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Nairobi, Kenya

Silkey M.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Homan T.,Wageningen University | Maire N.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Maire N.,University of Basel | And 6 more authors.
Trials | Year: 2016

Background: Many interventions against infectious diseases have geographically diffuse effects. This leads to contamination between arms in cluster-randomized trials (CRTs). Pathogen elimination is the goal of many intervention programs against infectious agents, but contamination means that standard CRT designs and analyses do not provide inferences about the potential of interventions to interrupt pathogen transmission at maximum scale-up. Methods: A generic model of disease transmission was used to simulate infections in stepped wedge cluster-randomized trials (SWCRTs) of a transmission-reducing intervention, where the intervention has spatially diffuse effects. Simulations of such trials were then used to examine the potential of such designs for providing generalizable causal inferences about the impact of such interventions, including measurements of the contamination effects. The simulations were applied to the geography of Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria, Kenya, the site of the SolarMal trial on the use of odor-baited mosquito traps to eliminate Plasmodium falciparum malaria. These were used to compare variants in the proposed SWCRT designs for the SolarMal trial. Results: Measures of contamination effects were found that could be assessed in the simulated trials. Inspired by analyses of trials of insecticide-treated nets against malaria when applied to the geography of the SolarMal trial, these measures were found to be robust to different variants of SWCRT design. Analyses of the likely extent of contamination effects supported the choice of cluster size for the trial. Conclusions: The SWCRT is an appropriate design for trials that assess the feasibility of local elimination of a pathogen. The effects of incomplete coverage can be estimated by analyzing the extent of contamination between arms in such trials, and the estimates also support inferences about causality. The SolarMal example illustrates how generic transmission models incorporating spatial smoothing can be used to simulate such trials for a power calculation and optimization of cluster size and randomization strategies. The approach is applicable to a range of infectious diseases transmitted via environmental reservoirs or via arthropod vectors. © 2016 Silkey et al. Source

Haas F.,ICIPE | Hwen J.T.C.,12a Princess of Wales Road | Tang H.B.,Blk 442
Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny | Year: 2012

The wing unfolding in Dermaptera is re-analysed for two species, Auchenomus sp. (Spongiphoridae) and Timomenus lugens (Bormans, 1894) (Forficulidae), based on several digital movie sequences made in the earwigs' natural environment. The frames were separated and numbered sequentially to establish the time line of unfolding and (where available) folding. It is shown that the steps described earlier in contributions of the first author are confirmed, with the exception of the drivers. It has been assumed that the cerci are essential to unfold the wings. The current contribution clearly shows that this is not the case in all species: the wings can be unfolded without involvement of any other body part. In all examined sequences the wing packages are unfolded without any involvement of the cerci. Thus the Dermaptera are heterogeneous in this respect and this new finding is discussed in a behavioural and phylogenetic context. © Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung. Source

Moyal P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Tokro P.,University Of Cocody | Bayram A.,Dicle University | Savopoulou-Soultani M.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | And 6 more authors.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2011

The major pest of maize in Mediterranean Europe, the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has a fragmented distribution, north and south of the Sahara. The present study aimed: (1) to clarify the uncertain taxonomic status of the Palearctic and sub-Saharan populations which were first considered as different species and later on as subspecies (Sesamia nonagrioides nonagrioides and Sesamia nonagrioides botanephaga) and (2) to investigate the origin of the Palearctic population which extends from Spain to Iran, outside what is considered typical for this mainly tropical genus. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of both populations using one nuclear and two mitochondrial genes. The sub-Saharan taxon was fragmented in two isolated populations (West and East) whose mitochondrial genes were distant by 2.3%. The Palearctic population was included in the East African clade and its genes were close or identical to those of a population from Central Ethiopia, where the species was discovered for the first time. Similarly, in Africa, the alleles of the nuclear gene were distributed mainly in two West and East clades, whereas some Palearctic alleles belonged to the West clade. The Palearctic population originated therefore from East and West Africa and is the progeny of the cross between these two African populations. The main species concepts were in agreement, leading to the conclusion that the three populations are still conspecific. In the surveyed regions, the species therefore does not include two subspecies but three isolated populations. The Palearctic population suffered from severe bottlenecks that resulted in the fixation of one East African mitochondrial genome and the large reduction in its genetic diversity compared to the African populations. The data suggest that natural colonization of the Palearctic region was more plausible than human introduction. The allelic distribution of the Palearctic population was similar to that of species that survived the last glaciation. It is concluded that the African populations expanded during the last interglacial, crossed the Sahara and mixed in North Africa where fixation of the East mitochondrial genome occurred. The species then colonized Europe westward through only one eastern entrance. The coalescent-based estimate of the time to the ancestor of the Palearctic population was 108000 years, which is consistent with this scenario. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London. Source

Deletre E.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Martin T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Campagne P.,ICIPE | Bourguet D.,Montpellier SupAgro | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. © 2013 Deletre et al. Source

Tworzydlo W.,Jagiellonian University | Bilinski S.M.,Jagiellonian University | Kocarek P.,University of Ostrava | Haas F.,ICIPE
Arthropod Structure and Development | Year: 2010

We studied the ovary structure and initial stages of oogenesis in 15 representatives of several dermapteran taxa, including the epizoic Arixeniina. In all examined species, the ovaries are meroistic-polytrophic. The ovaries of the basal taxa ('Pygidicranidae', 'Diplatyidae', and Labiduridae) are composed of elongated ovarioles, attached to short lateral oviducts. In these groups, ovarioles contain several (more than 30) ovarian follicles in a linear arrangement. In the Eudermaptera, the ovaries are composed of 1-6 (Spongiphoridae) or 20-40 (Forficulidae, Chelisochidae) short ovarioles (containing 2 ovarian follicles only) that open to strongly elongated lateral oviducts. In all investigated dermapterans, the ovarian follicles are composed of two germline cells only: an oocyte and a polyploid nurse cell that are covered by a simple follicular epithelium. Our studies indicate that despite a rather unique morphology of the ovarian follicles in the examined species, the processes leading to the formation of the oocyte and nurse cell units are significantly different in basal versus derived taxa. The ovaries of Arixenia esau are composed of 3 short ovarioles attached to a strongly dilated lateral oviduct, 'the uterus', containing developing embryos. Histological analysis suggests that the origin of the oocyte and nurse cell units in this species follows the pattern described in eudermapterans. The interpretation of our results in an evolutionary context supports the monophyly of the Dermaptera and Eudermaptera, and the inclusion of the Arixeniina and Hemimerina in the latter taxon. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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