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Voronina E.P.,Universitetskaya Nab 1 | Suzumoto A.Y.,Ichthyology
Journal of Ichthyology | Year: 2017

A new genus of righteye flounder, Samaretta gen. nov., is described from two specimens (one female and one juvenile) collected in deep waters (470–512 m) from submarine mountains of the southern eastern Pacific. The type species of the new genus, Samaretta perexilis, is characterized by unremarkable (i.e., not elongated) anterior dorsal fin rays, four pectoral fin rays, six parapophyses, reduced lateral line canals, a very slender body, large head and eyes, and minute scales. An updated key to the samarid genera is presented. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Eschmeyer W.N.,California Academy of Sciences | Eschmeyer W.N.,Research Associate | Fricke R.,Ichthyology | Fong J.D.,California Academy of Sciences | Polack D.A.,Halfway House 1685
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

The increase in knowledge of marine fish biodiversity over the last 250 years is assessed. The Catalog of Fishes database (http://research.calacademy. org/ichthyology/catalog) on which this study is based, has been maintained for 25 years and includes information on more than 50,000 available species names of fishes, with more than 31,000 of them currently regarded as valid species. New marine species are being described at a rate of about 100-150 per year, with freshwater numbers slightly higher. In addition, over 10,000 generic names are available ones of which 3,118 are deemed valid for marine fishes (as of Feb. 19, 2010). This report concentrates on fishes with at least some stage of their life cycle in the sea. The number of valid marine species, about 16,764 (Feb. 19, 2010), is about equal to that of freshwater fishes (15,170). Valid species of fishes apparently restricted to brackish water number only 108. The sum (32,042) is more than the current total number of 31,362, valid species of fishes because some species occur in more than one habitat. Presented is information on the description of species and genera over historic time, the authors describing taxa, and the deemed validity of described species and genera. We characterize families and also geographic areas where marine fishes are relatively well known and those where much discovery appears to remain. Endemism is also discussed. As examples, the marine fish faunas of the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Mascarene Islands are shown to be well known. Little new discovery has been found recently at the family level, and new discoveries of species and genera are mostly limited to certain families and geographic areas and habitats. Specialized collecting techniques are discussed. Overall success rates for valid species discovery through time has only been about 50%, or two species described for each valid one recognized; however this percentage has been improving over time. Because of recent improvements in technology, literature availability, quality of analysis, better communication, and other factors, the current success rate for validity of species is well over 90% (with a small lag time as status is confirmed or rejected by the ichthyological community). Two habitats where most new marine taxa will likely be found are deep-reefs and deep-slopes, areas poorly sampled and studied. Some deep-sea areas, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere and throughout the Indian Ocean and in Indonesia, should reveal many new taxa from increased collecting efforts. Molecular genetic studies are proving valuable in phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses as well as in species' population analyses, but these relatively new techniques are not uncovering large numbers of new or cryptic taxa. An estimate of marine fish species yet to be sampled and described is about 5,000, or twice the number described in the last 19 years, for a projected total of approximately 21,800 valid marine species of fishes. © 2010 Magnolia Press.


Pseudopataecus carnatobarbatus, new species, is described from 12 specimens collected on shallow coastal reefs of northern Western Australia, between the Monte Bello Islands and Adele Island. It is distinguished from its sole congener, P. taenianotus Johnson 2004, by branched (versus simple) tips to most fin rays, last soft dorsal-fin ray joined by membrane more fully to upper caudal-fin ray, spinous dorsal fin more distinctly notched, pelvic fins more robust, anterior face of lower lip smooth (versus profusely covered with cirri), and a narrow quadrangular pit on the forehead, bounded by frontal, supraorbital, ocular and preocular ridges (versus pit and preocular ridge absent). It also has modally fewer anal-fin rays and modally greater numbers of gill rakers. Pseudopataecus carnatobarbatus is found in an extremely high tidal range area of Australia, where movement of up to 11 m occurs during spring tides. Specimens were collected in rocky tide pools with coral rubble and thick stands of brown macroalgae, especially Padina species. The new species has been found in intertidal areas up to only 13 m deep, whereas P. ta e - nianotus has been collected by trawling soft bottom habitats in depths of 20 to 63 m. Copyright © 2012.


