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News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.prlog.org

-- ·         Cleaner: Innovative flush technology from Ideal Standard redefines excellence in toilet hygiene·         Quieter: 25% noise reduction in comparison to traditional toilets·         Smarter: Water flow has been engineered to ensure optimal usage & benefits·         Winner of multiple international awards for revolutionary flush performance and innovative designAccording to the International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene (IFH), bathrooms, and especially toilets, can be a particularly virulent breeding ground for microorganisms. Appropriate sanitary precautions, —such as an efficient, splash-free toilet flush—prevent the spread of dangerous germs, advises the IFH.Ideal Standard's revolutionary AquaBladeflush technology reaches unprecedented standards of hygiene and provides the excellence in sustainability today's consumers expect. It builds upon almost forty years of innovative standards in toilet hygiene: Ideal Standard invented the first toilet with no overhanging rim in 1979.With standard toilets, around 20% of the bowl remains unrinsed after flushing. The patented AquaBladetechnology, introduced in 2015, optimizes the water flow within the bowl, ensuring significantly better hygiene. AquaBladeemploys innovative Microslot technology: A fully glazed channel system guides an unbroken stream of water through two nozzles from the upper rim of the toilet bowl, providing a powerful, all-round flush. 100% of the surface beneath the channel is flushed and kept spotlessly clean. This innovative system, together with its smooth, almost unbroken surface, makes the AquaBladenot only cleaner, but easier to clean, as the flush does the work. The optimal flushing, even at low water volumes, is the most effective use of water possible. It also greatly reduces splashing during the flushing process in comparison to standard rimless bowls, meaning far less cross-contamination, as fewer bacteria particles are released into the air. In comparison with traditional flush systems, the new technology is also much quieter, with an almost 25% reduction in noise. Perfect design meets perfect function. The elegant aesthetic design of the AquaBladeis also exceptionally clean. No unsightly, overhanging rim means a smooth, almost flat, surface, broken only by a neat, barely visible, line. Recognized design: European market research finds that eight out of ten consumers prefer toilets with AquaBladedesign technology over standard models.Since being introduced to the market, the innovativefor its functional design and advanced technology, including the IF Design Award 2015, the Red Dot Design Award and the German Design Award. The patented AquaBladetechnology has also won the Innovation Award for Architecture + Technology, conferred by the architecture journals AIT and Xia Intelligente Architektur.AquaBladeis available across many Ideal Standard bathroom ranges and models. These include wall-hung, back-to-wall and floor standing bowls, and the Connect, Connect Air, Tesi, Dea, and Tonic II ranges. Find out more at http://www.idealstandardgulf.com/ range/aquablade.html Ideal Standard International, leading provider of innovative bathroom solutions, is a privately-owned company headquartered in Brussels, Belgium, operating in over 60 countries across Europe, Middle East and Africa. Ideal Standard MENA, sister company of Ideal Standard International, is focusing on the growth and massive business opportunities of Middle East, Egypt and Africa, with Head Offices in Dubai, UAE.Ideal Standard heritage is in understanding how bathroom works in totality. With total bathroom solutions as its core business for over 100 years, the company designs, manufactures and supplies ceramic products, bathroom mixers, furniture and accessories, bathing & showering solutions for residential, commercial and institutional buildings. Ideal Standard is the company's international flagship brand for bathroom solutions across all regions. Moreover, the company owns leading European brands: Jado, Armitage Shanks, Ceramica Dolomite, Porcher and Vidima.Ideal Standard Gulf, the business entity encapsulating the Middle East region, operates from its Head Offices in Dubai, UAE. The Ideal Standard, Jado, Armitage Shanks, Ceramica Dolomite, Porcher, Vidima and American Standard branded products are supplied in the Middle East sanitary ware market by esteemed business partners across the different countries.


Pagliari L.,University of Milan | Dapiaggi M.,University of Milan | Pavese A.,University of Milan | Pavese A.,CNR Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes | Francescon F.,Ideal Standard International
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2013

