Santa Barbara, CA, United States
Santa Barbara, CA, United States

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Daily maps of snow conditions have been produced in Norway with the seNorge snow model since 2004. The seNorge snow model operates with 1 × 1 km resolution, uses gridded observations of daily temperature and precipitation as its input forcing, and simulates, among others, snow water equivalent (SWE), snow depth (SD), and the snow bulk density (ρ). In this paper the set of equations contained in the seNorge model code is described and a thorough spatiotemporal statistical evaluation of the model performance from 1957-2011 is made using the two major sets of extensive in situ snow measurements that exist for Norway. The evaluation results show that the seNorge model generally overestimates both SWE and ρ, and that the overestimation of SWE increases with elevation throughout the snow season. However, the R2-values for model fit are 0.60 for (log-transformed) SWE and 0.45 for ρ, indicating that after removal of the detected systematic model biases (e.g. by recalibrating the model or expressing snow conditions in relative units) the model performs rather well. The seNorge model provides a relatively simple, not very data-demanding, yet nonetheless process-based method to construct snow maps of high spatiotemporal resolution. It is an especially well suited alternative for operational snow mapping in regions with rugged topography and large spatiotemporal variability in snow conditions, as is the case in the mountainous Norway. © Author(s) 2012. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


Disclosed is a method and device for a thermal energy storage liquid-suction heat exchanger (TES-LSHX) for air conditioning and refrigeration (AC/R) applications. The disclosed embodiments allow energy to be stored and aggregated over one period of time, and dispatched at a later period of time, to improve AC/R system efficiency during desired conditions. Not only are the benefits of LSHX stored and aggregated for later use, but when dispatched, the discharge rate can exceed the charge rate thereby further enhancing the benefit of demand reduction to utilities. The disclosed embodiments allow great flexibility and can be incorporated into OEM AC/R system designs, and/or bundled with condensing units or evaporator coils. These TES-LSHX systems can be retrofit with existing systems by installing the product at any point along the existing AC/R systems line set.


Disclosed are a method and device for a refrigerant-based thermal storage system wherein a condensing unit and an ice-tank heat exchanger can be isolated through a second heat exchanger. The disclosed embodiments provide a refrigerant-based ice storage system with increased reliability, lower cost components, and reduced power consumption compared to a single phase system such as a glycol system.


Disclosed is a method and device for a refrigerant-based thermal energy storage and cooling system with integrated multi-mode refrigerant loops. The disclosed embodiments provide a refrigerant-based thermal storage system with increased versatility, reliability, lower cost components, reduced power consumption and ease of installation.


Patent
Ice Energy | Date: 2013-09-09

Disclosed is a system and method for providing power generation and distribution with on-site energy storage and power input controlled by a utility or a third party manager. The system allows a utility manager to decide and direct how energy is delivered to a customer on both sides of the power meter, while the customer directs and controls when and how much energy is needed. In the disclosed embodiments, the utility controls the supply (either transmitted or stored) and makes power decisions on a system that acts as a virtual power plant, while the end-user retains control of the on-site aggregated power consumption assets. The disclosed systems act to broker the needs of the utility and end-user by creating, managing and controlling the interface between these two entities.


Disclosed is a method and device to increase the cooling load that can be provided by a refrigerant-based thermal energy storage and cooling system with an improved arrangement of heat exchangers. This load increase is accomplished by circulating cold water surrounding a block of ice, used as the thermal energy storage medium, through a secondary heat exchanger where it condenses refrigerant vapor returning from a load. The refrigerant is then circulated through a primary heat exchanger within the block of ice where it is further cooled and condensed. This system is known as an internal/external melt system because the thermal energy, stored in the form of ice, is melted internally by a primary heat exchanger and externally by circulating cold water from the periphery of the block through a secondary heat exchanger.


Patent
Ice Energy | Date: 2012-07-03

Disclosed is a system and method for providing power generation and distribution with on-site energy storage and power input controlled by a utility or a third party manager. The system allows a utility manager to decide and direct how energy is delivered to a customer on both sides of the power meter, while the customer directs and controls when and how much energy is needed. In the disclosed embodiments, the utility controls the supply (either transmitted or stored) and makes power decisions on a system that acts as a virtual power plant, while the end-user retains control of the on-site aggregated power consumption assets. The disclosed systems act to broker the needs of the utility and end-user by creating, managing and controlling the interface between these two entities.


