Idaho Falls, ID, United States
Idaho Falls, ID, United States

The Idaho Military Department consists of the Idaho Army National Guard, the Idaho Air National Guard, and the Idaho Bureau of Homeland Security.Its headquarters are located in Boise. Wikipedia.


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Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016

The Department of Energy has a mission to ensure America's prosperity and security by addressing energy and environmental challenges. This Phase I project aims to produce domestic, economic and environmentally responsible biodiesel fuel from brown grease, a waste that is currently disposed in landfills or incinerated. The conversion of "brown grease" from wastewater treatment plant’s fats oils and greases (WWTP FOG) has the potential to generate over 500 million gallons of biodiesel per year. The proposed project will test both pretreatment by supercritical fluids of the brown grease as well as development of robust catalysts using supercritical process and a final cleaning of the product using supercritical fluids to produce a high quality industrial biodiesel. CF Tech is teaming with Idaho National Laboratory, a pioneer in supercritical and catalyst reactions including their patented SSC process, and Mr. Richard Madrak, President of Waste Resources Recovery, Inc., a consultant within the industry. In prior work, CF Tech and INL have successfully used supercritical fluids in similar developments. Commercial application and benefits of this successful technology will be to manufacture and install conversion plants at wastewater treatment plants around the country to reduce landfill and incineration disposal, while producing high value crude bio-oil. To be economically viable, biofuels need low cost feedstocks, WWTP brown grease meets that requirement as a no cost or negative value feedstock. Keywords: Wastewater treatment plants, brown grease, FOG, Free fatty acids, fats oils and greases, Supercritical, Carbon dioxide, Critical Fluids, Liquid fuel, Bio-fuel, Bio-oil, Catalysts, supercritical solid catalysts, SSC Process Members of Congress: CF Technologies, Inc. of Hyde Park, MA has proposed developing technologies to convert rancid no-value, environmentally adverse brown grease from waste water treatment plants into high quality, valued biodiesel fuel.


News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

March 1, 2017 - Under a collaborative partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy, a new automated measurement system developed at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory will ensure quality production of plutonium-238 while reducing handling by workers. NASA has funded ORNL and other national laboratories to develop a process that will restore U.S. production capability of Pu-238 for the first time since the late 1980s when the Savannah River Plant ceased production. ORNL has produced and separated about 100 grams of the material and plans to scale up the process over the next several years to meet demand to power NASA deep space missions. "We are bringing together multiple disciplines across ORNL to achieve this automation and ramp up so that we can supply Pu-238 for NASA," said Bob Wham, who leads the project for the lab's Nuclear Security and Isotope Technology Division. The Pu-238 is produced from neptunium-237 feedstock provided by Idaho National Laboratory. Workers at ORNL mix neptunium oxide with aluminum and press the mixture into high-density pellets. The new automated measurement system robotically removes the Np-237 pellets from their holding tray, and measures their weight, diameter, and height. "We're excited to go from making these measurements by hand to just pressing a 'GO' button," said Jim Miller, a scientist in the Fusion & Materials for Nuclear Systems Division who is employing the new system. "About 52 Np-237 pellets can be measured per hour using the new automated measurement system," he added. Pellets meeting specifications, as determined by the new automated measurement system, are placed in a cassette that moves to another location for loading into a hollow aluminum tube that is hydrostatically compressed around the pellets. The Np-237 pellets loaded in the hollow aluminum tube later enter the High Flux Isotope Reactor, a DOE Office of Science User Facility at ORNL, where they are irradiated, creating Np-238, which quickly decays and becomes Pu-238. The irradiated pellets are then dissolved, and ORNL staff use a chemical process to separate the plutonium from any remaining neptunium. Purified plutonium is converted back to an oxide powder, packaged and shipped to Los Alamos for final processing. Plans are for initial production of 400 grams Pu-238 per year on average at ORNL and then to increase that quantity through additional automation and scale-up processes. Several ORNL researchers contributed to the automated measurement system. Alan Barker was the software architect, enhancing early work performed by others on the system and serving as technical lead to finish the project. Richard Wunderlich further developed the software to professional grade with an emphasis on making it more robust, usable and maintainable. Michelle Baldwin also provided programming expertise, including software quality assurance, verification and validation. David West was the hardware architect, overseeing configuration tasks within the glovebox and making sure the system is safe and functional in a radioactive environment. Tim McIntyre was the project manager. Project challenges included fitting the system into a glovebox that was only about 6 feet wide and 3 feet deep, and designing the system to be easy for workers to manipulate, maintain and repair, McIntyre said. In another project funded by NASA, Miller said the lab is working to automate the creation of the target neptunium/aluminum pellets. Miller also pointed to the collaborative nature of the automation development work at the lab. "I have a background in materials science, the Electrical and Electronics Systems Research Division people have the electrical and robotics background, and others like the staff in the NSITD have a chemical engineering background. None of us individually could get this done," he said. The next NASA mission planning to use a radioisotope thermoelectric generator fueled by Pu-238 is the Mars 2020 rover, scheduled for launch in July 2020. The mission will seek signs of life on Mars, test technology for human exploration, and gather samples of rocks and soil that could be returned to Earth. In the future, newly produced Pu-238 from ORNL will fuel these kinds of missions. NASA announced this week that is has accepted a small quantity of the new heat source for use on the rover. UT-Battelle manages ORNL for DOE's Office of Science. The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit http://science. .


