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Fairfax, VA, United States

ICF International, formerly known as ICF Consulting, is a management, technology, and policy consulting firm based in Fairfax, Virginia. ICF partners with government, commercial, and not-for-profit clients to deliver professional services and technology. ICF works across the following markets: energy, environment, and infrastructure; health, social programs, and consumer/financial; and public safety and defense.ICF employs more than 4,500 employees in more than 70 offices worldwide. Wikipedia.

This study examined racial/ethnic differences in rationale for intending to test for HIV. Data were analyzed from 98,971 adults from the 2007-2010 National Health Interview Survey. An estimated 38.5 % of respondents previously tested for HIV. Testing as part of a medical checkup or procedure was the most common reason for being tested among studied racial/ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic whites (80.7 %) and non-Hispanic Asians (71.2 %) had higher proportions (p < 0.001) of respondents that have not been tested for HIV due to believing they were unlikely exposed. Non-Hispanic blacks (ARR: 2.55; 95 % CI 2.39-2.72) and Hispanics (ARR: 1.81; 95 % CI 1.68-1.95) who ever tested for HIV were significantly more likely to report positive future testing intentions compared to non-Hispanic whites. Additional efforts to increase the availability of HIV tests by making HIV testing a routine part of medical care and increasing knowledge of HIV transmission, risk-perception, and treatment may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV testing. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Resumen: Este estudio examinó las diferencias raciales/étnicas en las razones para la intención de realizarse la prueba del VIH. Se analizaron los datos de 98,971 adultos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2007-2010. Se estimó que un 38.5 % de los participantes se habían realizado previamente la prueba del VIH. Hacerse la prueba como parte de un examen o procedimiento médico fue la razón más común entre los grupos raciales/étnicos estudiados. Los participantes de raza blanca no hispanos (80.7 %) y los de raza asiática no hispanos (71.2 %) tuvieron las proporciones más altas (p < 0,001) entre los participantes que no se habían realizado la prueba del VIH debido a la creencia de tener poca probabilidad de estar expuestos. Los participantes de raza negra no hispanos (ARR: 2.55, IC 95 %: 2,39 a 2,72) y los participantes hispanos (ARR: 1.81, IC 95 %: 1,68-1,95) que reportaron alguna vez haberse hecho la prueba del VIH eran significativamente más propensos a reportar intenciones futuras de realizarse la prueba que los participantes de raza blanca no hispanos. Esfuerzos adicionales para aumentar la disponibilidad de las pruebas del VIH, el hacer la prueba del VIH una parte rutinaria de la atención médica y el aumento del conocimiento sobre la transmisión del VIH, la percepción del riesgo y el tratamiento, podrían reducir las disparidades raciales/étnicas asociadas con realizar la prueba del VIH. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Hall A.K.,University of Washington | Cole-Lewis H.,Columbia University | Cole-Lewis H.,ICF International | Bernhardt J.M.,University of Texas at Austin
Annual Review of Public Health

The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to identify mobile text-messaging interventions designed for health improvement and behavior change and to derive recommendations for practice. We have compiled and reviewed existing systematic research reviews and meta-analyses to organize and summarize the text-messaging intervention evidence base, identify best-practice recommendations based on findings from multiple reviews, and explore implications for future research. Our review found that the majority of published text-messaging interventions were effective when addressing diabetes self-management, weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication adherence for antiretroviral therapy. However, we found limited evidence across the population of studies and reviews to inform recommended intervention characteristics. Although strong evidence supports the value of integrating text-messaging interventions into public health practice, additional research is needed to establish longer-term intervention effects, identify recommended intervention characteristics, and explore issues of cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Pullum T.W.,ICF International
Global health, science and practice

While the global objective is exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for a full 6 months duration, the standard indicator is a "prevalence" indicator, that is, the percentage of all children under age 6 months who are exclusively breastfed at a point in time. That yields a higher percentage than a more direct indicator of duration and can be easily misunderstood, exaggerating the amount of EBF. A measurement of actual percentage of children exclusively breastfeeding for a full 6 months can be easily calculated from standard DHS and MICS data. Source

Jenner S.,University of Tubingen | Groba F.,German Institute for Economic Research | Indvik J.,ICF International
Energy Policy

In the last two decades, feed-in tariffs (FIT) have emerged as one of the most popular policies for supporting renewable electricity (RES-E) generation. A few studies have assessed the effectiveness of RES-E policies, but most ignore policy design features and market characteristics (e.g. electricity price and production cost) that influence policy strength. We employ 1992-2008 panel data to conduct the first econometric analysis of the effectiveness of FIT policies in promoting solar photovoltaic (PV) and onshore wind power development in 26 European Union countries. We develop a new indicator for FIT strength that captures variability in tariff size, contract duration, digression rate, and electricity price and production cost to estimate the resulting return on investment. We regress this indicator on added RES-E capacity using a fixed effects specification and find that FIT policies have driven solar PV development in the EU. However, this effect is overstated without controlling for country characteristics and is concealed without accounting for policy design. We do not find robust evidence that FIT policies have driven wind power development. Overall, we show that the interaction of policy design, electricity price, and electricity production cost is a more important determinant of RES-E development than policy enactment alone. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Rosenbaum A.,ICF International
American journal of public health

People near major transportation emissions sources experience higher exposure to hazardous pollutants. We present population size and demographic composition estimates for exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) exhaust from US harbor activities. We examined 43 US marine harbor areas to determine outdoor, ambient concentrations from port-related DPM emissions and then determined intake fractions of those emissions in each harbor area. We estimated the distribution of health risk by combining ambient concentrations with exposure and carcinogenic risk factors. We assessed demographic differences by stratifying the health risks by race/ethnicity and income. Intake fractions for 42 of the harbor areas ranged from 0.02 × 10(-6) to 3.66 × 10(-6). A DPM-affected population of more than 4 million has a risk level greater than 100 per million; a population of 41 million, a risk level greater than 10 per million. Most exposures occur in a small number of marine harbor areas. Low-income households and both Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks are overrepresented in the affected populations. The most important factor for predicting DPM intake fractions for harbor activities is the proximate population density. The largest uncertainty in predicting DPM carcinogenic health risk is the carcinogenic inhalation unit risk factor. Source

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