News Article | February 23, 2017
Site: phys.org

Two specimens of the catfish were caught in its namesake river, the Orinoco, near Ciudad Guyana in Venezuela during the US-Venezuelan Orinoco Delta Expeditions of 1978-79. But this isn't Pokemon: You don't suddenly identify a new animal once it's in hand—even if you already have a pretty good idea what it is. "We knew what these fish were upon capture," said John Lundberg, PhD, emeritus professor in Drexel's College of Arts and Sciences and emeritus curator of the Academy, who was a part of the expedition. "But the devil is in the details." Careful examination and comparison of existing species must be done to properly identify a new animal species, and that's something that can take some time. Being that there are only two known specimens collected, both held in the Ichthyology Collection of the Academy, there wasn't going to be much outside help coming to Lundberg or the lead author of the paper identifying M. orinoco, Tiago Carvalho, an Academy researcher who is also a faculty member at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. Carvalho and Lundberg were able to describe the fish with help from ichthyological collaborators based in California, Alabama and Brazil One of the main reasons why there are only two specimens of the catfish is its miniature size and preferred habitat. First, the M. orinoco doesn't even measure an inch long. The larger specimen was about 15.6 millimeters long, the smaller measures just under 15. At that size, the nets used to trawl for aquatic specimens most often are not meshed thinly enough to trap them. Second, these fish live at the remote bottom of South America's deep, big rivers. That's an environment that makes finding any kind of life difficult, whether that specimen is big or small. "There is no way to encounter these fish other than by trawling with fine, mesh netting," Lundberg explained. "They are out of reach in lightless, swift-flowing river channels—where current speeds approach two meters per second—although speeds are a little slower right at the bottom. They probably bury themselves in sand much of the time." Living in these dark waters, the M. orinoco, which belong to the family Aspredinidae (banjo catfishes), are uniquely developed for their environment. Almost pigmentless, they also don't have eyes. "Two ideas float about," Lundberg explained. "First, true eyes are expensive to make and maintain, in terms of energy. And these animals are not in a highly productive habitat with unlimited food resources." "Second, eyes without eyelids are potentially a liability in a world of shifting sand where there is no light anyway," he finished. Although it took some time for the fish to get their name, the formal (or official) taxonomic description of M. orinoco is important not only for adding their species to the book of life on Earth, but in that they help establish the guidelines for identifying catfishes in their genus, especially since M. orinoco is only the second known species of Micromyzon. The first, named M. akamai by Lundberg and collaborator John Friel, was discovered in 1993 in the deep channels of the Amazon river in Brazil. "This closely related species pair provides an important example, among others, of the evolutionary and biotic link between fishes inhabiting the largest rivers in South America," Lundberg explained.