Cristobalite is a common silica polymorph in ceramics, as it can crystallize in SiO2-rich systems during high temperature processes. Its occurrence in final traditional ceramic bodies remarkably affects their thermal expansion, thus playing an important role in the shrinkage upon cooling. The quartz-cristobalite transformation kinetics is investigated by in-situ isothermal X-ray powder diffraction experiments and then correlated to the average particle size (〈d〉) of the starting quartz using a model here developed. An Avrami-like rate equation, i.e. α(t)=1-exp(-k×t)n, in which the n-term is assumed to account for the dependence on the average particle size, has provided the best fitting of theoretical to experimental data, yielding activation energy values that range from 181 to 234kJmol-1, and exponential n-coefficients from 0.9 to 1.5. Ex-situ observations have demonstrated that the formation of cristobalite from quartz after 50min, 2, 4 and 6h at 1200 and 1300°C, exhibits a remarkable dependence on 〈d〉 of quartz, showing comparable behaviours in the case of 〈d〉 equal to 15.8 and 28.4μm, but significant differences for 〈d〉 of 4.1μm. The formation of cristobalite is boosted remarkably at temperature higher than 1200°C, with an increase by weight even of 500%, with respect to its content at lower temperature. The method of sample preparation (dry powder, wet powder and tablet of compressed dry powder) seems to influence the results only at temperature > 1200°C and in the case of fine powder. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Bernasconi A.,University of Milan | Marinoni N.,University of Milan | Pavese A.,University of Milan | Pavese A.,National Research Council Italy | And 2 more authors.
Ceramics International | Year: 2014

This work is focused on the study of macroscopic and microscopic properties of traditional sanitary-ware vitreous bodies as a function of feldspar flux and firing time-temperature profile, using a fixed slip formulation (50 wt.% clay, 25 wt.% quartz and 25 wt.% feldspar). Two flux particle sizes (45 and 75 μm), three flux compositions (Na-based feldspar, K-based feldspar and a mix of them) and three firing cycles with the same soaking temperature (i.e. 1240 C) have been combined to evaluate their effects on the relevant industrial properties of water absorption and thermal expansion. The micro-scale observables, phase composition and micro-morphology, have also been investigated. Despite a general similarity exhibited by the ceramic samples, qualitative and quantitative differences in terms of feldspar dissociation temperature, phase-composition and densification trends have been observed. In particular, for a fixed firing cycle, the combination of the sodium based feldspar with the smallest flux particle size leads systematically to a water absorption value that is below the 0.5 target value and to a glass amount that approaches 70 wt.%. Thermal expansion coefficients below the quartz α-β transition are found in the 6.2-6.9×10-6 C-1 range; the highest values seem to be favoured by incorporation of potassium based. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.All rights reserved.


Bernasconi A.,University of Milan | Diella V.,National Research Council Italy | Pagani A.,National Research Council Italy | Pavese A.,University of Milan | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2011

This work reports a study on (i) the evolution of mineral phases versus time and temperature, and (ii) some relationships between phases observed, process parameters, and macroscopic properties (thermal expansion and water absorption), in sanitary-ware vitreous bodies. These properties are relevant to satisfying the technical requirements of sanitary-ware. We have fixed the green body composition, varying some key process parameters, such as firing temperature (Tf), firing time (tf) and quartz grain size (d50); a grid of 30 Tf-tf-d50 points has been explored. We have spanned the tf-Tf space (0-80min; 1200-1280°C) using firing temperatures representative of the plateau values of the heating curve in industrial processes. X-ray powder diffraction has been used to determine the phase composition for each Tf-tf-d50 point. Scanning electron microscopy proved useful in enhancing the micro-structural characterization. Quartz d50 seems to be the process-parameter which most effectively co-relates with the thermal expansion of the glassy matrix. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Adamo I.,University of Milan | Adamo I.,National Research Council Italy | Diella V.,National Research Council Italy | Pavese A.,University of Milan | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2013

The system Na-feldspar (F) and kaolinite (K) was investigated at temperatures of interest in ceramic applications (1200-1280°C) to study the effects of F/K ratios by weight and crystallinity degree of kaolinite on the final product, micro-structural features and mullite-glass Gibbs energy of formation (δGeff). Mullite and glass are the dominant phases; in general, the higher the temperature, the larger the former. An F/K increase promotes the formation of glass and secondary mullite, appearing along with the primary one. δGeff was modelled by α(T)×(F/K)2+β(T)×F/K+γ(T), α, β and γ being linear functions of temperature whose coefficients were determined by fitting the δGeff-theoretical to the δGeff-obtained from the measured phase compositions. δGeff is less affected by temperature than by F/K, whose increase shifts equilibrium towards glass phases. The δGeff-curves for ordered and disordered kaolinite intersect one another at F/K ~0.5, a ratio close to that used in industrial practice. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Bernasconi A.,University of Milan | Diella V.,National Research Council Italy | Marinoni N.,University of Milan | Pavese A.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
Ceramics International | Year: 2012

Two series of glazes have been produced from different combinations of the same raw materials in the range of interest for sanitary-ware applications: they are designed to allow one to get insight into network-forming and network-modifying species. Fusibility tests and hot stage microscope observations show the influence of even low differences in the starting chemical compositions on the transformation temperatures. X-ray powder diffraction, wavelength dispersion spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy prove that: (i) zircon, the most abundant crystalline phase, is homogeneously distributed and decreases by a 3% from its starting value; (ii) the glass-phase of glaze has a quasi-uniform composition. X-ray synchrotron radiation micro-tomography shows that glaze porosity is 15% by volume, and voids are prevalently not interconnected and with size up to 50 μm. The linear thermal expansion of the glass phase of glaze ranges between 6 and 7 × 10 -6 °C -1, without apparent correlation with composition. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.


