ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences

Barcelona, Spain

ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences

Barcelona, Spain
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Home > Press > Graphene and quantum dots put in motion a CMOS-integrated camera that can see the invisible Abstract: Over the past 40 years, microelectronics have advanced by leaps and bounds thanks to silicon and CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide semiconductors) technology, making possible computing, smartphones, compact and low-cost digital cameras, as well as most of the electronic gadgets we rely on today. ICFO researchers have developed the first graphene -- quantum dots -- CMOS integrated based camera, capable of imaging visible and infrared light at the same time. The camera will be useful for many applications that include night vision, food inspection, fire control, vision under extreme weather conditions, to name a few. The imaging system is based on the first monolithic integration of graphene and quantum dot photodetectors with a CMOS read-out integrated circuit. It has proven to be easy and cheap to fabricate at room temperature and under ambient conditions, allowing for low-cost mass-production. Credit: ICFO-The Institute of Photonic Sciences However, the diversification of this platform into applications other than microcircuits and visible light cameras has been impeded by the difficulty to combine semiconductors other than silicon with CMOS. This obstacle has now been overcome. ICFO researchers have shown for the first time the monolithic integration of a CMOS integrated circuit with graphene, resulting in a high-resolution image sensor consisting of hundreds of thousands of photodetectors based on graphene and quantum dots (QD). They operated it as a digital camera that is highly sensitive to UV, visible and infrared light at the same time. This has never been achieved before with existing imaging sensors. In general, this demonstration of monolithic integration of graphene with CMOS enables a wide range of optoelectronic applications, such as low-power optical data communications and compact and ultra sensitive sensing systems. The study was published in Nature Photonics, and highlighted on the front cover image. The work was carried out by ICFO researchers Stijn Goossens, Gabriele Navickaite, Carles Monasterio, Schuchi Gupta, Juan Jose Piqueras, Raul Perez, Gregory Burwell, Ivan Nitkitsky, Tania Lasanta, Teresa Galan, Eric Puma, and led by ICREA Professors Frank Koppens and Gerasimos Konstantatos, in collaboration with the company Graphenea. The graphene-QD image sensor was fabricated by taking PbS colloidal quantum dots, depositing them onto the CVD graphene and subsequently depositing this hybrid system onto a CMOS wafer with image sensor dies and a read-out circuit. As Stijn Goossens comments, "No complex material processing or growth processes were required to achieve this graphene-quantum dot CMOS image sensor. It proved easy and cheap to fabricate at room temperature and under ambient conditions, which signifies a considerable decrease in production costs. Even more, because of its properties, it can be easily integrated on flexible substrates as well as CMOS-type integrated circuits." As ICREA Prof. at ICFO Gerasimos Konstantatos, expert in quantum dot-graphene research comments, "we engineered the QDs to extend to the short infrared range of the spectrum (1100-1900nm), to a point where we were able to demonstrate and detect the night glow of the atmosphere on a dark and clear sky enabling passive night vision. This work shows that this class of phototransistors may be the way to go for high sensitivity, low-cost, infrared image sensors operating at room temperature addressing the huge infrared market that is currently thirsty for cheap technologies". "The development of this monolithic CMOS-based image sensor represents a milestone for low-cost, high-resolution broadband and hyperspectral imaging systems" ICREA Prof. at ICFO Frank Koppens highlights. He assures that "in general, graphene-CMOS technology will enable a vast amount of applications, that range from safety, security, low cost pocket and smartphone cameras, fire control systems, passive night vision and night surveillance cameras, automotive sensor systems, medical imaging applications, food and pharmaceutical inspection to environmental monitoring, to name a few". This project is currently incubating in ICFO's Launchpad. The team is working with the institute's tech transfer professionals to bring this breakthrough along with its full patent portfolio of imaging and sensing technologies to the market. ### This research has been partially supported by the European Graphene Flagship, European Research Council, the Government of Catalonia, Fundació Cellex and the Severo Ochoa Excellence program of the Government of Spain. About ICFO-The Institute of Photonic Sciences ICFO was created in 2002 by the government of Catalonia and the Technical University of Catalonia as a centre of research excellence devoted to the science and technologies of light with a triple mission: to conduct frontier research, train the next generation of scientists, and provide knowledge and technology transfer. Today, it is one of the top research centres worldwide in its category as measured by international rankings. Research at ICFO targets the forefront of science and technology based on light with programs directed at applications in Health, Renewable Energies, Information Technologies, Security and Industrial processes, among others. The institute hosts 400 professionals based in a dedicated building situated in the Mediterranean Technology Park in the metropolitan area of Barcelona. ICFO participates in a large number of projects and international networks of excellence and is host to the NEST program that is financed by Fundación Privada Cellex Barcelona. Ground-breaking research in graphene is being carried out at ICFO and through key collaborative research partnerships such as the FET Graphene Flagship. ICREA Professor at ICFO and NEST Fellow Frank Koppens is the leader of the Optoelectonics work package within the Flagship program. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


Durduran T.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Yodh A.G.,University of Pennsylvania
NeuroImage | Year: 2014

Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) uses the temporal fluctuations of near-infrared (NIR) light to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) non-invasively. Here, we provide a brief history of DCS applications in the brain with an emphasis on the underlying physical ideas, common instrumentation and validation. Then we describe recent clinical research that employs DCS-measured CBF as a biomarker of patient well-being, and as an indicator of hemodynamic and metabolic responses to functional stimuli. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Patent
University of Rome La Sapienza, University of Naples Federico II, ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and National University of Singapore | Date: 2014-12-10

