San Andrés del Rabanedo, Spain
San Andrés del Rabanedo, Spain

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Yravedra J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dominguez-Rodrigo M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dominguez-Rodrigo M.,IDEA Institute of Evolution in Africa | Santonja M.,National Research Center sobre la Evolucion Humana | And 7 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Ever since Mary Leakey's initial excavations in the 1960s, TK (Thiongo Korongo) has been recognized as one of Olduvai Gorge's most important Acheulean sites. The significant concentrations of lithics and fauna reported by Mary Leakey have been augmented in recent years by Santonja etal., who argue that human activities appear to be largely related to the manufacture of lithic implements. In contrast, the faunal remains have been interpreted to be of uncertain origin, and their anthropogenic nature remains in question. This paper presents new data on the formation of the TK bone accumulation. Our results reveal a diverse list of taxa, many of which reflect open habitats. Only limited evidence of anthropogenic activity is documented. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Santonja M.,National Research Center sobre la Evolucion Humana | Panera J.,IDEA Institute of Evolution in Africa | Rubio-Jara S.,IDEA Institute of Evolution in Africa | Perez-Gonzalez A.,National Research Center sobre la Evolucion Humana | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

At TK, 113 m2 were excavated in 2010-2012 in the two areas immediately adjacent to the trenches dug by M. Leakey in 1963. Extensive lithic and faunal assemblages were retrieved from several levels of the archaeological site. TK is located at the exposed top of Olduvai's Bed II, recently dated to 1.353 ± 0.035 Ma. From a geo-archaeological perspective, the stratigraphic studies have provided a redefinition of the processes involved in the site's formation.This paper offers a geological interpretation that revises and amends previous ones. The new interpretation focuses particularly on the technological and paleoeconomic study of a new lithic assemblage recovered from the lower occupation level (TKLF). This assemblage comprises 5805 objects in total, including 3812 items of shatter. We analyse here the chaînes opératoires represented in this level, as well as the processes implied by the raw materials, management, maintenance and abandonment of the lithic assemblage.The character of the site, as well as the activities carried out in it, have been greatly influenced by the proximity of the sources of the raw material primarily used, which could have been extracted from an inselberg of a particular type of quartzite located within a few hundred meters of the site. Two different chaînes opératoires can be identified in TKLF: one based on obtaining flakes from varied blanks, particularly volcanic rocks and the distinctive quartzite, and the second on the manufacture of large and highly standardized bifaces that were produced, used and abandoned in the site. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Santonja M.,National Research Center sobre la Evolucion Humana | Perez-Gonzalez A.,National Research Center sobre la Evolucion Humana | Panera J.,IDEA Institute of Evolution in Africa | Rubio-Jara S.,IDEA Institute of Evolution in Africa | Mendez-Quintas E.,University of Burgos
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Two clearly differentiated techno-complexes can be recognised in the Iberian Peninsula during the second half of the Middle Pleistocene: the Acheulean and the Middle Palaeolithic. In this paper we present the current state of research on both technological entities, and propose that they represent two different industrial traditions. The Acheulean, a techno-complex that originated and developed in Africa, is considered to have reached Western Europe via Gibraltar, and developed only to a limited extent. In contrast, relict populations with a different technological tradition would have been present on the European continent since the late Early Pleistocene and developed a technological tradition was based on the development of chaînes operatoire of débitage. From MIS 10 on these industries had reached a high degree of complexity and diversity. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

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