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Paisley L.G.,Technical University of Denmark | Ariel E.,Technical University of Denmark | Lyngstad T.,National Veterinary Institute | Jonsson G.,Icelandic Food and Veterinary Authority | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2010

The goal of this review was to describe in some detail the Nordic aquaculture industries in order to illuminate the similarities and differences. Information that was gathered for each country includes aquaculture history, aquaculture acts and regulations, production and production systems, environmental concerns, organic aquaculture and outlook for the future. The information will be useful for risk assessments, design of risk-based surveillance programs and for construction of comparative risk profiles for endemic and exotic diseases affecting aquaculture in the Nordic countries. Aquaculture in the Nordic countries has a long history; beginning in the 1850s when hatcheries for restocking of salmon and trout were established in Norway. Nowadays, Atlantic salmon is the dominant cultured species in Norway and the Faroe Islands, whereas rainbow trout dominate in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. Arctic char and cod are most important in Iceland. Other important cultured species include eel and blue mussels. There is much diversity in Nordic aquaculture industries in terms of production, farmed species, and production systems. Although the vast majority of the Nordic aquaculture production is for human consumption, significant numbers of fish are grown for restocking of rivers, lakes, or other bodies of freshwater or seawater. © Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010. Source


Thormar H.,University of Iceland | Hilmarsson H.,University of Iceland | Thrainsson J.H.,University of Iceland | Georgsson F.,Icelandic Food Research | And 2 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2011

1. A previous study has shown that emulsions of monocaprin in citrate lactate buffer at pH 4·1-4·3 are highly active in killing Campylobacter in water, where they reduce viable bacterial counts by more than 6 log10 colony forming units (cfu) in 1 min at a concentration of 1·25 mM (0.03%). 2. The present study was carried out to evaluate whether monocaprin emulsions could be used to kill Campylobacter on raw poultry. 3. It was shown that immersion of naturally contaminated chicken legs in 20 mM (0.5%) monocaprin emulsion at pH 4·1 for 1 min at 20°C reduced the number of Campylobacter by 2·0 to 2·7 log10 cfu. Pre-chill dipping of whole carcases into 20mM monocaprin emulsion in the slaughterhouse also caused a significant reduction in Campylobacter contamination. 4. Immersion in monocaprin emulsions at pH 4·1 was also assessed as a means to reduce the number of psychrotrophic spoilage bacteria. There were lower psychrotrophic bacteria counts on treated chicken parts than on untreated controls after storage at 3°C for up to 14 d. 5. Immersion in emulsions of monocaprin, which is a natural lipid classified as GRAS, may be a feasible method to reduce the number of Campylobacter and spoilage bacteria on raw poultry. This method could reduce the risk of human exposure to Campylobacter, and at the same time increase the shelf-life of poultry products. © 2011 British Poultry Science Ltd. Source


Wagner B.,Cornell University | Goodman L.B.,Cornell University | Babasyan S.,Cornell University | Freer H.,Cornell University | And 4 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) continues to cause severe outbreaks of abortions or myeloencephalopathy in horses despite widely used vaccination. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of frequent vaccination with an inactivated EHV vaccine on immune development in horses. Fifteen EHV-1 naïve mares were vaccinated a total of 5 times over a period of 8 months with intervals of 20, 60, 90 and 60 days between vaccine administrations. Total antibody and antibody isotype responses were evaluated with a new sensitive EHV-1 Multiplex assay to glycoprotein C (gC) and gD for up to 14 months after initial vaccination. Antibodies peaked after the first two vaccine doses and then declined despite a third administration of the vaccine. The fourth vaccine dose was given at 6 months and the gC and gD antibody titers increased again. Mixed responses with increasing gC but decreasing gD antibody values were observed after the fifth vaccination at 8 months. IgG4/7 isotype responses mimicked the total Ig antibody production to vaccination most closely. Vaccination also induced short-lasting IgG1 antibodies to gC, but not to gD. EHV-1-specific cellular immunity induced by vaccination developed slower than antibodies, was dominated by IFN-γ producing T-helper 1 (Th1) cells, and was significantly increased compared to pre-vaccination values after administration of 3 vaccine doses. Decreased IFN-γ production and reduced Th1-cell induction were also observed after the second and fourth vaccination. Overall, repeated EHV vaccine administration did not always result in increasing immunity. The adverse effects on antibody and cellular immunity that were observed here when the EHV vaccine was given in short intervals might in part explain why EHV-1 outbreaks are observed worldwide despite widely used vaccination. The findings warrant further evaluation of immune responses to EHV vaccines to optimize vaccination protocols for different vaccines and horse groups at risk. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Hultgren J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Algers B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Atkinson S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ellingsen K.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | And 5 more authors.
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica | Year: 2016