Pagani A.,National Research Council Italy | Francescon F.,Ideal Standard International | Pavese A.,National Research Council Italy | Pavese A.,University of Milan | Diella V.,National Research Council Italy
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2010

The present investigation deals with a characterization method for fired body (cast piece) from a standard sanitary-ware industrial cycle, relying upon data mainly from optical/electron microscopy and chemical mapping. Image processing techniques have been used to reconstruct the phase-distribution throughout the body, so as to provide a phase-arrangement-sensitive description of the crystalline and amorphous components. The results so attained are compared with those from classical X-ray powder diffraction in terms of total phase-contents. The amorphous phase-content and its distribution can be determined by optical microscopy, and the modest level of precision of the phase quantification is improvable by accounting for the occurrence of voids. Residual quartz is identified by means of the backscattered electron contrast differences in images, and thereby its morphologic properties and amount are determined. The use of elemental X-ray maps allows one to attain a description of the local composition and, on the basis of some assumptions, to quantify microcrystalline mullite and also discriminating between primary versus secondary mullite. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Marinoni N.,University of Milan | Pagani A.,National Research Council Italy | Adamo I.,University of Milan | Diella V.,National Research Council Italy | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2011

The mullitisation kinetics in a sanitary-ware-like precursor system is here investigated by means of high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction, as a function of the filler/flux ratio. We used a blend based on kaolinite (50wt%), quartz (10-28wt%) and Na-feldspar (22-40wt%). The results show that the content of feldspar boosts the formation of mullite as proven by the apparent activation energy values determined, ranging from 394 to 1111kJ/mol, and giving a dEa/dxfeldspar ∼ -23kJ/mol/wt (xfeldspar=feldspar weight fraction). The mullitisation temperature has also been observed to depend on the Na-feldspar content, inasmuch as the sample bearing the smallest amount of feldspar flux exhibits a mullite growth onset between 1100 and 1150°C, that is at a temperature about 50°C higher than the one observed in the richer blends. The mullitisation kinetic process is in this work described as a one-mechanism transformation, satisfactorily formalised by Avrami-Erofeyev equation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Diella V.,National Research Council Italy | Adamo I.,University of Milan | Pagliari L.,University of Milan | Pavese A.,National Research Council Italy | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2015

Mullite-glass Gibbs energy of formation (δGeff), micro-texture and phase composition evolution are investigated in the Na-feldspar (F) and kaolinite (K) system, over the 1240-1320°C interval, as a function of the starting F/K ratio by weight and particle size distribution of F (), using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermodynamic modeling. Electron microscopy images show that size and aspect ratio of primary and secondary mullite have their largest figures for the smallest and, in general, monotonically increase upon firing temperature. δGeff has been modeled by α()×(F/K)2+β()×F/K+γ() (α, β and γ are linear functions of ). The parameters of such a function have been determined by fitting it to the experimental δGeffs, inferred from quantitative phase analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns. Note that we used average δGeff-values over the T-range explored because of the modest dependence on temperature shown. We have gathered that (i) F/K affects energetics and mullite content more markedly than does, and (ii) the mullite formation is energetically favored by decreasing F/K and increasing . © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Tarantino A.,University of Trento | Sacchet A.,University of Trento | Dal Maschio R.,University of Trento | Francescon F.,Ideal Standard International
Journal of the American Ceramic Society | Year: 2010

This paper presents a simple hydromechanical approach to model drying and shrinkage behavior of clay green bodies. Heat transfer and water vapor flow are neglected but the effect of air velocity, temperature, and relative humidity on evaporation rate can be taken into account through a boundary coefficient. Nonlinear hydraulic and mechanical constitutive functions are introduced and derived from experimental tests at the "elementary" volume scale. A state-of-the-art tensiometer capable of measuring the tensile stress of water up to 2000 kPa was used to relate changes in volume and water content to the capillary suction, which is generated in the clay by the evaporation process. The proposed approach was validated against free dessication tests involving air-drying of clay bars subjected to isotropic volume change and one-dimensional water flow. Two different methods were used to solve the water flow equation. In the first method, nonlinear hydraulic and mechanical constitutive equations and nonlinear boundary conditions were implemented and the flow equation was solved numerically. The second method consisted in linearizing the flow equation and solving it using an analytical solution. The interest for this second method lies on the reduced number of clay parameters required, which can be obtained from simple routine tests. © 2009 The American Ceramic Society.

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