News Article | September 9, 2016
Site: news.yahoo.com

At the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in New York City yesterday (Sept. 7), the well-known blue-whale model that seemingly floats overhead in the Milstein Hall of Ocean Life received its annual two-day "spa" treatment to remove a year's accumulation of dust and grime. After the cleaning, the whale model, which is 94 feet (29 meters) long and weighs 21,000 pounds (9,525 kilograms), is now dust-free, and its colors are more vibrant. Dappled lights play over its back, simulating the sun's rays on the ocean surface, while the vast space around the model recalls the open ocean — the blue whales' habitat. Thousands of people watched AMNH's live stream of the cleaning via the museum's Facebook page. [Dangers in the Deep: 10 Scariest Sea Creatures] Technophiles hoping to hear about unique and bizarre cleaning accessories will probably be disappointed to find that the whale patrol used a standard vacuum brush to plow through the dirt, as described by Dean Markosian, director of project management for the AMNH Exhibition Department and supervisor of the annual whale cleaning. "It needs to be a soft bristle attachment that brushes the dust as we vacuum it," Markosian told Live Science. "But there's no special 'whale attachment' that you can buy in a store." Five or six years ago, the cleaners had ascended via temporary scaffolding, which had to be dismantled and moved around the whale to complete the whale "bath," Markosian explained. Now, AMNH Exhibition staff members ascend up to whale height in a special lift. Over the course of two days, they vacuumed dust off the whale's back, starting at the tail and working their way down to the tip of its gigantic head. The blue whale is an iconic exhibit whose popularity has endured for decades. But in addition to the annual dust removal, this fiberglass model has undergone other dramatic changes in recent years — and so has the Hall of Ocean Life, where it lives.  [Iconic Blue Whale at AMNH Gets a Scrubbing] Revisions to both the whale and the hall — AMNH debuted major updates in a 2003 renovation — reflect evolving views of the world's ocean ecosystems and new perspectives on the many forms of life that inhabit them, said Melanie Stiassny, Axelrod Research Curator for the AMNH Department of Ichthyology. When the whale was first installed in 1969, people regarded the ocean and the life it contained in a more utilitarian light, which was reflected in the name of the exhibit hall the whale inhabited. "It used to be known as 'The Hall of Marine Resources,'" Stiassny told Live Science. This human-centric view gradually gave way to a broader appreciation of the ocean as a complex and dominant system in its own right; remodeling the hall represented an updated understanding of ocean life in general, Stiassny explained. At the same time, the whale received a long-overdue makeover. The original model was based on measurements taken by AMNH scientists in the 1920s. The measurements were of a dead female blue whale captured by a whaling station in the southern Atlantic, and although the artists who crafted the whale followed the original records, there were anatomical inaccuracies, likely because the whale that the scientists examined was already decaying. [The World's Biggest Beasts: Here and Gone (Photos)] "It was the wrong color. It had bulging eyes, probably due to decomposition," Stiassny said. In 2001, artists adjusted the body color and flattened the whale's eyes, also adding a navel that had originally been omitted. Today, the AMNH whale resembles living blue whales more closely than before. However, while scientists' knowledge of blue whales has certainly improved, there is still much about these giants that remains elusive. "We still don't know how many blue whales are out there," Stiassny said. "We don't know exactly where they go to breed. They still remain one of the great mysteries of the ocean." And though human understanding of the oceans has also come a long way since the whale model's 1969 debut, blue whales' ocean home remains just as mysterious. "At the time when we renovated the hall, we knew more about the dark side of the moon than we knew about the ocean," Stiassny said. "In many ways, that's still the case." Copyright 2016 LiveScience, a Purch company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.


News Article | February 18, 2017
Site: phys.org

A pair of aquarium-held cichlids of the species Telegramma brichardi. Credit: Oliver Lucanus New DNA-based research provides compelling evidence that a group of strange-looking fish living near the mouth of the Congo River are evolving due to the intense hydraulics of the river's rapids and deep canyons. The study, led by scientists at the American Museum of Natural History, the City University of New York, and Fordham University, reveals that fishes in this part of the river live in "neighborhoods" that are separated from one another by the waters' turbulent flow. In some cases, the researchers found that fishes living less than a mile away from their relatives are actually exchanging very few genes. Many represent distinct species, according to the new study now out in the journal Molecular Ecology. "In this very short section of the Congo, we find a tremendous diversity of fishes," said Melanie Stiassny, Axelrod Research Curator in the Museum's Department of Ichthyology and an author on the study. "We also know that this part of the river is relatively young, originating only about 3 to 5 million years ago. So what is it about this system that makes it such a pump for species?" For the last 10 years, Stiassny and her colleagues, including hydrologists and geologists, have studied the lower Congo River—the final 200-mile stretch of the freshwater river before it empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Exceptional in depth, speed, and turbulence, the lower Congo is home to the world's most extreme rapids. The region is also remarkable for its biodiversity; scientists have identified more than 300 species of fish living there. That diversity has long seemed puzzling to scientists because the lower Congo appeared to lack physical barriers which, if difficult to traverse, are understood to drive speciation by preventing animals from either side from breeding. Over time, this causes each group to develop separately. The new study, which focuses on a group of freshwater, rock-dwelling cichlid fishes of the genus Teleogramma, adds weight to a theory long proposed by Stiassny and other experts: that the dynamic forces of the river itself are acting like barriers, generating diversity by isolating certain fishes from others for so long that their populations travel down different evolutionary paths. "The genetic separation between these fishes show that the rapids are working as strong barriers, keeping them apart," said lead author Elizabeth Alter, from The City University of New York's Graduate Center and York College. "What's particularly unique about the lower Congo is that this diversification is happening over extremely small spatial scales, over distances as small as 1.5 kilometers. There is no other river like it." The researchers analyzed the genomes of more than 50 individual fishes representing each of the different Teleogramma populations found in the lower Congo. They found that their species ranges correspond to geographic regions broadly separated by major hydrological and topographic barriers, indicating that these features are likely important drivers of diversification. The authors also note that there are important conservation implications to this work: about 25 percent of the fish in the lower Congo are endemic, or only found in this particular location. But the area is currently being proposed as a site for major dam development. "Activity like that would majorly interrupt the evolutionary potential of this system," Stiassny said. Jason Munshi-South, from Fordham University, was also an author on this paper. Explore further: Name of new weakly electric fish species reflects hope for peace in Central Africa More information: S. Elizabeth Alter et al, Genomewide SNP data reveal cryptic phylogeographic structure and microallopatric divergence in a rapids-adapted clade of cichlids from the Congo River, Molecular Ecology (2017). DOI: 10.1111/mec.13973


