp with a single exponential in time, and the breathing with a second-order polynomial in HST’s orbital phase. More-complex baseline models were tested and gave consistent results, as revealed by the marginalization study. We calculated the transmission spectrum by fitting the transit depth of TRAPPIST-1b and TRAPPIST-1c simultaneously in each spectroscopic light curve. We divided the spectral range between 1.15 μm and 1.7 μm into 11 equal bins of Δλ = 0.05 μm. We applied again the two techniques described above to analyse each spectroscopic light curve, resulting in the combined and independent transmission spectra of TRAPPIST-1b and TRAPPIST-1c. An L–M implementation12 and the adaptive MCMC implementations produced consistent results for each stage of the analysis. We determined limb-darkening coefficients by fitting theoretical specific intensity spectra (I) downloaded from the Göttingen spectral library (http://phoenix.astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de/?page_id=73), which is described in ref. 15. The intensity spectra are provided on a wavelength grid with 1-Å cadence for 78 μ values, where μ is the cosine of the angle between an outward radial vector and the direction towards the observer at a point on the stellar surface. We integrated I over one broad and 11 narrow wavelength intervals, used in our analysis of the transit light curve. We divided I for each wavelength interval by I , the value of I at the centre of the stellar disc (where μ = 1). Because the PHOENIX code calculates specific intensity spectra in spherical geometry, the PHOENIX μ grid extends above the stellar limb relevant to exoplanet transit calculations. When fitting limb-darkening functions, PHOENIX μ values should be scaled to yield μ′ = 0 at the stellar radius34. We define μ′ = (μ − μ )/(1 − μ ), where I/I = 0.01 at μ = μ . The value of μ is a function of wavelength. We then fitted two commonly used functional forms for limb darkening18: When fitting, we ignored points with μ′ < 0.05. Extended Data Fig. 2 shows the limb-darkening fits for the 12 wavelength intervals in our transit light curve analysis. We calculated fits for four stellar models with effective temperatures of 2,500 K and 2,600 K and logarithmic surface gravities of 5.0 and 5.5. We then linearly interpolated the limb-darkening coefficients to an effective temperature of 2,550 K and gravity 5.22, appropriate for TRAPPIST-1 (ref. 3). We simulated the theoretical spectra for TRAPPIST-1b and TRAPPIST-1c using the model introduced in ref. 19. We used atmospheric temperatures equal to the planets’ equilibrium temperatures assuming a Bond albedo of 0.3 (these temperatures being 366 K for TRAPPIST-1b and 315 K for TRAPPIST-1c). The use of isothermal temperature profiles set at the equilibrium temperatures is conservative, as it does not account for possible additional heat sources or temperature inversion and results in a possible underevaluation of the atmospheric scale height. Our assumption regarding the temperature profiles does not affect our conclusion; variations of 50 K (that is, ∼15%) in the atmospheric temperature modify the amplitude of the transmission spectra by up to ∼15%, because at first order their amplitudes scale with the temperature. The planetary masses being unconstrained, we conservatively use a mass of 0.95M and 0.85M for TRAPPIST-1b and TRAPPIST-1c respectively—the maximum masses that would allow them to possess hydrogen/helium envelopes greater than 0.1% of their total masses given their radii20. We use the atmospheric compositions of the ‘mini-Neptune’ and ‘Halley world’ models introduced in ref. 35 to simulate the hydrogen-dominated and water-dominated atmospheres, respectively. We simulated the effect of optically thick cloud or haze at a given pressure level by setting to zero the transmittance of atmospheric layers with a higher pressure. The feature at 1.4 μm arises from water absorption; the feature at 1.15 μm for the water-dominated atmosphere arises from methane absorption. We compared the transmission spectra, allowing for a vertical offset to account for our a priori ignorance of the optically thick radius by setting the mean of each spectrum to zero. The significance of the deviation of each transmission spectrum from the WFC3 measurements is shown in Fig. 3. Significance levels less than 3σ mean that the data are consistent with that model within the reported errors. We rule out the presence of a cloud-free hydrogen-dominated atmosphere for either planet at the 10σ level through the combined transmission spectrum (and at a lesser 7σ level through their individual spectra). The measurements are consistent with volatile (for example, water)-rich atmospheres or hydrogen-dominated atmospheres with optically thick clouds or hazes located at larger pressures than 10 mbar. Conversion of the ut times for the photometric measurements to the bjd system was carried out using the online program created by J. Eastman and distributed at http://astroutils.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/time/utc2bjd.html. We have opted not to make available the codes used for data extraction as they are an important part of the researchers’ toolkits. For the same reason, we have opted not to make available all but one of the codes used for data analysis. The MCMC software used by M.G. to analyse independently the photometric data is a custom Fortran 90 code that can be obtained upon request. The custom IDL code used to determine limb-darkening coefficients can be obtained upon request.
News Article | November 2, 2016
CAVAILLON, France--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Regulatory News: ID Logistics (ISIN : FR0010929125, Mnémo : IDL) un des leaders français de la logistique contractuelle, annonce un chiffre d’affaires pour le 3ème trimestre 2016 de 273,3 M€, en progression de +14,7% et de +8,9% à données comparables (périmètre et changes constants). Sur les neuf premiers mois de 2016, le chiffre d’affaires du Groupe ressort à 734,2 M€, en hausse de +7,9% et de +9,7% à données comparables. Eric Hémar, Président Directeur Géné