Background: During the pre-slaughter period, animals experience novel environment and procedures which may cause reduced welfare and suffering. Over the last decades, the slaughter industry has restructured into fewer and larger abattoirs, implying potential risks of transport stress, injuries, and impaired animal welfare. Since recently, however, there is growing interest in small-scale slaughter to supply locally or regionally produced meat. Risk managers at all levels thus need to assess animal welfare risks also at small-scale operations. This study aimed to assess risks of poor animal welfare at small-scale lamb slaughter (≤5000 sheep/year and ≤70 sheep/day) in Norway, Iceland, Sweden and Finland, and to compare these risks to large-scale industrial slaughter. Assessment was done applying an individual expert opinion approach during a 2-day workshop. Nine experts in lamb slaughter procedures, behaviour, physiology, health, scoring schemes and/or risk assessment provided estimates of exposure, likelihood of negative consequences following exposure, and intensity and duration of negative consequences for 71 hazards. The methods applied mainly adhered to the risk assessment guidelines of the European Food Safety Authority. The list of hazards was modified from an earlier study and distributed to the experts before the assessment. No other literature was reviewed specifically for the purpose of the assessment. Results: The highest risks to animal welfare identified in both small- and large-scale slaughter were related to inadequate conditions during overnight lairage at the slaughter plant. For most hazards, risk estimates were lower in small-scale slaughter. The reverse was true for splitting of groups and separation of one sheep from the group. Conclusions: Small-scale slaughter has a potential for improved sheep welfare in comparison with large-scale industrial slaughter. Keeping the animals overnight at the slaughterhouse and prolonged fasting before slaughter should be avoided. Solutions include continuing education and training of stockpersons and, especially in large-scale slaughter, application of existing techniques for efficient transport logistics that minimise stress. © 2016 Hultgren et al. Source


Kristjansson T.,Agricultural University of Iceland | Bjornsdottir S.,Icelandic Food and Veterinary Authority | Sigurdsson A.,Agricultural University of Iceland | Crevier-Denoix N.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | And 4 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

The official breeding goal for the Icelandic horse describes an ideal conformation that should facilitate multi-gaiting riding ability. The objective of the present study was to describe and evaluate the use of a three dimensional morphometric method to objectively quantify the conformation of the Icelandic horse and to determine the distribution of conformational parameters and their intercorrelations. Selected material of 72 potential breeding horses attending breeding field tests in Iceland in the years 2008-2010 were recorded while walking in a space which was defined in three dimensions. Four video cameras were used to provide images that allow the determination of 3-D co-ordinates of anatomical landmarks by manual tracking from two or more 2-D views. A set of four video frames was chosen for each horse for two reference images (forelimb/hind limb). The measurements consisted of heights of the anatomical landmarks, segments lengths, joint angles and inclines. Their repeatability was assessed by different repeatability tests. The study described the conformation of the Icelandic horse in terms of the selected anatomical landmarks. The 3D method provided objective, repeatable data and is suitable for further studies of the correlation between the conformation and other traits as riding qualities and soundness. The method can be applied in other horse breeds. It was confirmed that the Icelandic horse has grown taller in recent years and changed from a rectangular body format to a square one. Measurements of the joint angles of the limbs revealed carpal and tarsal valgus and fetlock valgus to be frequent findings in the breed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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