Yang F.,California Institute of Technology |
Nickols N.G.,California Institute of Technology |
Nickols N.G.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Li B.C.,California Institute of Technology |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013
A hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamide (1) targeted to the androgen receptor consensus half-site was found to exert antitumor effects against prostate cancer xenografts. A previous animal study showed that 1, which has a chiral amine at the α-position of the γ-aminobutyric acid turn (γ-turn), did not exhibit toxicity at doses less than 10 mg/kg. In the same study, a polyamide with an acetamide at the β-position of the γ-turn resulted in animal morbidity at 2.3 mg/kg. To identify structural motifs that cause animal toxicity, we synthesized polyamides 1-4 with variations at the α- and β-positions in the γ-turn. Weight loss, histopathology, and serum chemistry were analyzed in mice post-treatment. While serum concentration was similar for all four polyamides after injection, dose-limiting liver toxicity was only observed for three polyamides. Polyamide 3, with an α-acetamide, caused no significant evidence of rodent toxicity and retains activity against LNCaP xenografts. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Lang C.D.,Thomas Jefferson University |
Daviau J.S.,Thomas Jefferson University |
Merton D.A.,Thomas Jefferson University |
Caraker S.M.,IDEXX RADIL
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2013
An aged male rhesus macaque in our colony had decreased appetite and a loss of interest in behavioral testing. CBC analysis revealed a regenerative, microcytic, hypochromic anemia with thrombocytosis, consistent with iron deficiency. A fecal occult blood test was positive. Ultrasound imaging revealed numerous, vascularized focal liver lesions that suggested metastases. The macaque's appetite continued to decrease, and he became more lethargic. At this point, the investigator elected to euthanize the macaque. At necropsy, the ileocolic junction was white and abnormally thickened, and the liver was pale tan with approximately 18 discrete white masses randomly scattered throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Histologically, the mass at the ileocolic junction was identified as an intestinal adenocarcinoma, whereas the liver masses were confirmed to be undifferentiated hepatic sarcomas. This case report describes a rhesus macaque that had 2 unrelated primary neoplasms. A review of the literature indicates that this rhesus macaque is the first reported to have an adenocarcinoma of the ileocolic junction and multiple hepatic sarcomas simultaneously. Copyright 2013 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.
Crim M.J.,University of Missouri |
Riley L.K.,IDEXX RADIL
ILAR Journal | Year: 2012
Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish mod-els are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new patho-gens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model.
Carroll C.E.,University of Missouri |
Liang Y.,University of Missouri |
Benakanakere I.,University of Missouri |
Besch-Williford C.,IDEXX RADIL |
Hyder S.M.,University of Missouri
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2013
Recent epidemiological studies show that postmenopausal women taking estrogen-progestin hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have a higher risk of breast cancer than women on an HRT regimen lacking progestins. This may be related to the observation that progestin-treated breast cancer cells express and secrete high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic factor that promotes breast tumor growth. Anti-progestins such as RU-486 block this effect, indicating that progesterone receptors (PR) are involved in promoting VEGF induction; however antiprogestins cross-react with other steroid receptors which limits their clinical use. Alternative strategies are, therefore, needed to arrest the growth of progestin-dependent tumors. 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1), a novel anticancer drug initially developed as an inhibitor of HIF-1α, is currently undergoing preclinical trials against various forms of cancer. Since HIF-1α has recently been implicated in PR-mediated VEGF synthesis, we undertook studies to determine whether YC-1 inhibits progestin-dependent VEGF induction and tumor progression. Surprisingly, we found that YC-1 downregulated PR in human breast cancer cells, both in vivo and in vitro, thereby blocking progestin-dependent induction of VEGF and tumor growth. YC-1 also inhibited progestin-accelerated DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats, properties which would likely render it effective against progestin-dependent tumors which frequently develop in post-menopausal women. We, therefore, propose that based on our observations, YC-1 warrants further investigation as a novel agent which could prove extremely useful as an anti-angiogenic chemotherapeutic drug.
