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Mariani J.A.,IDI Group | Kaye D.M.,IDI Group
Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research | Year: 2010

Although there has been considerable interest in the utilization of gene and cellular therapy for heart disease in recent years, there remain critical questions prior to widespread promotion of therapy, and key among these issues is the delivery method used for both gene therapy and cellular therapy. Much of the failure of gene and cellular therapy can be explained by the biological therapy itself; however, certainly there is a critical role played by the delivery technique, in particular, those that have been adapted from routine clinical use such as intravenous and intracoronary injection. Development of novel techniques to deliver gene and cellular therapy has ensued with some preclinical and even clinical success, though questions regarding safety, invasiveness, and repeatability remain. Here, we review techniques for gene and cellular therapy delivery, both existing and adapted techniques, and novel techniques that have emerged recently at promoting improved efficacy of therapy without the cost of systemic distribution. We also highlight key issues that need to be addressed to improve the chances of success of delivery techniques to enhance therapeutic benefit. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Jaworski C.,Heart Center | Mariani J.A.,Heart Center | Mariani J.A.,IDI Group | Mariani J.A.,Monash University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Adjuvant radiation therapy in the management of early stage breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and to a lesser extent other thoracic malignancies has led to a significant improvement in disease-specific survival. Cardiovascular disease is now the most common nonmalignancy cause of death in radiation-treated cancer survivors, most often occurring decades after treatment. The spectrum of radiation-induced cardiac disease is broad, potentially involving any component of the heart. The relative risk of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, pericardial disease, conduction abnormalities, and sudden cardiac death is particularly increased. Over the years contemporary techniques have been introduced to reduce cardiac morbidity and mortality in radiation-treated cancer survivors; however, the long-term effects on the heart still remain unclear, mandating longer follow-up. Awareness and early identification of potential cardiac complications is crucial in cancer survivors, with the management often being quite complex. This review examines the epidemiology of radiation-induced cardiac disease together with its pathophysiology and explores the available treatment strategies and the potential utility of various screening strategies for affected cancer survivors. © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Rajapakse N.W.,IDI Group | Rajapakse N.W.,Monash University | Nanayakkara S.,Monash University | Kaye D.M.,IDI Group | Kaye D.M.,Monash University
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

A highly complex interplay exists between the heart and kidney in the setting of both normal and abnormal physiology. In the context of heart failure, a pathophysiological condition termed the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) exists whereby dysfunction in the heart or kidney can accelerate pathology in the other organ. The mechanisms that underpin CRS are complex, and include neuro-hormonal activation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. The endothelium plays a central role in the regulation of both cardiac and renal function, and as such impairments in endothelial function can lead to dysfunction of both these organs. In particular, reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is a key pathophysiologic component of endothelial dysfunction. The synthesis of NO by the endothelium is critically dependent on the plasmalemmal transport of its substrate, L-arginine, via the cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT1). Impaired L-arginine-NO pathway activity has been demonstrated individually in heart and renal failure. Recent findings suggest abnormalities of the L-arginine-NO pathway also play a role in the pathogenesis of CRS and thus this pathway may represent a potential new target for the treatment of heart and renal failure. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Maeder M.T.,IDI Group | Maeder M.T.,Heart Center | Thompson B.R.,Allergy Immunology and Respiratory Medicine | Brunner-La Rocca H.-P.,Maastricht University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2010

Objectives The purpose of this study was to invasively investigate the hemodynamic response to exercise in patients with heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) and to evaluate the ability of the peak early diastolic transmitral velocity to peak early diastolic annular velocity ratio (E/e′) to reflect exercise hemodynamics. Background There is little information regarding the hemodynamic response to exercise in HFNEF. Methods Patients with HFNEF (n = 14) and asymptomatic controls (n = 8) underwent right-side heart catheterization at rest and during supine cycle ergometer exercise and echocardiography with measurement of resting and peak exercise E/e′. Results Resting pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) (10 ± 4 mm Hg vs. 10 ± 4 mm Hg; p = 0.94) was similar in HFNEF patients and controls, but stroke volume index (SVI) (p = 0.02) was lower, and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) (p = 0.01) was higher in patients. Patients stopped exercise at lower work rate (0.63 ± 0.29 W/kg vs. 1.13 ± 0.49 W/kg; p = 0.006). Although peak exercise PCWP was similar in both groups (23 ± 6 mm Hg vs. 20 ± 7 mm Hg; p = 0.31), the peak PCWP/work rate ratio was higher in patients compared with controls (46 ± 31 mm Hg/W/kg vs. 20 ± 9 mm Hg/W/kg; p = 0.03). Peak exercise SVI (p = 0.001) was lower and SVRI was higher (p = 0.01) in patients. Resting E/e′ was modestly elevated in patients (13.2 ± 4.1 vs. 9.5 ± 3.4; p = 0.04). Peak exercise E/e′ did not differ between the groups (11.1 ± 3.4 vs. 9.4 ± 3.4; p = 0.28). Conclusions The HFNEF patients achieved a similar peak exercise PCWP to that of asymptomatic controls, at a much lower workload. This occurs at a lower SVI and in the setting of higher SVRI. The E/e′ does not reflect the hemodynamic changes during exercise in HFNEF patients. © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Marques F.Z.,IDI Group | Vizi D.,Heart Center Alfred Hospital Melbourne | Khammy O.,IDI Group | Mariani J.A.,IDI Group | Kaye D.M.,IDI Group
European Journal of Heart Failure | Year: 2016

Aims: Differential microRNA expression in peripheral blood has been observed in patients with heart failure, suggesting their value as potential biomarkers and likely contributors to disease mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the transcardiac gradient of 84 cardio-microRNAs in healthy and failing hearts to determine which microRNAs are released or absorbed by the myocardium in heart failure. Methods and results: Eight healthy volunteers and nine patients with congestive heart failure were included. Arterial and coronary sinus blood samples were collected, and microRNAs were extracted. The expression of microRNAs was analysed using real-time PCR by the miScript miRNA PCR Array Human Cardiovascular Disease. In coronary sinus samples, the microRNAs miR-16-5p, miR-27a-3p, miR-27b-3p, miR-29b-3p, miR-29c-3p, miR-30e-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-125b-5p, miR-140-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-424-5p, and miR-451a were significantly down-regulated, and let-7a-5p, let-7c-5p, let-7e-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-107, miR-155-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-181b-5p and miR-320a were up-regulated in heart failure. Left ventricular filling pressure was negatively correlated with miR-195, miR-16, miR-29b-3p, miR-29c-3p, miR-451a, and miR-92a-3p. The failing heart released let-7b-5p, let-7c-5p, let-7e-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-21-5p, and absorbed miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-27a-3p, miR-30a-5p, miR-30d-5p, miR-30e-5p, miR-130a-3p, miR-140-5p, miR-199a-5p, and miR-451a. In silico analyses suggest that the transcardiac gradient of microRNAs in heart failure may target pathways related to heart disease. Conclusion: We determined the transcardiac gradient of cardio-microRNAs in failing hearts, which supports the use of these microRNAs as potential biomarkers. The microRNAs described here may have a role in the pathophysiology of heart failure as they might be involved in pathways related to disease progression, including fibrosis. © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

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