News Article | February 23, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

After almost four decades, an elusive, eyeless catfish measuring less than an inch now has a name and a detailed description, thanks to two scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University: Micromyzon orinoco. Two specimens of the catfish were caught in its namesake river, the Orinoco, near Ciudad Guyana in Venezuela during the US-Venezuelan Orinoco Delta Expeditions of 1978-79. But this isn't Pokemon: You don't suddenly identify a new animal once it's in hand -- even if you already have a pretty good idea what it is. "We knew what these fish were upon capture," said John Lundberg, PhD, emeritus professor in Drexel's College of Arts and Sciences and emeritus curator of the Academy, who was a part of the expedition. "But the devil is in the details." Careful examination and comparison of existing species must be done to properly identify a new animal species, and that's something that can take some time. Being that there are only two known specimens collected, both held in the Ichthyology Collection of the Academy, there wasn't going to be much outside help coming to Lundberg or the lead author of the paper identifying M. orinoco, Tiago Carvalho, an Academy researcher who is also a faculty member at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. Carvalho and Lundberg were able to describe the fish with help from ichthyological collaborators based in California, Alabama and Brazil One of the main reasons why there are only two specimens of the catfish is its miniature size and preferred habitat. First, the M. orinoco doesn't even measure an inch long. The larger specimen was about 15.6 millimeters long, the smaller measures just under 15. At that size, the nets used to trawl for aquatic specimens most often are not meshed thinly enough to trap them. Second, these fish live at the remote bottom of South America's deep, big rivers. That's an environment that makes finding any kind of life difficult, whether that specimen is big or small. "There is no way to encounter these fish other than by trawling with fine, mesh netting," Lundberg explained. "They are out of reach in lightless, swift-flowing river channels -- where current speeds approach two meters per second -- although speeds are a little slower right at the bottom. They probably bury themselves in sand much of the time." Living in these dark waters, the M. orinoco, which belong to the family Aspredinidae (banjo catfishes), are uniquely developed for their environment. Almost pigmentless, they also don't have eyes. "Two ideas float about," Lundberg explained. "First, true eyes are expensive to make and maintain, in terms of energy. And these animals are not in a highly productive habitat with unlimited food resources." "Second, eyes without eyelids are potentially a liability in a world of shifting sand where there is no light anyway," he finished. Although it took some time for the fish to get their name, the formal (or official) taxonomic description of M. orinoco is important not only for adding their species to the book of life on Earth, but in that they help establish the guidelines for identifying catfishes in their genus, especially since M. orinoco is only the second known species of Micromyzon. The first, named M. akamai by Lundberg and collaborator John Friel, was discovered in 1993 in the deep channels of the Amazon river in Brazil. "This closely related species pair provides an important example, among others, of the evolutionary and biotic link between fishes inhabiting the largest rivers in South America," Lundberg explained.


