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Johnson C.J.,Cancer Data Registry of Idaho | Hahn C.G.,Office of Epidemiology | Fink A.K.,ICF Macro | German R.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology | Year: 2012

Death certificates are the source for mortality statistics and are used to set public health goals. Accurate death certificates are vital in tracking outcomes of cancer. Deaths may be certified by physicians or other medical professionals, coroners, or medical examiners. Idaho is one of 3 states that participated in a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded study to assess the concordance between cancer-specific causes of death and primary cancer site among linked cancer registry/death certificate data. We investigated variability in the accuracy of cancer death certificates by characteristics of death certifiers, including certifier type (physician vs coroner), physician specialty, years of experience as death certifier, and number of deaths certified. This study showed significant differences by certifier type/physician specialty in the accuracy of cancer mortality measured by death certificates. Nonphysician coroners had lower accuracy rates compared with physicians. Although nonphysician coroners certified less than 5% of cancer deaths in Idaho, they were significantly less likely to match the primary site from the cancer registry. Results from this study may be useful in the future training of death certifiers to improve the accuracy of death certificates and cancer mortality statistics. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Bernabeo E.C.,American Board of Internal Medicine | Holtman M.C.,ICF Macro | Ginsburg S.,University of Toronto | Rosenbaum J.R.,Yale University | Holmboe E.S.,American Board of Internal Medicine
Academic Medicine | Year: 2011

Purpose The traditional "rotating" model of inpatient training remains the gold standard of residency, moving residents through different systems every two to four weeks. The authors studied the experience and impact of frequent transitions on residents. Method This was a qualitative study. Ninety-seven individuals participated in 12 focus groups at three academic medical centers purposefully chosen to represent a range of geographic locations and structural characteristics. Four groups were held at each site: residents only, faculty only, nurses and ancillary staff only, and a mixed group. Grounded theory was used to analyze data. Results Perceived benefits of transitions included the ability to adapt to new environments and practice styles, improved organization and triage skills, increased comfort with stressful situations, and flexibility. Residents primarily relied on each other to cope with and prepare for transitions, with little support from the program or faculty level. Several potentially problematic workarounds were described within the context of transitions, including shortened progress notes, avoiding pages, hiding information, and sidestepping critical situations. Nearly all residents acknowledged that frequent transitions contributed to a lack of ownership and other potentially harmful effects for patient care. Conclusions These findings challenge the value of the traditional "rotating" model in residency. As residents adapt to frequent transitioning, they implicitly learn to value flexibility and efficiency over relationship building and deep system knowledge. These findings raise significant implications for professional development and patient care and highlight an important element of the hidden curriculum embedded within the current training model. Copyright © by the Association of American Medical Colleges.

Garrett D.A.,Program for Appropriate Technology in Health | Sangha J.K.,ICF Macro | Kothari M.T.,Program for Appropriate Technology in Health | Boyle D.,Program for Appropriate Technology in Health
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Whereas cost-effective interventions exist for the control of micronutrient malnutrition (MN), in low-resource settings field-friendly tools to assess the effect of these interventions are underutilized or not readily availablewhere they are most needed. Conventional approaches for MN measurement are expensive and require relatively sophisticated laboratory instrumentation, skilled technicians, good infrastructure, and reliable sources of clean water and electricity. Consequently, there is a need to develop and introduce innovative tools that are appropriate forMNassessment in low-resource settings. These diagnostics should be cost-effective, simple to perform, robust, accurate, and capable of being performedwith basic laboratory equipment. Currently, such technologies either do not exist or have been applied to the assessment of a few micronutrients. In the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), a fewsuch examples for which "biomarkers" of nutrition development have been assessed in low-resource settings using field-friendly approaches are hemoglobin (anemia), retinol-binding protein (vitamin A),andiron(transferrinreceptor). Inall oftheseexamples,sampleswere collectedmainlybynonmedical staffandanalyseswereconductedinthe survey countrybytechnicians fromthe localhealthor researchfacilities. This article provides information on howtheDHS has been able to successfully adaptfield-friendly techniques in challenging environments in population-based surveys for the assessment of micronutrient deficiencies. Special emphasis is placed on sample collection, processing, and testing in relation to the availability of local technology, resources, and capacity. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.

