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Lakadamyali M.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2014

Super-resolution microscopy is increasingly becoming an important tool for biological research, providing valuable information at the nanometer-length scales inside cells and tissues. In the past decade numerous technological advancements have transformed super-resolution microscopes into powerful tools of discovery. While the first super-resolution images took several hours to acquire, recent progress has led to tremendous improvement in acquisition speed, enabling researchers to probe dynamic processes in living cells with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. This minireview focuses on the recent developments in live-cell super-resolution microscopy and its biological applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Massignan P.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Zaccanti M.,University of Florence | Bruun G.M.,University of Aarhus
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2014

In this review, we discuss the properties of a few impurity atoms immersed in a gas of ultracold fermions - the so-called Fermi polaron problem. On one hand, this many-body system is appealing because it can be described almost exactly with simple diagrammatic and/or variational theoretical approaches. On the other, it provides a quantitatively reliable insight into the phase diagram of strongly interacting population-imbalanced quantum mixtures. In particular, we show that the polaron problem can be applied to the study of itinerant ferromagnetism, a long-standing problem in quantum mechanics. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Giannoula A.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2011

In this paper, the blind restoration of a scene is investigated, when multiple degraded (blurred and noisy) acquisitions are available. An adaptive filtering technique is proposed, where the distorted images are filtered, classified and then fused based upon the classification decisions. Finite normal-density mixture (FNM) models are used to model the filtered outputs at each iteration. For simplicity, fixed number of Gaussian components (classes) is, initially, considered for each degraded frame and the selection of the optimal number of classes is performed according to the global relative entropy criterion. However, there exist cases where dynamically varying FNM models should be considered, where the optimal number of classes is selected according to the Akaike information criterion. The iterative application of classification and fusion, followed by optimal adaptive filtering, converges to a global enhanced representation of the original scene in only a few iterations. The proposed restoration method does not require knowledge of the point-spread-function support size or exact alignment of the acquired frames. Simulation results on synthetic and real data, using both fixed and dynamically varying FNM models, demonstrate its efficiency under both noisy and noise-free conditions. © 2011 IEEE.


Baffou G.,Aix - Marseille University | Quidant R.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Quidant R.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Laser and Photonics Reviews | Year: 2013

Recent years have seen a growing interest in using metal nanostructures to control temperature on the nanoscale. Under illumination at its plasmonic resonance, a metal nanoparticle features enhanced light absorption, turning it into an ideal nano-source of heat, remotely controllable using light. Such a powerful and flexible photothermal scheme is the basis of thermo-plasmonics. Here, the recent progress of this emerging and fast-growing field is reviewed. First, the physics of heat generation in metal nanoparticles is described, under both continuous and pulsed illumination. The second part is dedicated to numerical and experimental methods that have been developed to further understand and engineer plasmonic-assisted heating processes on the nanoscale. Finally, some of the most recent applications based on the heat generated by gold nanoparticles are surveyed, namely photothermal cancer therapy, nano-surgery, drug delivery, photothermal imaging, protein tracking, photoacoustic imaging, nano-chemistry and optofluidics. Recent years have seen a growing interest in using metal nanostructures to control temperature on the nanoscale. Under illumination at its plasmonic resonance, a metal nanoparticle features enhanced light absorption, turning it into an ideal nano-source of heat, remotely controllable using light. Such a powerful and flexible photothermal scheme is the basis of thermo-plasmonics. Here, the recent progress of this emerging and fast-growing field is reviewed. First, the physics of heat generation in metal nanoparticles is described, under both continuous and pulsed illumination. The second part is dedicated to numerical and experimental methods that have been developed to further understand and engineer plasmonic-assisted heating processes on the nanoscale. Finally, some of the most recent applications based on the heat generated by gold nanoparticles are surveyed, namely photothermal cancer therapy, nano-surgery, drug delivery, photothermal imaging, protein tracking, photoacoustic imaging, nano-chemistry and optofluidics. © 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Fritz T.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences
Reviews in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2012

Tsirelson's problem asks whether the set of nonlocal quantum correlations with a tensor product structure for the Hilbert space coincides with the one where only commutativity between observables located at different sites is assumed. Here it is shown that Kirchberg's QWEP conjecture on tensor products of C*-algebras would imply a positive answer to this question for all bipartite scenarios. This remains true also if one considers not only spatial correlations, but also spatiotemporal correlations, where each party is allowed to apply their measurements in temporal succession. We provide an example of a state together with observables such that ordinary spatial correlations are local, while the spatiotemporal correlations reveal nonlocality. Moreover, we find an extended version of Tsirelson's problem which, for each nontrivial Bell scenario, is equivalent to the QWEP conjecture. This extended version can be conveniently formulated in terms of steering the system of a third party. Finally, a comprehensive mathematical appendix offers background material on complete positivity, tensor products of C*-algebras, group C*-algebras, and some simple reformulations of the QWEP conjecture. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

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