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Singh N.K.,Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied science | Chhillar N.,Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied science | Banerjee B.D.,University of Delhi | Bala K.,Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied science | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias

Objectives: The aim was to examine the gene environment (GxE) interaction with reference to APO E genotypes, serum lipids and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as one of the factors in the etiology of Alzheimers disease (AD). Methods: A case control study was used to examine, APOE HhaI polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/PCRrestriction fragment length polymorphism method, serum lipids by autoanalyser and OCPs by gas chromatography (GC). Results: APOE ε4 allele frequency was significantly high (p=0.000, OR=5.73, CI=2.68-12.50) in AD as compared to controls. The serum cholesterol, β- hexachlorocyclohexane and dieldrin are risk factors for AD independent of the APOE ε4 risk allele, recording an odds ratio of 1.16, 11.38 and 10.45 respectively. Conclusion: GxE interactions exist with APOE ε4 allele status that need to be considered for the study design and analysis of such data in future studies of AD © The Author(s) 2012. Source

Singhal S.,Maulana Azad Medical College | Kohaar I.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO | Bharadwaj M.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO | Shukla D.K.,ICMR | And 2 more authors.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences

The key elements that determine the host response to either the self-limited or a severe fulminant form of liver disease are unclear. We have investigated the potential association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) in their susceptibility to acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) patients exhibiting specific viral etiology. A total of 124 individuals including 64 cases comprising 27 FHF, 37 AVH, and 60 healthy controls were recruited. SNPs at -238 (G/A), -308 (G/A), -857 (C/T), and -863 (C/A) of TNFα were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed by direct sequencing. Serum levels of TNFα were determined at admission and death or recovery. Association between the TNFα genotype and susceptibility to FHF was not evident; however, carrier genotypes in relation to the -308 (GA/AA) and -857 (CT/TT) loci were found to be significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with susceptibility to AVH in relation to controls. The mean TNFα serum levels at admission were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in FHF than AVH patients, but no marked difference was observed between FHF-E (expired; n = 17) and FHF-S (survivors; n = 10), though the former were comparatively higher. This study suggests that SNPs at -308 and -857 of the TNFα promoter may represent an increased risk for the development of AVH but not for FHF in the Indian population. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Singh P.,National JALMA Institute for Leprosy & Other Mycobacterial Diseases ICMR | Katoch V.M.,ICMR | Mohanty K.K.,National JALMA Institute for Leprosy & Other Mycobacterial Diseases ICMR | Chauhan D.S.,National JALMA Institute for Leprosy & Other Mycobacterial Diseases ICMR
Indian Journal of Medical Research

Background & objectives: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) has four homologous mammalian cell entry (mce) operons (mce1-4) that encode exported proteins and have a possible role in the virulence mechanism of this pathogen. The expression of mce operon is considered to be complex and not completely understood. Although expression of mce operon at different in vitro growth phases has been studied earlier, its expression in different M. tuberculosis isolates under different growth phases is not yet studied. The present preliminary study was conducted on a limited number of isolates to know the trend of expression pattern of mce operon genes in different M. tuberculosis isolates under different growth stages. Methods: In this study, we monitored the transcriptional profile of selected mce operon genes (mce1A, mce1D, mce2A, mce2D, mce3A, mce3C) in different M.tuberculosis isolates (MDR1, MDR2, and sensitive isolate) at early exponential and stationary phases using real-time quantitative PCR. Results: The expression ratio of all selected mce operon genes in all M. tuberculosis isolates was reduced at the initial phase and increased substantially at a later phase of growth. Higher expression of mce1 operon genes was found in all M. tuberculosis isolates as compared to other mce operon genes (mce2 and mce3 operons) at stationary growth phase. Interpretation & conclusions: The higher expression of mce operon genes at stationary phase (as compared to early exponential phase) suggested growth phase dependent expression of mce operon genes. This indicated that the mce operon genes might have a role in M. tuberculosis survival and adaptation on the onset of adverse condition like stationary phase. Identification of differentially expressed genes will add to our understanding of the bacilli involved in adaptation to different growth conditions. © 2016, Indian Journal of Medical Research. All rights reserved. Source

Tandon M.,Vardhman Mahavir Medical College | Panwar P.,Vardhman Mahavir Medical College | Garg P.,Vardhman Mahavir Medical College | Chintamani,Vardhman Mahavir Medical College | Siraj F.,ICMR
Breast Disease

The genetic link between neurofibromatosis and breast cancer has recently intrigued the researchers and breast practitioners alike. While the association is well established in females, the same cannot be said for the male breast cancer due to paucity of cases. With only two cases reported previously, our knowledge is sparse. We hereby report two cases of male breast cancer with neurofibromatosis. © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Singh S.,ICMR | Paul K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Yadav G.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Prasad S.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
HEALTHINF 2016 - 9th International Conference on Health Informatics, Proceedings; Part of 9th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, BIOSTEC 2016

The simplified Partograph is a concise charting mechanism used by skilled birth attendants for recording and communicating the important parameters and developments during the labour process. Compliance and correct plotting of partographs may be significantly improved with the use of technology. This paper reports the development of an Android-based smart phone/tablet application to plot the partograph. To date such a complete application is not available. We envisage that over a period of time, systematic plotting of partographs will encourage providers to use it as a decision-making tool and thereby reduce morbidity and mortality both of mother and foetus/newborn arising out of complications during labour and its sequelae. Copyright © 2016 by SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved. Source

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