News Article | February 17, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

New DNA-based research provides compelling evidence that a group of strange-looking fish living near the mouth of the Congo River are evolving due to the intense hydraulics of the river's rapids and deep canyons. The study, led by scientists at the American Museum of Natural History, the City University of New York, and Fordham University, reveals that fishes in this part of the river live in "neighborhoods" that are separated from one another by the waters' turbulent flow. In some cases, the researchers found that fishes living less than a mile away from their relatives are actually exchanging very few genes. Many represent distinct species, according to the new study now out in the journal Molecular Ecology. "In this very short section of the Congo, we find a tremendous diversity of fishes," said Melanie Stiassny, Axelrod Research Curator in the Museum's Department of Ichthyology and an author on the study. "We also know that this part of the river is relatively young, originating only about 3 to 5 million years ago. So what is it about this system that makes it such a pump for species?" For the last 10 years, Stiassny and her colleagues, including hydrologists and geologists, have studied the lower Congo River -- the final 200-mile stretch of the freshwater river before it empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Exceptional in depth, speed, and turbulence, the lower Congo is home to the world's most extreme rapids. The region is also remarkable for its biodiversity; scientists have identified more than 300 species of fish living there. That diversity has long seemed puzzling to scientists because the lower Congo appeared to lack physical barriers which, if difficult to traverse, are understood to drive speciation by preventing animals from either side from breeding. Over time, this causes each group to develop separately. The new study, which focuses on a group of freshwater, rock-dwelling cichlid fishes of the genus Teleogramma, adds weight to a theory long proposed by Stiassny and other experts: that the dynamic forces of the river itself are acting like barriers, generating diversity by isolating certain fishes from others for so long that their populations travel down different evolutionary paths. "The genetic separation between these fishes show that the rapids are working as strong barriers, keeping them apart," said lead author Elizabeth Alter, from The City University of New York's Graduate Center and York College. "What's particularly unique about the lower Congo is that this diversification is happening over extremely small spatial scales, over distances as small as 1.5 kilometers. There is no other river like it." The researchers analyzed the genomes of more than 50 individual fishes representing each of the different Teleogramma populations found in the lower Congo. They found that their species ranges correspond to geographic regions broadly separated by major hydrological and topographic barriers, indicating that these features are likely important drivers of diversification. The authors also note that there are important conservation implications to this work: about 25 percent of the fish in the lower Congo are endemic, or only found in this particular location. But the area is currently being proposed as a site for major dam development. "Activity like that would majorly interrupt the evolutionary potential of this system," Stiassny said. Jason Munshi-South, from Fordham University, was also an author on this paper.


News Article | September 14, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers from the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University showed that increased carbon dioxide concentrations alters brain chemistry that may lead to neurological impairment in some fish. Understanding the impacts of increased carbon dioxide levels in the ocean, which causes the ocean to become more acidic, allows scientists to better predict how fish will be impacted by future ocean acidification conditions. "Coral reef fish, which play a vital role in coral reef ecosystems, are already under threat from multiple human and natural stressors," said lead author of the study Rachael Heuer, a UM Rosenstiel School alumna which conducted the study as part of her Ph.D. work. "By specifically understanding how brain and blood chemistry are linked to behavioral disruptions during CO2 exposure, we can better understand not only 'what' may happen during future ocean acidification scenarios, but 'why' it happens." In this study, the researchers designed and conducted a novel experiment to directly measure behavioral impairment and brain chemistry of the Spiny damselfish, (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) a fish commonly found on coral reefs in the western Pacific Ocean. During a three-week period, the scientists collected spiny damselfish from reefs off Lizard Island located on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. The fish were separated into two groups--those exposed to ordinary CO2 "control" conditions and those exposed to elevated CO2 levels that are predicted to occur in the near future, but have already been observed in many coastal and upwelling areas throughout the world. Following the exposure, the fish were subjected to a behavioral test, and brain and blood chemistry were measured. The unique behavioral test, employed a two-choice flume system, where fish were given the choice between control seawater or water containing a chemical alarm cue, which they typically avoid since it represents the smell associated with an injured fish of its own species. The researchers found that the damselfish exposed to elevated carbon dioxide levels were spending significantly more time near the chemical alarm cue than the control fish, a behavior that would be considered abnormal. The measurements of brain and blood chemistry provided further evidence that elevated CO2 caused the altered behavior of the fish. "For the first time, physiological measurements showing altered chemistry in brain and blood have been directly linked to altered behavior in a coral reef fish," said UM Rosenstiel School Maytag Professor of Ichthyology and lead of the RECOVER Project Martin Grosell, the senior author of the study. "Our findings support the idea that fish effectively prevent acidification of internal body fluids and tissues, but that these adjustments lead to downstream effects including impairment of neurological function." "If coral reef fish do not acclimate or adapt as oceans continue to acidify, many will likely experience impaired behavior that could ultimately lead to increased predation risk and to negative impacts on population structure and ecosystem function," said Heuer, currently a postdoctoral researcher at the University of North Texas. "This research supports the growing number of studies indicating that carbon dioxide can drastically alter fish behavior, with the added benefit of providing accurate measurements to support existing hypotheses on why these impairments are occurring."