NASA has funded ORNL and other national laboratories to develop a process that will restore US production capability of Pu-238 for the first time since the late 1980s when the Savannah River Plant ceased production.  ORNL has produced and separated about 100 grams of the material and plans to scale up the process over the next several years to meet demand to power NASA deep space missions. "We are bringing together multiple disciplines across ORNL to achieve this automation and ramp up so that we can supply Pu-238 for NASA," said Bob Wham, who leads the project for the lab's Nuclear Security and Isotope Technology Division. The Pu-238 is produced from neptunium-237 feedstock provided by Idaho National Laboratory. Workers at ORNL mix neptunium oxide with aluminum and press the mixture into high-density pellets. The new automated measurement system robotically removes the Np-237 pellets from their holding tray, and measures their weight, diameter, and height. "We're excited to go from making these measurements by hand to just pressing a 'GO' button," said Jim Miller, a scientist in the Fusion & Materials for Nuclear Systems Division who is employing the new system. "About 52 Np-237 pellets can be measured per hour using the new automated measurement system," Miller said. Pellets meeting specifications, as determined by the new automated measurement system, are placed in a cassette that moves to another location for loading into a hollow aluminum tube that is hydrostatically compressed around the pellets. The Np-237 pellets loaded in the hollow aluminum tube later enter the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), a Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility at ORNL, where they are irradiated, creating Np-238, which quickly decays and becomes Pu-238. The irradiated pellets are then dissolved, and ORNL staff use a chemical process to separate the plutonium from any remaining neptunium.  Purified plutonium is converted back to an oxide powder, packaged, and shipped to Los Alamos for final processing. Plans are for initial production of 400 grams Pu-238 per year on average at ORNL and then to increase that quantity through additional automation and scale-up processes. Several ORNL researchers contributed to the automated measurement system. Alan Barker was the software architect, enhancing early work performed by others on the system and serving as technical lead to finish the project. Richard Wunderlich further developed the software to professional grade with an emphasis on making it more robust, usable, and maintainable. Michelle Baldwin also provided programming expertise, including software quality assurance, verification, and validation. David West was the hardware architect, overseeing configuration tasks within the glovebox and making sure the system is safe and functional in a radioactive environment. Tim McIntyre was the project manager. Project challenges included fitting the system into a glovebox that was only about 6 feet wide and 3 feet deep, and designing the system to be easy for workers to manipulate, maintain, and repair, McIntyre said. In another project funded by NASA, Miller said the lab is working to automate the creation of the target neptunium/aluminum pellets. Miller also pointed to the collaborative nature of the automation development work at the lab. "I have a background in materials science, the EESR people have the electrical and robotics background, and others like the staff in the NSITD have a chemical engineering background. None of us individually could get this done," he said. The next NASA mission planning to use a radioisotope thermoelectric generator fueled by Pu-238 is the Mars 2020 rover, scheduled for launch in July 2020. The mission will seek signs of life on Mars, test technology for human exploration, and gather samples of rocks and soil that could be returned to Earth.  In the future, newly produced Pu-238 from ORNL will fuel these kinds of missions. NASA announced this week that is has accepted a small quantity of the new heat source for use on the rover.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.96K | Year: 2012