Glenn S.T.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute |
Jones C.A.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute |
Sexton S.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute |
LeVea C.M.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute |
And 3 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2013
Efforts to model human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) in animals have been moderately successful, with minimal evidence for glucagonomas or metastatic spread. The renin gene, although classically associated with expression in the kidney, is also expressed in many other extrarenal tissues including the pancreas. To induce tumorigenesis within rennin-specific tissues, floxed alleles of p53 and Rb were selectively abrogated using Cre-recombinase driven by the renin promoter. The primary neoplasm generated is a highly metastatic islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas. Lineage tracing identifies descendants of renin-expressing cells as pancreatic alpha cells despite a lack of active renin expression in the mature pancreas. Both primary and metastatic tumors express high levels of glucagon; furthermore, an increased level of glucagon is found in the serum, identifying the pancreatic cancer as a functional glucagonoma. This new model is highly penetrant and exhibits robust frequency of metastases to the lymph nodes and the liver, mimicking human disease, and provides a useful platform for better understanding pancreatic endocrine differentiation and development, as well as islet cell carcinogenesis. The use of fluorescent reporters for lineage tracing of the cells contributing to disease initiation and progression provides an unique opportunity to dissect the timeline of disease, examining mechanisms of the metastatic process, as well as recovering primary and metastatic cells for identifying cooperating mutations that are necessary for progression of disease.Oncogene advance online publication, 2 December 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.514.
Adams V.,University of Missouri |
Myles M.H.,IDEXX RADIL
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science | Year: 2013
Commercially available diagnostic tools for the detection of lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) infection have been restricted to measurement of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity levels and detection of the viral genome by RT-PCR assays. Serologic diagnosis of LDV infection has not been widely adopted due to the belief that the formation of antigen-antibody complexes and B-cell polyclonal activation may confound interpretation of results. In the current study, we inoculated BALB/c, C57BL/6, and Swiss Webster mice with LDV to compare the diagnostic reliability of a commercially available multiplex fluorescent immunoassay for the detection of antiLDV antibodies with that of the LDH enzyme assay. The serologic assay was vastly more sensitive and specific than was the LDH enzyme assay. Moreover, the serologic assay detected antiviral antibodies throughout the 3-mo time course of this study. These results suggest that antigen-antibody complex formation and polyclonal B-cell activation had little effect on assay performance. Copyright 2013 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.
Metabolic disruption in male mice due to fetal exposure to low but not high doses of bisphenol A (BPA): Evidence for effects on body weight, food intake, adipocytes, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose regulation
Angle B.M.,University of Missouri |
Do R.P.,University of Missouri |
Ponzi D.,University of Missouri |
Stahlhut R.W.,University of Missouri |
And 8 more authors.
Reproductive Toxicology | Year: 2013
Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is implicated in many aspects of metabolic disease in humans and experimental animals. We fed pregnant CD-1 mice BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50,000μg/kg/day, spanning 10-fold below the reference dose to 10-fold above the currently predicted no adverse effect level (NOAEL). At BPA doses below the NOAEL that resulted in average unconjugated BPA between 2 and 200pg/ml in fetal serum (AUC0-24h), we observed significant effects in adult male offspring: an age-related change in food intake, an increase in body weight and liver weight, abdominal adipocyte mass, number and volume, and in serum leptin and insulin, but a decrease in serum adiponectin and in glucose tolerance. For most of these outcomes non-monotonic dose-response relationships were observed; the highest BPA dose did not produce a significant effect for any outcome. A 0.1-μg/kg/day dose of DES resulted in some but not all low-dose BPA outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Cai Q.-Y.,University of Missouri |
Cai Q.-Y.,Harry S Truman Veterans Memorial Hospital |
Yu P.,University of Missouri |
Besch-Williford C.,IDEXX RADIL |
And 8 more authors.