Gebreselassie T.,ICF Macro | Mishra V.,ICF International
Journal of Biosocial Science | Year: 2011

This study investigates how various social, demographic and economic factors affect spousal agreement on preferred waiting time to next birth. Data for matched cohabiting couples from ten Demographic and Health Surveys in sub-Saharan Africa (Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe), conducted between 2003 and 2006, were analysed to compare reported waiting time to next birth by the husband and the wife. Couples where the reported waiting time to next birth was the same for both partners (difference is 0 months) were defined as having agreement on waiting time to next birth. In sub-Saharan Africa, spousal agreement on waiting time to next birth was found to be associated with wanting the next child sooner. When the spouses disagree on waiting time to next birth, the wives want to wait longer than their husbands in most cases. Additionally, the study found that demographic factors are the primary determinants of spousal agreement on waiting time to next birth, not socioeconomic factors. The strongest predictors of spousal agreement on waiting time to next birth were number of living children, difference between the number of ideal and living children and wife's age. Couples with fewer children, a younger wife and those with a difference of five or more children between ideal and living number of children were more likely to agree on waiting time to next birth. Effects of socioeconomic factors, such as education and wealth status, on spousal agreement on waiting time to next birth were generally weak and inconsistent. The findings highlight some of the challenges in developing programmes to promote spousal communication and birth spacing and underscore the need for programmes to be gender-sensitive. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Eaton D.K.,National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | Kann L.,National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | Kinchen S.,National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | Shanklin S.,National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | And 10 more authors.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report | Year: 2010

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2008-December 2009. Description of the System: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) tobacco use; 3) alcohol and other drug use; 4) sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma. YRBSS includes a national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted by CDC and state and local school-based YRBSs conducted by state and local education and health agencies. This report summarizes results from the 2009 national survey, 42 state surveys, and 20 local surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12. Results: Results from the 2009 national YRBS indicated that many high school students are engaged in behaviors that increase their likelihood for the leading causes of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. Among high school students nationwide, 9.7% rarely or never wore a seat belt when riding in a car driven by someone else. During the 30 days before the survey, 28.3% of high school students rode in a car or other vehicle driven by someone who had been drinking alcohol, 17.5% had carried a weapon, 41.8% had drunk alcohol, and 20.8% had used marijuana. During the 12 months before the survey, 31.5% of high school students had been in a physical fight and 6.3% had attempted suicide. Substantial morbidity and social problems among youth also result from unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection. Among high school students nationwide, 34.2% were currently sexually active, 38.9% of currently sexually active students had not used a condom during their last sexual intercourse, and 2.1% of students had ever injected an illegal drug. Results from the 2009 YRBS also indicated that many high school students are engaged in behaviors associated with the leading causes of death among adults aged ≥25 years in the United States. During 2009, 19.5% of high school students smoked cigarettes during the 30 days before the survey. During the 7 days before the survey, 77.7% of high school students had not eaten fruits and vegetables five or more times per day, 29.2% had drunk soda or pop at least one time per day, and 81.6% were not physically active for at least 60 minutes per day on all 7 days. One-third of high school students attended physical education classes daily, and 12.0% were obese. Interpretation: Since 1991, the prevalence of many health-risk behaviors among high school students nationwide has decreased. However, many high school students continue to engage in behaviors that place them at risk for the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of most risk behaviors does not vary substantially among cities and states. Public Health Action: YRBS data are used to measure progress toward achieving 15 national health objectives for Healthy People 2010 and three of the 10 leading health indicators, to assess trends in priority health-risk behaviors among high school students, and to evaluate the impact of broad school and community interventions at the national, state, and local levels. More effective school health programs and other policy and programmatic interventions are needed to reduce risk and improve health outcomes among youth.

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