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Pocatello, ID, United States

Idaho State University is a Carnegie-classified doctoral research high and teaching institution founded in 1901. At the main campus in Pocatello, and at locations in Meridian, Idaho Falls and Twin Falls, ISU offers access to education in more than 280 programs. Almost 14,300 students attend ISU, receiving education and training in those programs. Idaho State University is the state's designated lead institution in health professions and medical education.There are 48 US states and 59 countries represented at ISU and 285 programs, including Master's and Doctorate programs. The student-teacher ratio is 17:1, gender of students is 44% male, 56% female, and ISU has 160+ Clubs and Organizations.Enrollment for the fall semester in 2012 stood at 14,209, including 12,143 undergraduate students and 2,066 graduate students. Wikipedia.

New CT scans of the spiral-tooth fossil, Helicoprion, resolve a longstanding mystery concerning the form and phylogeny of this ancient cartilaginous fish. We present the first three-dimensional images that show the tooth whorl occupying the entire mandibular arch, and which is supported along the midline of the lower jaw. Several characters of the upper jaw show that it articulated with the neurocranium in two places and that the hyomandibula was not part of the jaw suspension. These features identify Helicoprion as a member of the stem holocephalan group Euchondrocephali. Our reconstruction illustrates novel adaptations, such as lateral cartilage to buttress the tooth whorl, which accommodated the unusual trait of continuous addition and retention of teeth in a predatory chondrichthyan. Helicoprion exemplifies the climax of stem holocephalan diversification and body size in Late Palaeozoic seas, a role dominated today by sharks and rays. Source

Background: Numerous injuries have been attributed to playing on artificial turf. Over the past 2 decades, however, newer generations of synthetic turf have been developed to duplicate the playing characteristics of natural grass. Although synthetic turf has been determined to be safer than natural grass in some studies, few long-term studies have been conducted comparing matchrelated collegiate soccer injuries between the 2 playing surfaces. Hypothesis: Collegiate female soccer athletes do not experience any difference in the incidence, mechanisms, and severity of match-related injuries on FieldTurf and on natural grass. Study Design: Cohort study: Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Female soccer athletes from 13 universities were evaluated over 5 competitive seasons for injury incidence, injury category, time of injury, injury time loss, player position, injury mechanism and situation, primary type of injury, injury grade and anatomic location, field location at the time of injury, injury severity, head and lower extremity trauma, cleat design, turf age, and environmental factors. In sum, 797 collegiate games were evaluated for match-related soccer injuries sustained on FieldTurf or natural grass during 5 seasons. Results: Overall, 355 team games (44.5%) were played on FieldTurf versus 442 team games (55.5%) on natural grass. A total of 693 injuries were documented, with 272 (39.2%) occurring during play on FieldTurf and 421 (60.8%) on natural grass. Multivariate analysis per 10 team games indicated a significant playing surface effect: F2,690 = 6.435, P = .002, n - b = .904. A significantly lower total injury incidence rate (IIR) of 7.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2-8.1) versus 9.5 (95% CI, 9.3-9.7) (P = .0001) and lower rate of substantial injuries, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5-1.0) versus 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2-1.9) (P = .001), were documented on FieldTurf versus natural grass, respectively. Analyses also indicated significantly less trauma on FieldTurf when comparing injury time loss, player position, injury grade, injuries under various field conditions and temperatures, cleat design, and turf age. Conclusion: Although similarities existed between FieldTurf and natural grass during competitive match play, FieldTurf is a practical alternative when comparing injuries in collegiate women's soccer. It must be reiterated that the findings of this study may be generalizable to only collegiate competition and this specific artificial surface. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

The hypothesis of early metastasis was debated for several decades. Dormant cancer cells and surgery-induced acceleration of metastatic growth were first observed in clinical studies and animal experiments conducted more than a century ago; later, these findings were confirmed in numerous modern studies.In this primarily methodological work, we discuss critically important, yet largely unobservable, aspects of the natural history of cancer, such as (1) early metastatic dissemination; (2) dormancy of secondary tumors; (3) treatment-related interruption of metastatic dormancy, induction of angiogenesis, and acceleration of the growth of vascular metastases; and (4) the existence of cancer stem cells. The hypothesis of early metastasis was debated for several decades. Dormant cancer cells and surgery-induced acceleration of metastatic growth were first observed in clinical studies and animal experiments conducted more than a century ago; later, these findings were confirmed in numerous modern studies.We focus on the unique role played by very general mathematical models of the individual natural history of cancer that are entirely mechanistic yet, somewhat paradoxically, essentially free of assumptions about specific nature of the underlying biological processes. These models make it possible to reconstruct in considerable detail the individual natural history of cancer and retrospectively assess the effects of treatment. Thus, the models can be used as a tool for generation and validation of biomedical hypotheses related to carcinogenesis, primary tumor growth, its metastatic dissemination, growth of metastases, and the effects of various treatment modalities. We discuss in detail one such general model and review the conclusions relevant to the aforementioned aspects of cancer progression that were drawn from fitting a parametric version of the model to data on the volumes of bone metastases in one breast cancer patient and 12 prostate cancer patients. Source

Kelchner S.A.,Idaho State University
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Bamboos are large perennial grasses of temperate and tropical forests worldwide. Two general growth forms exist: the economically and ecologically important woody bamboos (tribes Arundinarieae and Bambuseae), and the understory herbaceous bamboos (tribe Olyreae). Evolutionary relationships among the 1400. +. described species have been difficult to resolve with confidence. Comparative analysis of bamboo plastid (chloroplast) DNA has revealed three to five major lineages that show distinct biogeographic distributions. Taxon sampling across tribes and subtribes has been incomplete and most published data sets include a relatively small number of nucleotide characters. Branching order among lineages is often poorly supported, and in more than one study herbaceous bamboos form a clade within the woody bamboos. In this paper, the Bamboo Phylogeny Group presents the most complete phylogeny estimation to date of bamboo tribes and subtribes using 6.7. kb of coding and noncoding sequence data and 37 microstructural characters from the chloroplast genome. Quality of data is assessed, as is the possibility of long branch attraction, the degree of character conflict at key nodes in the tree, and the legitimacy of three alternative hypotheses of relationship. Four major plastid lineages are recognized: temperate woody, paleotropical woody, neotropical woody, and herbaceous bamboos. Woody bamboos are resolved as paraphyletic with respect to Olyreae but SH tests cannot reject monophyly of woody species (Arundinarieae. +. Bambuseae). © 2013. Source

Building a multivariate calibration model is typically accomplished using partial least squares, principal component regression, or ridge regression, also derived as the standard form of Tikhonov regularization (TR). These approaches can be used in a full variable mode (full wavelengths for spectroscopic data) or with wavelength selection (bands and/or individual for sparse models). Calibration maintenance is an important aspect of multivariate calibration and describes the situation of maintaining acceptable predictions from a model over time. In terms of TR, this amounts to updating an existing model (determined under primary conditions) to handle new secondary conditions such as a new instrument, sample matrix, or environmental conditions. This paper overviews TR in its ability to form a primary calibration model or update a primary model to new secondary conditions while using full wavelengths or simultaneously selecting wavelengths to form respective sparse models. These objectives can be accomplished in two-norm (L 2) or one-norm (L 1) or combined formats. Also included is a TR design that minimizes the effect of the standardization set composition, i.e., reduces the effect of an outlier. Ongoing work that removes all reference samples from the TR framework is also described. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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