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De Juan A.,University of Barcelona | Jaumot J.,IDAEA CSIC Jordi Girona | Tauler R.,IDAEA CSIC Jordi Girona
Analytical Methods | Year: 2014

This article is a tutorial that focuses on the main aspects to be considered when applying Multivariate Curve Resolution to analyze multicomponent systems, particularly when the Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm is used. These aspects include general MCR comments on the potential fields of application and construction of data structures and details linked to each of the steps in the application workflow of the MCR-ALS algorithm (e.g., selection of initial estimates, choice and application of constraints, quality parameters of models and assessment of ambiguity,...). Two examples with downloadable data sets are shown for orientation on the practical use of this methodology. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Oliveira E.,IDAEA CSIC Jordi Girona | Oliveira E.,University of Aveiro | Casado M.,IDAEA CSIC Jordi Girona | Faria M.,University of Aveiro | And 4 more authors.
Nanotoxicology | Year: 2014

The progressive practical applications of engineered nanoparticles results in their ever-increasing release into the environment. Accurate assessment of their environmental and health risks requires the development of methods allowing their monitoring in different environmental compartments and the evaluation of their potential toxicity at different levels of organization. Toxic effects of third-generation (G3) and fourth-generation (G4) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (ethylenediamine cored, imine-terminated) were assessed on zebrafish embryos during the first two days post-fertilization. Particle characterization by dynamic light scattering showed no tendency to form aggregates in the assay conditions. G3 particles showed somewhat a higher acute toxicity than G4 particles, with LC50 values of 1.8 and 2.3 mg/L, respectively. At sublethal concentrations, both particles affected the zebrafish transcriptome following similar patterns, suggesting a similar mode of action. About 700 transcripts were affected by at least one of the treatments, following a pattern with significant correlations to the effects of bacterial infection in zebrafish embryos. We concluded that the response to G3 and G4 dendrimers was consistent with the activation of the innate immune response, a still unreported potential effect of these particles. These data may contribute to the characterization of hazards of these nanomaterials for both human health and the environment. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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