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Plouzané, France

Bougeard M.,IDHESA | Le Saux J.-C.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Baffaut C.,University of Missouri | Robin M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Pommepuy M.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea
Journal of the American Water Resources Association | Year: 2011

The simulation of the impact of Escherichia coli loads from watersheds is of great interest for assessing estuarine water quality, especially in areas with shellfish aquaculture or bathing activities. For this purpose, this study investigates a model association based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) coupled with a hydrodynamic model (MARS 2D; IFREMER). Application was performed on the catchment and estuary of Daoulas area (France). The daily E.coli fluxes simulated by SWAT are taken as an input in the MARS 2D model to calculate E.coli concentrations in estuarine water and shellfish. Model validation is based on comparison of frequencies: a strong relationship was found between calculated and measured E.coli concentrations for river quality (r2=0.99) and shellfish quality (r2=0.89). The important influence of agricultural practices and rainfall events on the rapid and large fluctuations in E.coli fluxes from the watershed (reaching three orders of magnitude in <24hours) is one main result of the study. Response time in terms of seawater quality degradation ranges from one to two days after any important rainfall event (greater than 10mm/day) and the time for estuary to recover good water quality also mainly depends on the duration of the rainfall. In the estuary, three effects (rainfall, tidal dilution, and manure spreading) have been identified as important influences. © 2011 American Water Resources Association. Source

Petit C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Chevrier C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Durand G.,IDHESA | Monfort C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2010

Background: Pesticide use is widespread in agriculture. Several studies have shown that pesticides used in agricultural fields can contaminate the domestic environment and thus be an important source of pesticide exposure of populations residing nearby. Epidemiological studies that have examined the health effects of in utero pesticide exposure from residence near agricultural activities suggest adverse effects, but the results are inconsistent. Our purpose was to investigate the effect on intrauterine growth of such exposure due to agricultural activities in the residential municipality. Methods: A prospective birth cohort recruited 3421 pregnant women in a French agricultural region (Brittany, 2002-2006) through gynecologists, ultrasonographers, and maternity hospitals during routine prenatal care visits before 19 weeks of gestation. The national agricultural census in 2000 provided the percentages of the municipality area devoted to cultivation of corn, wheat, colza, peas, potatoes, and fresh vegetables. Results: Birth weight and the risk of fetal growth restriction were not associated with agricultural activities in the municipality of residence in early pregnancy. Children whose mother lived in a municipality where peas were grown had a smaller head circumference at birth than those in municipalities not growing peas (-0.2 cm, p = 0.0002). Head circumference also tended to be lower when wheat was grown, but not to a statistically significant degree (p-trend = 0.10). Risk of an infant with a small head circumference was higher for mothers living in a municipality where peas (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2-3.6) or potatoes (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9-2.4) were grown. Conclusions: Agricultural activities in the municipality of residence may have negative effects on cranial growth. Cultivation of pea crops and, to a lesser degree, potato and wheat crops, may negatively affect head circumference. Insecticides, including organophosphate insecticides, were applied to most of the area devoted to pea and potato crops; this was less true for corn and wheat crops. These results must be interpreted in light of the study's limitations, in particular, the scale at which we could assess pesticide exposure. © 2010 Petit et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Bougeard M.,IDHESA | Le Saux J.C.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Jouan M.,rue Eugene Bourdon | Durand G.,IDHESA | Pommepuy M.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The microbiological quality of waters in estuaries determines their acceptability for recreational uses. Microbiological contamination often results from urban wastewater discharges or non-point source pollution (manure spreading), and can cause bathing zones to be closed. European regulations (EC/7/2006) have proposed standards (500 E. coli/100 ml) for the acceptability areas for bathing. In this study, two models were associated to simulate contamination: SWAT on a catchment and MARS 2D in the downstream estuary. After river flow calibration and validation, two scenarios were simulated in SWAT, and E. coli fluxes obtained at the main outlet of the catchment were then introduced into MARS 2D to follow E. coli concentrations in the estuary. An annual evaluation of compliance to bathing area water quality standards was then calculated, linked with daily rainfall classes. Water quality in the estuary was below the standard on 13 days, including 5 days with rainfall superior to 10mm, due to faecal contamination from soil leaching by rain, and 5 days with rainfall ranging from 0.1 to 5 mm/day, due to the high frequency of this level of rainfall. To conclude, this study allowed us to demonstrate the efficiency of models to gain a better understanding on water quality degradation factors. © IWA Publishing 2010. Source

Chevrier C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Chevrier C.,University of Rennes 1 | Limon G.,IDHESA | Monfort C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 12 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2011

Background: Despite evidence of atrazine toxicity in developing organisms from experimental studies, few studies-and fewer epidemiologic investigations-have examined the potential effects of prenatal exposure. Objectives: We assessed the association between adverse birth outcomes and urinary biomarkers of prenatal atrazine exposure, while taking into account exposures to other herbicides used on corn crops (simazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and acetochlor). Methods: This study used a case-cohort design nested in a prospective birth cohort conducted in the Brittany region of France from 2002 through 2006. We collected maternal urine samples to examine pesticide exposure biomarkers before the 19th week of gestation. Results: We found quantifiable levels of atrazine or atrazine mercapturate in urine samples from 5.5% of 579 pregnant women, and dealkylated and identified hydroxylated triazine metabolites in 20% and 40% of samples, respectively. The presence versus absence of quantifiable levels of atrazine or a specific atrazine metabolite was associated with fetal growth restriction [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-2.2] and small head circumference for sex and gestational age (OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7). Associations with major congenital anomalies were not evident with atrazine or its specific metabolites. Head circumference was inversely associated with the presence of quantifiable urinary metolachlor. Conclusions: This study is the first to assess associations of birth outcomes with multiple urinary biomarkers of exposure to triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides. Evidence of associations with adverse birth outcomes raises particular concerns for countries where atrazine is still in use. Source

Chevrier C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Chevrier C.,University of Rennes 1 | Serrano T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Serrano T.,University of Rennes 1 | And 10 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2014

Herbicides are generally the most extensively used of the pesticides applied to agricultural crops. However, the literature contains little evidence useful in assessing the potential sources of the general population's exposure to herbicides, including by residential proximity to crops.The objective of this study was to take advantage of data from the PELAGIE mother-child cohort to identify the main determinants of the body burden of exposure to the chloroacetanilide and triazine herbicides commonly used on corn crops in Brittany, France, before 2006. Urine samples from a randomly selected subcohort of women in the first trimester of pregnancy (n. =. 579) were assayed for herbicide metabolites. The residential exposure resulting from proximity to corn crops was assessed with satellite-image-based scores combined with meteorological data. Data on diet, drinking tap water (from the public water supply), occupations, and household herbicide use were collected by questionnaires.Herbicides were quantified in 5.3% to 39.7% of urine samples. Alachlor and acetochlor were found most frequently in the urine of women living in rural areas. The presence of dealkylated triazine metabolites in urine samples was positively associated with residential proximity to corn crops (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). Urinary metabolites of both atrazine and dealkylated triazine were correlated with tap water consumption (OR = 2.94, 1.09-7.90, and OR = 1.82, 1.10-3.03, respectively); hydroxylated triazine metabolites were correlated with fish intake (OR = 1.48, 1.09-1.99).This study reinforces previous results that suggest that environmental contamination resulting from agricultural activities may contribute to the general population's exposure to herbicides. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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