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Dhaka, Bangladesh

Ziaei S.,Uppsala University | Naved R.T.,ICDDR | Ekstrom E.-C.,Uppsala University
Maternal and Child Nutrition

Domestic violence, in particular intimate partner violence (IPV), has been recognized as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women of reproductive age. The effects of IPV against women on their children's health, especially their nutritional status has received less attention but needs to be evaluated to understand the comprehensive public health implications of IPV. The aim of current study was to investigate the association between women's exposure to IPV and their children's nutritional status, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Logistic regression models were used to estimate association between ever-married women's lifetime exposure to physical and sexual violence by their spouses and nutritional status of their children under 5 years. Of 2042 women in the BDHS survey with at least one child under 5 years of age, 49.4% reported lifetime experience of physical partner violence while 18.4% reported experience of sexual partner violence. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in their children under 5 years was 44.3%, 18.4% and 42.0%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a stunted child if they had lifetime experience of physical IPV [odds ratio n=2027 (OR)adj, 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-1.79] or had been exposed to sexual IPV (n=2027 ORadj, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61). The present findings contribute to growing body of evidence showing that IPV can also compromise children's growth, supporting the need to incorporate efforts to address IPV in child health and nutrition programmes and policies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Petri W.A.,University of Virginia | Naylor C.,University of Virginia | Haque R.,ICDDR
BMC Medicine

Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a poorly defined state of intestinal inflammation without overt diarrhea that occurs in individuals exposed over time to poor sanitation and hygiene. It is implicated as a cause of stunting and malnutrition, oral vaccine failure and impaired development in children from low-income countries. The burden on child health of malnutrition alone, which affects 25% of all children and is estimated to result in more than a million deaths annually due to heightened susceptibility to infection, makes urgent a solution to EE. Efforts are thus underway to treat EE even while work continues to identify it through the use of non-invasive biomarkers, and delineate its pathogenesis. A recent study published in BMC Medicine reports the first randomized controlled phase I trial of an anti-inflammatory drug for EE. The aminosalicylate mesalazine was found to be safe in short-term treatment of a small number of severely malnourished children, although efficacy was not established. Whether such treatment trials are premature, or instead a way both to understand and intervene in EE, is the focus of this article. © 2014 Petri et al. Source

Nutritional insults and conditions during fetal life and infancy influence subsequent growth and body composition of children. Effects of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation and exclusive breastfeeding counseling on growth of offspring aged 0-54 months and their body composition at 54 months of age were studied. In the MINIMat trial (ISRCTN16581394) in Matlab, Bangladesh, pregnant women were randomized to early (around 9 weeks) or usual invitation (around 20 weeks) to food supplementation and to one of the three daily micronutrient supplements: 30-mg Fe and 400-μg folic acid (Fe30F), 60-mg Fe and 400-μg folic acid (Fe60F), and multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS). The supplements were also randomized to exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) counseling or to usual health messages. No differences in background characteristics were observed among the intervention groups. There was also no differential effect of prenatal interventions on birthweight or birthlength. Early food supplementation reduced the level of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months of age among boys (average difference - 6.5% units, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-11.3, p=0.01) but not among girls (average difference - 2.4% units, 95% CI -2.2-7.0, p=0.31). MMS resulted in more stunting compared to standard Fe60F (average difference - 4.8% units, 95% CI 0.8-8.9, p=0.02). Breastfeeding counseling prolonged the duration of EBF (difference - 35 days, 95% CI 30.6-39.5, p<0.001). Neither pregnancy interventions nor breastfeeding counseling influenced the body composition of children at 54 months of age. Early food supplementation during pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting among boys aged 0-54 months, while prenatal MMS increased the proportion of stunting. Food and micronutrient supplementation or EBF intervention did not affect body composition of offspring at 54 months of age. The effects of prenatal interventions on postnatal growth suggest programming effects in early fetal life. Source

Clark J.,ICDDR | Clark J.,University of Toronto
Global Health Action

There is growing recognition of the massive global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) due to their prevalence, projected social and economic costs, and traditional neglect compared to infectious disease. The 2011 UN Summit, WHO 25×25 targets, and support of major medical and advocacy organisations have propelled prominence of NCDs on the global health agenda. NCDs are by definition 'diseases' so already medicalized. But their social drivers and impacts are acknowledged, which demand a broad, whole-of-society approach. However, while both individual- and population-level targets are identified in the currentNCDaction plans, most recommended strategies tend towards the individualistic approach and do not address root causes of the NCD problem. These so-called population strategies risk being reduced to expectations of individual and behavioural change, which may have limited success and impact and deflect attention away from government policies or regulation of industry. Industry involvement in NCD agenda-setting props up a medicalized approach to NCDs: food and drink companies favour focus on individual choice and responsibility, and pharmaceutical and device companies favour calls for expanded access to medicines and treatment coverage. Current NCD framing creates expanded roles for physicians, healthcare workers, medicines and medical monitoring. The professional rather than the patient view dominates the NCD agenda and there is a lack of a broad, engaged, and independentNGOcommunity. The challenge and opportunity lie in defining priorities and developing strategies that go beyond a narrow medicalized framing of the NCD problem and its solutions. © 2014 Jocalyn Clark. Source

Bruins M.,Consultatie Implementatie Technisch Beheer B.V. C it | Bruins M.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Rahim Z.,ICDDR | Bos A.,Consultatie Implementatie Technisch Beheer B.V. C it | And 4 more authors.

Tuberculosis (TB), a highly infectious airborne disease, remains a major global health problem. Many of the new diagnostic techniques are not suited for operation in the highly-endemic low-income countries. A sensitive, fast, easy-to-operate and low-cost method is urgently needed. We performed a Proof of Principle Study (30 participants) and a Validation Study (194 participants) to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of a sophisticated electronic nose (DiagNose, C-it BV) using exhaled air to detect tuberculosis. The DiagNose uses a measurement method that enables transfer of calibration models between devices thus eliminating the most common pitfall for large scale implementation of electronic noses in general. DiagNose measurements were validated using traditional sputum smear microscopy and culture on Löwenstein-Jensen media. We found a sensitivity of 95.9% and specificity of 98.5% for the pilot study. In the validation study we found a sensitivity of 93.5% and a specificity of 85.3% discriminating healthy controls from TB patients, and a sensitivity of 76.5% and specificity of 87.2% when identifying TB patient within the entire test-population (best-case numbers). The portability and fast time-to-result of the DiagNose enables a proactive screening search for new TB cases in rural areas, without the need for highly-skilled operators or a hospital center infrastructure. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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