Puerto Real, Spain
Puerto Real, Spain

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Navarro-Ortega A.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Acuna V.,ICRA | Batalla R.J.,UdL CTFC | Blasco J.,ICMAN CSIC | And 15 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2012

Introduction: The Consolider-Ingenio 2010 project SCARCE, with the full title "Assessing and predicting effects on water quantity and quality in Iberian Rivers caused by global change" aims to examine and predict the relevance of global change on water availability, water quality, and ecosystem services in Mediterranean river basins of the Iberian Peninsula, as well as their socio-economic impacts. Starting in December 2009, it brought together a multidisciplinary team of 11 partner Spanish institutions, as well as the active involvement of water authorities, river basin managers, and other relevant agents as stakeholders. Methods: The study areas are the Llobregat, Ebro, Jucar, and Guadalquivir river basins. These basins have been included in previous studies and projects, the majority of whom considered some of the aspects included in SCARCE but individually. Historical data will be used as a starting point of the project but also to obtain longer time series. The main added value of SCARCE project is the inclusion of scientific disciplines ranging from hydrology, geomorphology, ecology, chemistry, and ecotoxicology, to engineering, modeling, and economy, in an unprecedented effort in the Mediterranean area. The project performs data mining, field, and lab research as well as modeling and upscaling of the findings to apply them to the entire river basin. Results: Scales ranging from the laboratory to river basins are addressed with the potential to help improve river basin management. The project emphasizes, thus, linking basic research and management practices in a single framework. In fact, one of the main objectives of SCARCE is to act as a bridge between the scientific and the management and to transform research results on management keys and tools for improving the River Basin Management Plans. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities conducted within the ten Work Packages of SCARCE. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Cabrita E.,University of Algarve | Martinez-Paramo S.,University of Algarve | Gavaia P.J.,University of Algarve | Riesco M.F.,University of León | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

With this review we try to give a comprehensive overview of the current methods used in research to assess sperm quality. In addition, we identify some of the most important factors for enhancing sperm production and quality, including, broodstock nutrition, epigenetics and sperm management (cryopreservation). Sperm quality can be assessed by analyzing different parameters from simple methods to very sophisticated approaches involving molecular tools. Parameters related with sperm composition or function (e.g. spermatozoa plasma membrane lipids, seminal plasma composition, motility activation) have successfully characterized a sperm sample but could not respond to the causes behind sperm defects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the causes of the impairment of sperm traits. High contents of ROS are capable of producing cell apoptosis, DNA strand breakages, mitochondria function impairment, and changes in membrane composition due to sugars, lipids, and amino acid oxidation, affecting at later times sperm fertilization ability. Recently, the importance of spermatozoa RNAs in the fertilization and early embryo development has been clearly demonstrated in different species, including fish. Spermatozoa delivers more than the paternal genome into the oocyte, carrying also remnant mRNA from spermatogenesis. These RNAs have been found in sperm from human, rodent, bovine, and recently in several fish species, demonstrating the important predictive value of spermatozoa transcripts present only in those samples with high motility or from males with higher reproductive performance. The content of those transcripts can be changed during gametogenesis process influencing their content in spermatozoa.We will focus this review on sperm quality markers, in new trends on sperm analysis, and in the use of these tools for the identification of factors enhancing gamete quality. Basic research in this field is helping to develop appropriate quality evaluation methodologies and early biomarkers of reproductive success, with potential future industrial applications. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Perera E.,University of Habana | Rodriguez-Viera L.,University of Habana | Perdomo-Morales R.,Center for Pharmaceuticals Research and Development | Montero-Alejo V.,Center for Pharmaceuticals Research and Development | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology | Year: 2015

Trypsin enzymes have been studied in a wide variety of animal taxa due to their central role in protein digestion as well as in other important physiological and biotechnological processes. Crustacean trypsins exhibit a high number of isoforms. However, while differences in properties of isoenzymes are known to play important roles in regulating different physiological processes, there is little information on this aspect for decapod trypsins. The aim of this review is to integrate recent findings at the molecular level on trypsin enzymes of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus, into higher levels of organization (biochemical, organism) and to interpret those findings in relation to the feeding ecology of these crustaceans. Trypsin in lobster is a polymorphic enzyme, showing isoforms that differ in their biochemical features and catalytic efficiencies. Molecular studies suggest that polymorphism in lobster trypsins may be non-neutral. Trypsin isoenzymes are differentially regulated by dietary proteins, and it seems that some isoenzymes have undergone adaptive evolution coupled with a divergence in expression rate to increase fitness. This review highlights important but poorly studied issues in crustaceans in general, such as the relation among trypsin polymorphism, phenotypic (digestive) flexibility, digestion efficiency, and feeding ecology. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Satellite-borne sensors are an ideal tool for remotely assessing a number of water quality parameters that determine the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. For example, chlorophyll and total suspended solids in a body of water are critical variables for determining primary production and can help characterize nutrient loading and sediment dynamics. Water-leaving radiance was extracted from the images at the corresponding positions and compared to the measured TSS. Regular synoptic observations of the intensity and structure of river runoff in a range of meteorological and oceanographic conditions will improve researchers' understanding of coastal sediment dynamics and contribute to the effective management of transitional waters. DEIMOS-1 is likely to be a very valuable tool that will complement regional monitoring programs, as it has a wide variety of applications in coastal research, including identifying flood areas, estuarine sediment dynamics and coastal vegetation abundance, as well as the ability to collect images on demand.

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