Prostate | Year: 2013
Background Development of high affinity and specificity molecular imaging probes that increase accuracy for early detection of lymph node (LN) metastases is important for improving survivorship in prostate cancer. We evaluated the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of fluorescence-labeled bombesin (BBN) peptides to detect LN and systematic metastases in orthotopic mouse models bearing gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)-positive human prostate cancer. METHODS PC-3 cells were orthotopically implanted in severe combined immunedeficient or thymic nude (nu/nu) male mice. Tumor growth was monitored using magnetic resonance imaging. Alexa Fluor 680 conjugated BBN[7-14]NH 2 (AF680-BBN) peptides were administered intravenously at 4-7 weeks post-tumor-implantation. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging was performed for up to 6 hr post-injection. The imaging sensitivity and specificity were assessed by co-registration of AF680-BBN NIRF imaging and luciferase bioluminescence imaging of the PC-3/Luc+ orthotopic mouse model. RESULTS AF680-BBN showed a high binding affinity and selectivity to GRPR-positive cancer in vitro and in vivo. LN and peritoneal metastases were detected by NIRF imaging, and confirmed by histopathology. Tumor-to-muscle (T/M) ratio was the highest at 2-hr post-injection (4.12 ± 1.77). Blocking experiments, using unlabeled BBN as the inhibiting agent, significantly reduced the T/M ratio (1.64 ± 0.21, P = 0.02). AF680-BBN NIRF imaging had a sensitivity of 89.4%, specificity of 92.9%, and accuracy of 90.2% for the detection of metastases in mice. CONCULSIONS The studies suggest the potential of use and development of NIR-fluorescent BBN probes as site-directed agents to help improve the current detection and LN staging accuracy in prostate cancer. Prostate 73: 842-854, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McCoy A.,Sigma-Aldrich |
Besch-Williford C.L.,IDEXX RADIL |
Franklin C.L.,University of Missouri |
Weinstein E.J.,Sigma-Aldrich |
DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms | Year: 2013
The tumor suppressor TP53 plays a crucial role in cancer biology, and the TP53 gene is the most mutated gene in human cancer. Trp53 knockout mouse models have been widely used in cancer etiology studies and in search for a cure of cancer with some limitations that other model organisms might help overcome. Via pronuclear microinjection of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), we created a Tp53 knockout rat that contains an 11-bp deletion in exon 3, resulting in a frameshift and premature terminations in the open reading frame. In cohorts of 25 homozygous (Tp53Δ11/Δ11), 37 heterozygous (Tp53 Δ11/+) and 30 wild-type rats, the Tp53 Δ11/Δ11 rats lived an average of 126 days before death or removal from study because of clinical signs of abnormality or formation of tumors. Half of Tp53Δ11/+ were removed from study by 1 year of age because of tumor formation. Both Tp53Δ11/+ and Tp53 Δ11/Δ11 rats developed a wide spectrum of tumors, most commonly sarcomas. Interestingly, there was a strikingly high incidence of brain lesions, especially in Tp53Δ11/Δ11 animals. We believe that this mutant rat line will be useful in studying cancer types rarely observed in mice and in carcinogenicity assays for drug development.
PubMed | IDEXX RADIL, Roswell Park Cancer Institute and State University of New York at Buffalo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncogene | Year: 2014
Efforts to model human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) in animals have been moderately successful, with minimal evidence for glucagonomas or metastatic spread. The renin gene, although classically associated with expression in the kidney, is also expressed in many other extrarenal tissues including the pancreas. To induce tumorigenesis within rennin-specific tissues, floxed alleles of p53 and Rb were selectively abrogated using Cre-recombinase driven by the renin promoter. The primary neoplasm generated is a highly metastatic islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas. Lineage tracing identifies descendants of renin-expressing cells as pancreatic alpha cells despite a lack of active renin expression in the mature pancreas. Both primary and metastatic tumors express high levels of glucagon; furthermore, an increased level of glucagon is found in the serum, identifying the pancreatic cancer as a functional glucagonoma. This new model is highly penetrant and exhibits robust frequency of metastases to the lymph nodes and the liver, mimicking human disease, and provides a useful platform for better understanding pancreatic endocrine differentiation and development, as well as islet cell carcinogenesis. The use of fluorescent reporters for lineage tracing of the cells contributing to disease initiation and progression provides an unique opportunity to dissect the timeline of disease, examining mechanisms of the metastatic process, as well as recovering primary and metastatic cells for identifying cooperating mutations that are necessary for progression of disease.