Gwaltney C.,Brown University |
Coons S.J.,Critical Path Institute |
O'Donohoe P.,CRF Health |
O'Gorman H.,Exco InTouch |
And 3 more authors.
Therapeutic Innovation and Regulatory Science | Year: 2015
Field-based patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessments, including measures of signs, symptoms, and events that are administered outside of the research clinic, can be critical in evaluating the efficacy and safety of new medical treatments. Collection of this type of data commonly involves providing subjects with stand-alone electronic devices, such as smartphones, that they can use to respond to assessments in their home or work environment. Although this approach has proven useful, it is also limited in several ways: For example, provisioning stand-alone devices can be costly for sponsors, and requiring subjects to carry a device that is exclusively dedicated to the study can be burdensome. The “Bring Your Own Device” (BYOD) approach, in which subjects use their own smartphone or Internet-enabled device to complete field-based PRO assessments, addresses many of these concerns. However, the BYOD model has its own limitations that should be considered. In this article, representatives of the ePRO Consortium review operational, privacy/security, and scientific/regulatory considerations regarding BYOD. We hope that this review will allow researchers to make informed decisions when choosing methods to collect field-based PRO data in future clinical trials. Additionally, we hope that the discussion in this article will establish a research agenda for further examination of BYOD approaches. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015. Source
Desantes J.M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia |
Salvador F.J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia |
Carreres M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia |
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering | Year: 2015
The cavitation phenomenon has a strong influence on the internal flow and spray development in diesel injector nozzles. Despite its importance, there are many aspects which still remain unclear, especially for partial needle lifts when the injector is in the opening and closing phases. For that reason, the current paper is focused on the influence of the needle lift on the internal flow in a diesel nozzle. This study was carried out with three-dimensional simulations at a high injection pressure (160 MPa) using a homogeneous equilibrium model implemented in OpenFOAM to model the cavitation phenomenon. The nozzle was simulated with large-eddy simulation methods at six different needle lifts (10 μm, 30 μm, 50 μm, 75 μm, 100 μm and 250 μm), providing relevant information about the evolution of the internal flow, the turbulence development (the vorticity, the turbulence-cavitation interaction and the turbulent structures) and the flow characteristics in the nozzle outlet (the mass flow, the momentum flux and the effective velocity) with the needle position. © IMechE 2014. Source
Clemens T.,OMV |
Tsikouris K.,ICON |
Buchgraber M.,Stanford University |
Castanier L.,Stanford University |
Kovscek A.,Stanford University
SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering | Year: 2013
The recovery of viscous oil can be significantly improved by injecting polymer solutions. The processes leading to increased oil production occur on a large scale-improving vertical and areal sweep efficiency-but they begin on a microscale. Micromodels with realistic pore geometries have been created. These micromodels were saturated with viscous oil, and the displacement of the oil by water and polymer solutions was investigated experimentally. Polymer injection reduced fingering compared with water injection and increased sweep efficiency accordingly. The micromodel pore-network geometry was digitized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The digitized model was used to perform computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) simulation of the displacement processes. The displacement efficiencies and displacement patterns of the CFD simulations with water, polymer solutions, and polymer solutions after water breakthrough at the outlet end to displace oil were very similar to the results of the micromodel experiments. Then, the CFD simulations were used to investigate the displacement at the pore scale. Water injection leads to the creation of fingers along slightly more-permeable flow paths. The number and length of the fingers decrease if polymer solution is injected. Even for polymer injection after water breakthrough, the fingering is reduced, polymer solutions are diverted into less-favorable flow paths, and sweep efficiency is increased. CFD simulations can also be used to look into non-Newtonian fluid behavior at the pore scale. The polymers injected in the micromodel experiments exhibited shear-thinning behavior. On a pore scale, CFD simulations showed that the shear stress and viscosity of the polymer solutions accordingly are significantly lower in the pore throats than in the pores. Thus, the displacement efficiency of the polymer solutions is affected by the shear-thinning behavior. The CFD simulations are in remarkable agreement with the micromodel experiments and can be used to quantify the displacement processes at pore scale. Copyright © 2013 Society of Petroleum Engineers. Source
Icon | Date: 2011-12-02
Physical fitness equipment, namely, Chest machines, leg extension machines, lat/high row machines, leg curl machines, leg press machines, fly/rear delt machines, hip abduction/adduction machines, shoulder machines, bicep curl machines, tricep machines, assisted dip chin machines, calf extension machines, prone leg curl machines, back extension machines, lateral raise machines, seated row machines, rotary torso machines, abdominal machines, glute machines, plate-loaded machines, plate-loaded leg press, military press machines, weight lifting benches, weight racks, 45 degree back extension machine.
Icon | Date: 1996-02-27
shirts, dresses and pants.