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The development of Web 2.0 led to celebratory accounts about its potential to unleash human creativity. A consensus emerged that described Web 2.0 creative production as universal, democratic, communal, non-commercial, and thoroughly revolutionary. This consensus viewed young, web-savvy media makers as Web 2.0 creativity's avant-garde: a new generation of producers, born digital, who had upended Romantic notions of creativity, authorship, ownership and related cultural practices. In this paper I draw from a multi-year ethnographic study of young creators' use of the web from 2007 through 2010 and examine the practice and rhetoric of theft and sharing on DeviantArt, a self-described social network and community of artists. I argue that rather than overturning traditional notions of creativity, participating in DeviantArt helped young creators reaffirm traditional notions of creativity tied to the moral rights of authors to control the distribution of their work. I also demonstrate how these young media makers in turn shaped Web 2.0 ideology and technologies in practice. Seemingly well-established features for "sharing" content were actually uneasy compromises that supported multiple interpretations rather than epitomize the new era of creativity promised by the creativity consensus. These compromises reproduced Web 2.0 in everyday practice. © 2016, Dan Perkel. Source


Lin A.H.,Innovation International | Breger T.L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Barnhart M.,United States Agency for International Development USAID | Kim A.,IDEO | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2014

Introduction: In planning for the introduction of vaginal microbicides and other new antiretroviral (ARV)-based prevention products for women, an in-depth understanding of potential end-users will be critically important to inform strategies to optimize uptake and long-term adherence. User-centred private sector companies have contributed to the successful launch of many different types of products, employing methods drawn from behavioural and social sciences to shape product designs, marketing messages and communication channels. Examples of how the private sector has adapted and applied these techniques to make decisions around product messaging and targeting may be instructive for adaptation to microbicide introduction.Discussion: In preparing to introduce a product, user-centred private sector companies employ diverse methods to understand the target population and their lifestyles, values and motivations. ReD Associates' observational research on user behaviours in the packaged food and diabetes fields illustrates how 'tag along' or 'shadowing' techniques can identify sources of non-adherence. Another open-ended method is self-documentation, and IDEO's mammography research utilized this to uncover user motivations that extended beyond health. Mapping the user journey is a quantitative approach for outlining critical decisionmaking stages, and Monitor Inclusive Markets applied this framework to identify toilet design opportunities for the rural poor. Through an iterative process, these various techniques can generate hypotheses on user drop-off points, quantify where dropoff is highest and prioritize areas of further research to uncover usage barriers. Although research constraints exist, these types of user-centred techniques have helped create effective messaging, product positioning and packaging of health products as well as family planning information. These methods can be applied to microbicide acceptability testing outside of clinical trials to design microbicide marketing that enhances product usage.Conclusions: The introduction of microbicide products presents an ideal opportunity to draw on the insights from user-centred private sector companies' approaches, which can complement other methods that have been more commonly utilized in microbicide research to date. As microbicides move from clinical trials to real-world implementation, there will be more opportunities to combine a variety of approaches to understand end-users, which can lead to a more effective product launch and ultimately greater impact on preventing HIV infections. Copyright © 2014 Lin AH et al. Source


Matheson G.O.,Stanford University | Shultz R.,Stanford University | Klugl M.,Harvard University | Engebretsen L.,Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center | And 22 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

Morbidity and mortality from preventable, noncommunicable chronic disease (NCD) threatens the health of our populations and our economies. The accumulation of vast amounts of scientific knowledge has done little to change this. New and innovative thinking is essential to foster new creative approaches that leverage and integrate evidence through the support of big data, technology and design thinking. The purpose of this paper is to summarise the results of a consensus meeting on NCD prevention sponsored by the IOC in April 2013. Within the context of advocacy for multifaceted systems change, the IOC's focus is to create solutions that gain traction within healthcare systems. The group of participants attending the meeting achieved consensus on a strategy for the prevention and management of chronic disease that includes the following: (1) Focus on behavioural change as the core component of all clinical programmes for the prevention and management of chronic disease. (2) Establish actual centres to design, implement, study and improve preventive programmes for chronic disease. (3) Use human-centred design in the creation of prevention programmes with an inclination to action, rapid prototyping and multiple iterations. (4) Extend the knowledge and skills of Sports and Exercise Medicine (SEM) professionals to build new programmes for the prevention and treatment of chronic disease focused on physical activity, diet and lifestyle. (5) Mobilise resources and leverage networks to scale and distribute programmes of prevention. True innovation lies in the ability to align thinking around these core strategies to ensure successful implementation of NCD prevention and management programmes within healthcare. The IOC and SEM community are in an ideal position to lead this disruptive change. The outcome of the consensus meeting was the creation of the IOC Non-Communicable Diseases ad hoc Working Group charged with the responsibility of moving this agenda forward. Source


Fuge M.,University of California at Berkeley | Tee K.,University of California at Berkeley | Agogino A.,University of California at Berkeley | Maton N.,IDEO
Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering | Year: 2014

This paper presents a large-scale empirical study of OpenIDEO, an online collaborative design community. Using network analysis techniques, we describe the properties of this collaborative design network and discuss how it differs from common models of network formation seen in other social or technological networks. One major finding is that in OpenIDEO's social network the highly connected members talk more to less connected members than each other - a behavior not commonly found in other social and collaborative networks. We discuss how some of the interventions and incentives inherent in OpenIDEO's platform might cause this unique structure, and what advantages and disadvantages this structure has for coordinating distributed design teams. Specifically, its core-periphery structure is robust to network changes, but is at risk of decreasing design exploration ability if the core becomes too heavily clustered or loses efficiency. We discuss possible interventions that can prevent this outcome: encouraging core members to collaborate with periphery nodes, and increasing the diversity of the user population.© 2014 by ASME. Source


Churchill E.,Yahoo! | Dray S.,Dray and Associates Inc. | Elliott A.,IDEO | Larvie P.,Google | Siegel D.,Dray and Associates Inc.
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings | Year: 2010

This panel will discuss some of the key challenges in doing international field research including issues with planning, conducting, interpreting, and reporting on such research. Panelists will also share potential solutions and approaches they have used to try to deal with these challenges, and will discuss with the audience additional challenges that audience members have encountered, offering ideas on how to address these as appropriate. © 2010 Copyright is held by the author/owner(s). Source

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