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News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Obesity, or a high fat diet, can lead to changes in the immune system similar to those observed with aging. That's what research published this week in Experimental Physiology suggests. The research was carried out by scientists at Liverpool John Moores University in the United Kingdom and the Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition of the Spanish National Research Council (ICTAN-CSIC), the University Complutense of Madrid and the Research Institute of the Hospital 12 de Octubre, in Spain. These findings are useful as they help scientists understand the impact of obesity on our body's ability to fight infection. They also found that it was possible to reverse some of these effects by supplementing the diet with unsaturated fatty acids found in vegetable oils, such as olive or fish oils. Obesity affects one in four adults in the UK and can lead to a number of serious and potentially life-threatening conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, some types of cancer, and stroke1. The researchers fed mice a high-fat diet, causing them to become obese. Signs of oxidative stress and certain properties of immune cells indicated aging of the immune system. These obese mice were then split into groups and received food supplemented either with 2-hydroxyoleic acid or omega-3 fatty acids for eight weeks. 'This is the first study, at least to our knowledge, to suggest the efficacy of 2-hydroxyoleic acid for reversing obesity-associated immune alterations and improving oxidative stress.' 2. Full paper title: Oxidative stress and immunosenescence in spleen of obese mice can be reversed by 2-hydroxyoleic acid DOI: 10.1113/EP086157 Link to paper http://onlinelibrary. (link will only work after the embargo date. Before then please email the press office for a copy of the paper) 3. Experimental Physiology publishes translation and integration of research, specifically manuscripts that deal with both physiological and pathophysiological questions that investigate gene/protein function using molecular, cellular and whole animal approaches. http://ep. 4. The Physiological Society brings together over 3,500 scientists from over 60 countries. The Society promotes physiology with the public and parliament alike. It supports physiologists by organising world-class conferences and offering grants for research and also publishes the latest developments in the field in its three leading scientific journals, The Journal of Physiology, Experimental Physiology and Physiological Reports. http://www. 5. Limitations: The study needs to be reproduced in humans to confirm the results

Panzella L.,University of Naples Federico II | Cerruti P.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Ambrogi V.,University of Naples Federico II | Agustin-Salazar S.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 8 more authors.
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering | Year: 2016

Treatment with boiling 6 M HCl increases up to 30 times the intrinsic antioxidant potency of spent coffee grounds, leading to a versatile multifunctional material (hydrolyzed spent coffee grounds, HSCG). Spectral and morphological analyses suggest that the remarkable potentiation of the antioxidant activity is due to efficient removal of the hydrolyzable components, mainly carbohydrates, making the polyphenol-rich component available for interaction with free radicals and oxidizing species. HSCG efficiently protects hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells from oxidative stress-induced injury and delays lipid peroxidation in fish and soybean oils. Moreover, films made of polyethylene/2% HSCG blends display greater stability to thermal and photo-oxidative degradation. HSCG may thus represent an easily accessible and sustainable alternative to currently available biomaterials with intrinsic antioxidant properties for biomedical, industrial, and technological applications. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Panzella L.,University of Naples Federico II | Verotta L.,University of Milan | Goya L.,ICTAN | Ramos S.,ICTAN | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Novel polyfunctionalized antioxidants, 5-S-lipoylhydroxytyrosol (1) and its disulfide 2, trisulfide 3, and tetrasulfide 4, were prepared from tyrosol and dihydrolipoic acid in the presence, when appropriate, of sulfur. Compound 1 exhibited significant activity in the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay (1.60 Trolox equiv), whereas polysulfides 2-4 were more efficient in the DPPH reduction assay (88-93% reduction vs 68% by Trolox). At 10 μM concentration, all compounds 1-4 proved to be efficient hydroxyl radical scavengers (56-69% inhibition) in a Fenton reaction assay. When administered to human HepG2 cells, 1-4 proved to be nontoxic and exhibited marked protective effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (60-84% inhibition at 1 μM concentration) and cell damage induced by 400 μM tert- butylhydroperoxide. All compounds 1-4 exhibited overall greater antioxidant activity than hydroxytyrosol. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Arranz S.,ICTAN | Silvan J.M.,ICTAN | Saura-Calixto F.,ICTAN
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2010

Scope: Dietary polyphenols (PP) can be divided into two groups: extractable polyphenols (EPP) or compounds solubilized by aqueous organic solvents, and nonextractable polyphenols (NEPP) or compounds that remain in their corresponding extraction residues. Most studies on food polyphenols and dietary intakes address exclusively EPP. The objective of this work was to determine the actual amount of PP, including NEPP, in food and in a whole diet.Methods and results: HPLC-MS analyses were performed to identify EPP in methanol-acetone extracts and NEPP in the acidic hydrolyzates of their extraction residues in cereals, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes. NEPP contents, estimated as hydrolyzable PP plus nonextractable proanthocyanidins (PA), ranged from 880 mg/100 g dry weight in fruits to 210 mg/100 g in cereals and were substantially higher than the contents of EPP. NEPP intake (day/person) in the Spanish diet (942 mg) is higher than EPP intake (258 mg) fruits and vegetables (746 mg) are the major contributors to the total PP intake (1201 mg).Conclusion: Non extractable polyphenols are the major part of dietary polyphenols. The knowledge of intakes and physiological properties of NEPP may be useful for a better understanding of the potential health effects of dietary PP. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Most analytical studies on polyphenols in cereals refer to compounds determined in aqueous-organic extracts and alkali hydrolysates, but an appreciable amount of polyphenols bound to cell wall constituents may remain insoluble in the residues of extraction and alkali hydrolysis. The main objective of this work was to determine if sulphuric acid hydrolysis may release significant amounts of polyphenols to be considered for analytical and nutritional studies. HPLC/MS analyses of polyphenols were performed in methanol-acetone extracts, alkali and sulphuric acid hydrolysates of wheat flour, bran and a pool of cereals of the diet. The amount of polyphenols found in the acidic hydrolysates (200-1600 mg/100 g) was higher than in alkali hydrolysates (0.2-372 mg/100 g). Lower amount of polyphenols were found in the methanol-acetone extracts (44-160 mg/100 g). Hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, cinammic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids were the main constituents of the hydrolysates. The contribution of cereals to the intake of dietary polyphenols in Spain was estimated around 360 mg/person/day (65 mg of extractable and 295 mg nonextractable polyphenols). It was concluded that the acidic hydrolysis, usually omitted in analysis of polyphenols in cereals, may be allow to obtain polyphenol contents closer to the actual values. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | ICTAN
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2010

The content of polyphenols in fruits reported in the literature normally refers to extractable polyphenols (EPP) analyzed in aqueous-organic extracts. However, significant amounts of bioactive compounds that are usually not considered in nutritional studies remain in the residue from extraction as nonextractable polyphenols (NEPP). The main objective of this work was to analyze both EPP and NEPP (hydrolyzable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins). EPP were analyzed in methanol/acetone/water extracts, and NEPP were determined in acidic hydrolysates of extraction residue from apple, peach, and nectarine using HPLC-MS and spectrophotometry. Results showed that the NEPP content (112-126 mg/100 g of fresh fruit) was higher than the EPP content (18.8-28 mg/100 g of fresh fruit). Further analyses of NEPP in other fruits and plant foods consumed in diets are needed to compile a complete database of use for nutritional and biological studies.

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