Identification Center

Seoul, South Korea

Identification Center

Seoul, South Korea
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Lee S.Y.,Pusan National University | Jeong E.K.,Pusan National University | Ju M.K.,Pusan National University | Jeon H.M.,Pusan National University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2017

Radiation therapy is one of the major tools of cancer treatment, and is widely used for a variety of malignant tumours. Radiotherapy causes DNA damage directly by ionization or indirectly via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby destroying cancer cells. However, ionizing radiation (IR) paradoxically promotes metastasis and invasion of cancer cells by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Metastasis is a major obstacle to successful cancer therapy, and is closely linked to the rates of morbidity and mortality of many cancers. ROS have been shown to play important roles in mediating the biological effects of IR. ROS have been implicated in IR-induced EMT, via activation of several EMT transcription factors-including Snail, HIF-1, ZEB1, and STAT3-that are activated by signalling pathways, including those of TGF-β, Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, G-CSF, EGFR/PI3K/Akt, and MAPK. Cancer cells that undergo EMT have been shown to acquire stemness and undergo metabolic changes, although these points are debated. IR is known to induce cancer stem cell (CSC) properties, including dedifferentiation and self-renewal, and to promote oncogenic metabolism by activating these EMT-inducing pathways. Much accumulated evidence has shown that metabolic alterations in cancer cells are closely associated with the EMT and CSC phenotypes; specifically, the IR-induced oncogenic metabolism seems to be required for acquisition of the EMT and CSC phenotypes. IR can also elicit various changes in the tumour microenvironment (TME) that may affect invasion and metastasis. EMT, CSC, and oncogenic metabolism are involved in radioresistance; targeting them may improve the efficacy of radiotherapy, preventing tumour recurrence and metastasis. This study focuses on the molecular mechanisms of IR-induced EMT, CSCs, oncogenic metabolism, and alterations in the TME. We discuss how IR-induced EMT/CSC/oncogenic metabolism may promote resistance to radiotherapy; we also review efforts to develop therapeutic approaches to eliminate these IR-induced adverse effects. © 2017 The Author(s).


Kim C.H.,Identification Center | Park H.G.,Pusan National University | Han S.I.,Chosun University
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Most cancer cells depend on enhanced glucose and glutamine (Gln) metabolism for growth and survival. Oncogenic metabolism provides biosynthetic precursors for nucleotides, lipids, and amino acids; however, its specific roles in tumor progression are largely unknown. We previously showed that distal-less homeobox-2 (Dlx-2), a homeodomain transcription factor involved in embryonic and tumor development, induces glycolytic switch and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by inducing Snail expression. Here we show that Dlx-2 also induces the expression of the crucial Gln metabolism enzyme glutaminase (GLS1), which converts Gln to glutamate. TGF-β and Wnt induced GLS1 expression in a Dlx-2-dependent manner. GLS1 shRNA (shGLS1) suppressed in vivo tumor metastasis and growth. Inhibition of Gln metabolism by shGLS1, Gln deprivation, and Gln metabolism inhibitors (DON, 968 and BPTES) prevented Dlx-2-, TGF-β-, Wnt-, and Snail-induced EMT and glycolytic switch. Finally, shDlx-2 and Gln metabolism inhibition decreased Snail mRNA levels through p53-dependent upregulation of Snail-targeting microRNAs. These results demonstrate that the Dlx-2/GLS1/Gln metabolism axis is an important regulator of TGF-β/Wnt-induced, Snail-dependent EMT, metastasis, and glycolytic switch.


Gao F.,Hebei Medical University | Gao F.,Identification Center | Zhao L.,Hebei Medical University | Zhao L.,Identification Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To observe the changes of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in rat brain tissue and to explore the mechanism of secondary cerebral injury after brain concussion. Methods: The brain concussion model was established with the pathological changes of rat brain tissue by Weil stain. The expressions of MDA and SOD in brain tissue were examined by photochemical method. The expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were examined by immunochemistry. Results: Nerve myelin sheath showed disorder, disruption, gryposis and swelling by Weil stain. Above changes were more severe at 12 h. The quantity of MDA in rat brain tissue after concussion was significantly higher than that in the control group. The activity of SOD was significantly lower than that in the control group. The expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β increased more significantly in cerebral cortex and hippocampus in rat brain tissue after concussion than that in the control group. Conclusion: Oxidative stress and inflammatory injury in the rat brain tissue, which may play an important role in secondary cerebral injury after concussion.