The present invention concerns an ultra-sensitive photonic tiltmeter or goniometer utilizing a novel optical effect named photonic polarization gear effect, based on the orbital angular momentum of the light, to measure with high resolution and sensitivity the roll angle of a rotating object relative to a fixed measurement stage, or to perform related angular measurements. More in detail, the present invention concerns an optical system that uses a pair of photonic devices named q-plates in combination with suitable polarization optics to greatly enhance the measurement sensitivity and resolution of angular measurements based on the polarization of light. Our invention can be combined with all existing methods for the measurement of roll angles based on the polarization of light and results in an enhancement of the corresponding angular resolution and sensitivity.


Manzo C.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Garcia-Parajo M.F.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences
Reports on progress in physics. Physical Society (Great Britain) | Year: 2015

Optical microscopy has for centuries been a key tool to study living cells with minimum invasiveness. The advent of single molecule techniques over the past two decades has revolutionized the field of cell biology by providing a more quantitative picture of the complex and highly dynamic organization of living systems. Amongst these techniques, single particle tracking (SPT) has emerged as a powerful approach to study a variety of dynamic processes in life sciences. SPT provides access to single molecule behavior in the natural context of living cells, thereby allowing a complete statistical characterization of the system under study. In this review we describe the foundations of SPT together with novel optical implementations that nowadays allow the investigation of single molecule dynamic events with increasingly high spatiotemporal resolution using molecular densities closer to physiological expression levels. We outline some of the algorithms for the faithful reconstruction of SPT trajectories as well as data analysis, and highlight biological examples where the technique has provided novel insights into the role of diffusion regulating cellular function. The last part of the review concentrates on different theoretical models that describe anomalous transport behavior and ergodicity breaking observed from SPT studies in living cells.


Durduran T.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences
NeuroImage | Year: 2014

Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) uses the temporal fluctuations of near-infrared (NIR) light to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) non-invasively. Here, we provide a brief history of DCS applications in the brain with an emphasis on the underlying physical ideas, common instrumentation and validation. Then we describe recent clinical research that employs DCS-measured CBF as a biomarker of patient well-being, and as an indicator of hemodynamic and metabolic responses to functional stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Patent
Corning Inc., ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences, Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies | Date: 2016-02-16

Described herein are improved dewetting methods and improved patterned articles produced using such methods. The improved methods and articles generally implement continuous ultra-thin metal-containing films or film stacks as the materials to be dewetted. For example, a method can involve the steps of providing a substrate that has a continuous ultra-thin metal-containing film or film stack disposed on a surface thereof, and dewetting at least a portion of the continuous ultra-thin metal-containing film or film stack to produce a plurality of discrete metal-containing dewetted islands on the surface of the substrate.


Patent
Corning Inc., ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences, Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies | Date: 2015-02-18

A textured article that includes a transparent substrate having at least one primary surface and a glass, glass-ceramic or ceramic composition; a micro-textured surface on the primary surface of the substrate, the micro-textured surface comprising a plurality of hillocks; and a nano-structured surface on the micro-textured surface, the nano-structured surface comprising a plurality of nano-sized protrusions or a multilayer coating comprising a plurality of layers having a nano-scale thickness. Further, the hillocks have an average height of about 10 to about 1000 nm and an average longest lateral cross-sectional dimension of about 1 to about 100 m, and the nano-sized protrusions have an average height of about 10 to about 500 nm and an average longest lateral cross-sectional dimension of about 10 to about 500 nm. The substrate may be chemically strengthened with a compressive stress greater than about 500 MPa and a compressive depth-of-layer greater than about 15 m.


Baffou G.,Aix - Marseille University | Quidant R.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Quidant R.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Noble metal nanoparticles supporting plasmonic resonances behave as efficient nanosources of light, heat and energetic electrons. Owing to these properties, they offer a unique playground to trigger chemical reactions on the nanoscale. In this tutorial review, we discuss how nanoplasmonics can benefit chemistry and review the most recent developments in this new and fast growing field of research. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.


Lakadamyali M.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2014

Super-resolution microscopy is increasingly becoming an important tool for biological research, providing valuable information at the nanometer-length scales inside cells and tissues. In the past decade numerous technological advancements have transformed super-resolution microscopes into powerful tools of discovery. While the first super-resolution images took several hours to acquire, recent progress has led to tremendous improvement in acquisition speed, enabling researchers to probe dynamic processes in living cells with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. This minireview focuses on the recent developments in live-cell super-resolution microscopy and its biological applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Fritz T.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

Bell's theorem witnesses that the predictions of quantum theory cannot be reproduced by theories of local hidden variables in which observers can choose their measurements independently of the source. Working out an idea of Branciard, Rosset, Gisin and Pironio, we consider scenarios which feature several sources, but no choice of measurement for the observers. Every Bell scenario can be mapped into such a correlation scenario, and Bell's theorem then discards those local hidden variable theories in which the sources are independent. However, most correlation scenarios do not arise from Bell scenarios, and we describe examples of (quantum) non-locality in some of these scenarios, while posing many open problems along the way. Some of our scenarios have been considered before by mathematicians in the context of causal inference. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

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