ABSTRACT: As security of fossil fuel sources is diminishing, the generation of synthetic fuels may constitute a significant strategic capability for the USAF. GES and the INL propose novel catalysts and electrochemical cell components for the electroreduction of carbon dioxide to syngas. Catalyst composition will be formulated to optimize both product selectivity and cell efficiency. A preliminary design for a system yielding syngas at a hydrogen-carbon monoxide ratio of 3:1 will be produced. BENEFIT: The efficient electroreduction of carbon dioxide is a potentially critical emissions abatement technology for the future. Carbon dioxide generated from fossil fuels could be captured and utilized in the manufacture of valuable hydrocarbon products, with carbon dioxide capture-credits (or the like) playing significantly into the economics. Our engineered solutions will advance this carbon dioxide utilization technology toward an integrated jet fuel synthesis system for which there is an emerging need in the military arena.


Runde W.H.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Mincher B.J.,Idaho National Laboratory
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

The preparation and characterization methods for the higher oxidation states of americium are presented. Yanir and co-workers successfully prepared Am(IV) in concentrated phosphoric acid and pyrophosphate, while Myasoedov and co-workers reported its quantitative preparation in 8-15M phosphoric acid by anodic oxidation. Pentavalent americium is predominantly prepared in near-neutral and alkaline solution. Oxidizing agents, such as ozone, peroxydisulfate, or hypochlorite have been used to oxidize Am(III) to Am(V) under these conditions. It can also be obtained by reducing Am(VI) with bromide. Meyer and co-workers obtained pentavalent americium in solution by adding an alkaline solution of ferricyanide to a Am(III) hydroxide. Pure AmO 2 + solutions free of Am3+ can be also obtained by using selective solvent extraction from mixed valence solutions. Hexavalent americium can be prepared in dilute acids or in alkaline media.


Muth D.J.,Idaho National Laboratory | Bryden K.M.,Iowa State University
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2013

Agricultural residues have been identified as a significant potential resource for bioenergy production, but serious questions remain about the sustainability of harvesting residues. Agricultural residues play an important role in limiting soil erosion from wind and water and in maintaining soil organic carbon. Because of this, multiple factors must be considered when assessing sustainable residue harvest limits. Validated and accepted modeling tools for assessing these impacts include the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation Version 2 (RUSLE2), the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), and the Soil Conditioning Index. Currently, these models do not work together as a single integrated model. Rather, use of these models requires manual interaction and data transfer. As a result, it is currently not feasible to use these computational tools to perform detailed sustainable agricultural residue availability assessments across large spatial domains or to consider a broad range of land management practices. This paper presents an integrated modeling strategy that couples existing datasets with the RUSLE2 water erosion, WEPS wind erosion, and Soil Conditioning Index soil carbon modeling tools to create a single integrated residue removal modeling system. This enables the exploration of the detailed sustainable residue harvest scenarios needed to establish sustainable residue availability. Using this computational tool, an assessment study of residue availability for the state of Iowa was performed. This study included all soil types in the state of Iowa, four representative crop rotation schemes, variable crop yields, three tillage management methods, and five residue removal methods. The key conclusions of this study are that under current management practices and crop yields nearly 26.5 million Mg of agricultural residue are sustainably accessible in the state of Iowa, and that through the adoption of no till practices residue removal could sustainably approach 40 million Mg. However, when considering the economics and logistics of residue harvest, yields below 2.25 Mg ha-1 are generally considered to not be viable for a commercial bioenergy system. Applying this constraint, the total agricultural residue resource available in Iowa under current management practices is 19 million Mg. Previously published results have shown residue availability from 22 million Mg to over 50 million Mg in Iowa. © 2012.