Disclosed is a system and method for improving grid efficiency, reliability, security and capacity, utilizing energy storage over a plurality of on-site energy storing appliances, and also utilizing on-site demand reduction devices lacking storage, all controlled via configuration settings with a local means to act independently, yet in statistical coordination, to provide a desired effect. The appliance and controller are located on the downstream side of the end-users power meter, and facilitates the utilization of the stored energy and manages the optimal timing for producing and delivering the stored energy to the end-user. This model demonstrates a utility driven, disaggregated, distributed energy system, where the distributed energy resource is designed to behave as an offset to the predictable daily electrical demand profile.


Patent
Ice Energy | Date: 2010-03-08

Disclosed is a method and device to efficiently regulate flow of refrigerant while maintaining a sealed chamber in systems providing stored thermal energy for use during peak electrical demand. A mixed-phase regulator replaces the thermostatic expansion valve used in conventional air-conditioning systems that, along with capillary tubes and orifices, regulates the refrigerant fed from the compressor to the heat load.


SANTA BARBARA, CA--(Marketwired - Feb 14, 2017) - Ice Energy has announced the planned release of several new ice battery solutions for supermarkets and the general commercial refrigeration market, based on its proven line of award-winning energy storage products for HVAC applications. The decision follows prototyping and testing at Ice Energy's IdeaLAB in Riverside, California, where the company has demonstrated commercial refrigeration storage capabilities with the same low cost and high reliability that Ice Energy has delivered to commercial and residential HVAC markets with its Ice Bear and Ice Cub products. The new products serving the worldwide commercial refrigeration market will be designated the Polar Bear line, with different models supporting a range of refrigeration storage capacities and application needs. They are expected to be available by the end of this year. The Polar Bear solution will enable businesses with large refrigeration-based energy loads to reduce their peak electricity demand by up to 95 percent, shifting six hours of a building's refrigeration-based peak load to cheaper off-peak hours. The Polar Bear ice battery will seamlessly integrate with existing supermarket or commercial refrigeration systems. It will also provide a smart-grid controller to monitor energy use and control performance. "Since our inception in 2003, Ice Energy has maintained an ambitious and productive culture of R&D innovation, built upon a robust portfolio of defensible intellectual property," said Mike Hopkins, Ice Energy CEO. "We continue to develop solutions and applications based on our core IP, systematically extending our energy storage product lines across commercial, industrial and residential markets in comfort cooling -- and now commercial refrigeration." Paul Thompson, Ice Energy's Director of Intellectual property, adds, "Our company has continued placing barriers to competitive entry by advancing the technology while developing a strong portfolio of patents, trademarks, trade dress, copyrights, defensive publications, and trade secrets. These strategies have been implemented utilizing foundational patents for pioneering inventions and a comprehensive portfolio of improvements and innovations that surround those inventions." This announcement comes on the heels of Ice Energy's recently executed contract to deliver 100 Ice Bear 20 residential ice battery storage units to the Southern California Public Power Authority. The Ice Bear 20 system, along with the smaller Ice Cub, represent the successful productization of Ice Energy's technology for the residential market. Ice Energy's suite of energy storage solutions and IP portfolio cover both single-stage and variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems used in commercial and residential HVAC and commercial refrigeration systems. A California study by the UC Davis-based Western Cooling Efficiency Center found that more than 63% of cooling systems were of the direct exchange (DX) variety supported by Ice Energy's line of solutions. According to a 2016 report by the Freedonia Group, global demand for commercial refrigeration equipment is forecast to increase 4.5 percent per year through 2020, to $35.3 billion. Much of this growth is due to the need to replace equipment damaged by constant compressor cycling that refrigeration systems experience under typical operation. Ice Energy solutions reduce compressor cycling by up to 75% by providing refrigeration via the ice battery during the highest demand periods of the day. About Ice Energy Ice Energy is a leading energy storage provider for the grid. Its Ice Bear units deliver behind-the-meter ice battery storage for HVAC systems in commercial, industrial and residential applications, and now commercial refrigeration, providing peak capacity to over 40 utility service territories nationwide. With contracts to deliver 25.6 MW of storage to Southern California Edison in partnership with NRG Energy; 5 MW in Riverside, CA; 6 MW in Redding, CA; and an additional 450+ MW in the sales pipeline, the company is expanding quickly in the U.S. and internationally. For more information, visit www.ice-energy.com.

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