News Article | February 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

New DNA-based research provides compelling evidence that a group of strange-looking fish living near the mouth of the Congo River are evolving due to the intense hydraulics of the river's rapids and deep canyons. The study, led by scientists at the American Museum of Natural History, the City University of New York, and Fordham University, reveals that fishes in this part of the river live in "neighborhoods" that are separated from one another by the waters' turbulent flow. In some cases, the researchers found that fishes living less than a mile away from their relatives are actually exchanging very few genes. Many represent distinct species, according to the new study now out in the journal Molecular Ecology. "In this very short section of the Congo, we find a tremendous diversity of fishes," said Melanie Stiassny, Axelrod Research Curator in the Museum's Department of Ichthyology and an author on the study. "We also know that this part of the river is relatively young, originating only about 3 to 5 million years ago. So what is it about this system that makes it such a pump for species?" For the last 10 years, Stiassny and her colleagues, including hydrologists and geologists, have studied the lower Congo River -- the final 200-mile stretch of the freshwater river before it empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Exceptional in depth, speed, and turbulence, the lower Congo is home to the world's most extreme rapids. The region is also remarkable for its biodiversity; scientists have identified more than 300 species of fish living there. That diversity has long seemed puzzling to scientists because the lower Congo appeared to lack physical barriers which, if difficult to traverse, are understood to drive speciation by preventing animals from either side from breeding. Over time, this causes each group to develop separately. The new study, which focuses on a group of freshwater, rock-dwelling cichlid fishes of the genus Teleogramma, adds weight to a theory long proposed by Stiassny and other experts: that the dynamic forces of the river itself are acting like barriers, generating diversity by isolating certain fishes from others for so long that their populations travel down different evolutionary paths. "The genetic separation between these fishes show that the rapids are working as strong barriers, keeping them apart," said lead author Elizabeth Alter, from The City University of New York's Graduate Center and York College. "What's particularly unique about the lower Congo is that this diversification is happening over extremely small spatial scales, over distances as small as 1.5 kilometers. There is no other river like it." The researchers analyzed the genomes of more than 50 individual fishes representing each of the different Teleogramma populations found in the lower Congo. They found that their species ranges correspond to geographic regions broadly separated by major hydrological and topographic barriers, indicating that these features are likely important drivers of diversification. The authors also note that there are important conservation implications to this work: about 25 percent of the fish in the lower Congo are endemic, or only found in this particular location. But the area is currently being proposed as a site for major dam development. "Activity like that would majorly interrupt the evolutionary potential of this system," Stiassny said. Jason Munshi-South, from Fordham University, was also an author on this paper. The American Museum of Natural History, founded in 1869, is one of the world's preeminent scientific, educational, and cultural institutions. The Museum encompasses 45 permanent exhibition halls, including those in the Rose Center for Earth and Space and the Hayden Planetarium, as well as galleries for temporary exhibitions. It is home to New York State's official memorial to Theodore Roosevelt, a tribute to Roosevelt's enduring legacy of environmental conservation. The Museum's approximately 200 scientists draw on a world-class research collection of more than 33 million artifacts and specimens, some of which are billions of years old, and on one of the largest natural history libraries in the world. Through its Richard Gilder Graduate School, the Museum grants the Ph.D. degree in Comparative Biology and the Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) degree, the only such program at any museum in the United States. Annual physical attendance has grown to approximately 5 million, and the Museum's exhibitions and Space Shows can be seen in venues on six continents. The Museum's website, digital videos, and apps for mobile devices bring its collections, exhibitions, and educational programs to millions more around the world. Visit amnh.org for more information. Become a fan of the Museum on Facebook at facebook.com/naturalhistory, and follow us on Instagram at @AMNH, Tumblr at amnhnyc, or Twitter at twitter.com/AMNH.

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