We introduce a new method of solution for the convective heat transfer under forced laminar flow that is confined by two parallel plates with a distance of 2a or by a circular tube with a radius of a. The advection-conduction equation is first mapped onto the boundary. The original problem of solving the unknown field T (x, r, t) is reduced to seek the solutions of T at the boundary (r = a or r = 0, r is the distance from the centerline shown in Fig. 1), i.e., the boundary functions T a(x, t) ≡ T(x, r = a, t) and/or T 0(x, t) ≡ T(x, r = 0, t). In this manner, the original problem is significantly simplified by reducing the problem dimensionality from 3 to 2. The unknown field T (x, r, t) can be eventually solved in terms of these boundary functions. The method is applied to the convective heat transfer with uniform wall temperature boundary condition and with heat exchange between flowing fluids and its surroundings that is relevant to the geothermal applications. Analytical solutions are presented and validated for the steady-state problem using the proposed method. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Tumuluru J.S.,Idaho National Laboratory
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2014

A flat die pellet mill was used to understand the effect of high levels of feedstock moisture content in the range of 28-38% (w.b.), with die rotational speeds of 40-60Hz, and preheating temperatures of 30-110°C on the pelleting characteristics of 4.8mm screen size ground corn stover using an 8mm pellet die. The physical properties of the pelletised biomass studied are: (a) pellet moisture content, (b) unit, bulk and tapped density, and (c) durability. Pelletisation experiments were conducted based on central composite design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that feedstock moisture content influenced all of the physical properties at P<0.001. Pellet moisture content decreased with increase in preheating temperature to about 110°C and decreasing the feedstock moisture content to about 28% (w.b.). Response surface models developed for quality attributes with respect to process variables has adequately described the process with coefficient of determination (R2) values of >0.88. The other pellet quality attributes such as unit, bulk, tapped density, were maximised at feedstock moisture content of 30-33% (w.b.), die speeds of >50Hz and preheating temperature of >90°C. In case of durability a medium moisture content of 33-34% (w.b.) and preheating temperatures of >70°C and higher die speeds >50Hz resulted in high durable pellets. It can be concluded from the present study that feedstock moisture content, followed by preheating, and die rotational speed are the interacting process variables influencing pellet moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density and durability. © 2013 The Author.


O'Brien J.E.,Idaho National Laboratory
Journal of Heat Transfer | Year: 2012

Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high temperature process heat. The overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. An overview of high temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic thermodynamics, experimental methods, heat and mass transfer phenomena, and computational fluid dynamics modeling. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Millett P.C.,Idaho National Laboratory
Computational Materials Science | Year: 2012

The percolation behavior of grain boundary networks is characterized in two- and three-dimensional lattices with circular macroscale cross-sections that correspond to nuclear fuel elements. The percolation of gas bubbles on grain boundaries, and the subsequent percolation of grain boundary networks is the primary mechanism of fission gas release from nuclear fuels. Both radial cracks and radial gradients in grain boundary property distributions are correlated with the fraction of grain boundaries vented to the free surfaces. Our results show that cracks surprisingly do not significantly increase the percolation of uniform grain boundary networks. However, for networks with radial gradients in boundary properties, the cracks can considerably raise the vented grain boundary content. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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