Lee S.Y.,Pusan National University | Jeon H.M.,Pusan National University | Ju M.K.,Pusan National University | Jeong E.K.,Pusan National University | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2015

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and oncogenic metabolism (including glycolytic switch) are important for tumor development and progression. Here, we show that Dlx-2, one of distal-less (Dlx) homeobox genes, induces EMT and glycolytic switch by activation of Snail. In addition, it was induced by TGF-β and Wnt and regulates TGF-β-and Wnt-induced EMT and glycolytic switch by activating Snail. We also found that TGF-β/Wnt suppressed cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, in a Dlx-2/Snail-dependent manner. TGF-β/Wnt appeared to downregulate the expression of various COX subunits including COXVIc, COXVIIa and COXVIIc; among these COX subunits, COXVIc was a common target of TGF-β, Wnt, Dlx-2 and Snail, indicating that COXVIc downregulation plays an important role(s) in TGF-β/Wnt-induced COX inhibition. Taken together, our results showed that Dlx-2 is involved in TGF-β-and Wnt-induced EMT, glycolytic switch, and mitochondrial repression by Snail activation.


Lee S.Y.,Pusan National University | Jeon H.M.,Pusan National University | Kim C.H.,Pusan National University | Kim C.H.,Identification Center | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: In contrast to tumor-suppressive apoptosis and autophagic cell death, necrosis promotes tumor progression by releasing the pro-inflammatory and tumor-promoting cytokine high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and its presence in tumor patients is associated with poor prognosis. Thus, necrosis has important clinical implications in tumor development; however, its molecular mechanism remains poorly understood.Results: In the present study, we show that Distal-less 2 (Dlx-2), a homeobox gene of the Dlx family that is involved in embryonic development, is induced in cancer cell lines dependently of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to glucose deprivation (GD), one of the metabolic stresses occurring in solid tumors. Increased Dlx-2 expression was also detected in the inner regions, which experience metabolic stress, of human tumors and of a multicellular tumor spheroid, an in vitro model of solid tumors. Dlx-2 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibited metabolic stress-induced increase in propidium iodide-positive cell population and HMGB1 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, indicating the important role(s) of Dlx-2 in metabolic stress-induced necrosis. Dlx-2 shRNA appeared to exert its anti-necrotic effects by preventing metabolic stress-induced increases in mitochondrial ROS, which are responsible for triggering necrosis.Conclusions: These results suggest that Dlx-2 may be involved in tumor progression via the regulation of metabolic stress-induced necrosis. © 2011 Lee et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Kim C.H.,Pusan National University | Kim C.H.,Identification Center | Jeon H.M.,Pusan National University | Lee S.Y.,Pusan National University | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Necrosis, a type of cell death accompanied by the rupture of the plasma membrane, promotes tumor progression and aggressiveness by releasing the pro-inflammatory and angiogenic cytokine high mobility group box 1. It is commonly found in the core region of solid tumors due to hypoxia and glucose depletion (GD) resulting from insufficient vascularization. Thus, metabolic stress-induced necrosis has important clinical implications for tumor development; however, its regulatory mechanisms have been poorly investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here, we show that the transcription factor Snail, a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is induced in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner in both two-dimensional culture of cancer cells, including A549, HepG2, and MDA-MB-231, in response to GD and the inner regions of a multicellular tumor spheroid system, an in vitro model of solid tumors and of human tumors. Snail short hairpin (sh) RNA inhibited metabolic stress-induced necrosis in two-dimensional cell culture and in multicellular tumor spheroid system. Snail shRNA-mediated necrosis inhibition appeared to be linked to its ability to suppress metabolic stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial permeability transition, which are the primary events that trigger necrosis. Conclusions/Significance: Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Snail is implicated in metabolic stress-induced necrosis, providing a new function for Snail in tumor progression. © 2011 Kim et al.


Jeon H.M.,Pusan National University | Lee S.Y.,Pusan National University | Ju M.K.,Pusan National University | Kim C.H.,Pusan National University | And 3 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2013

Necrosis is commonly found in the core region of solid tumours due to metabolic stress such as hypoxia and glucose deprivation (GD) resulting from insufficient vascularization. Necrosis promotes tumour growth and development by releasing the tumour-promoting cytokine high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1); however, the molecular mechanism underlying necrotic cell death remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that early growth response 1 (Egr-1) is induced in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner by GD in several cell lines such as A549, MDA-MB-231 and HepG2 cells that exhibit necrosis upon GD. We found that Egr-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) prevented GD-induced necrosis and HMGB1 release. Necrosis-inhibiting activity of Egr-1 shRNA was also seen in multicellular tumour spheroids (MTSs), an in vitro tumour model system. In contrast, Egr-1 overexpression appeared to make tumour cells more susceptible to GD-induced necrosis. Finally, Egr-1 shRNA suppressed the growth of MTSs. These findings demonstrate that Egr-1 is implicated in GD-induced necrosis and tumour progression.

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