ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute

Delhi, India

ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute

Delhi, India
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Dutta A.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Mandal A.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Manna S.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh S.B.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2015

Soil organic matter (SOM) content is the major soil component affecting pesticide sorption. However, recent studies have highlighted the fact that it is not the total carbon content of the organic matter, but its chemical structure which have a profound effect on the pesticide’s sorption. In the present study, sorption of atrazine and metsulfuron-methyl herbicides was studied in four SOM fractions viz. commercial humic acid, commercial lignin, as well as humic acid and humin extracted from a compost. Sorption data was fitted to the Freundlich adsorption equation. In general, the Freundlich slope (1/n) values for both the herbicides were <1. Except for atrazine sorption on commercial humic acid, metsulfuron-methyl was more sorbed. Desorption results suggested that atrazine was more desorbed than metsulfuron-methyl. Lignin, which showed least sorption of both the herbicides, showed minimum desorption. Sorption of atrazine was best positively correlated with the alkyl carbon (adjusted R2 = 0.748) and carbonyl carbon (adjusted R2 = 0.498) but, their effect was statistically nonsignificant (P = 0.05). Metsulfuron-methyl sorption showed best positive correlation with carbonyl carbon (adjusted R2 = 0.960; P = 0.05) content. Sorption of both the herbicides showed negative correlation with O/N-alkyl carbon. Correlation of herbicide’s sorption with alkyl and carbonyl carbon content of SOM fractions suggested their contribution towards herbicide sorption. But, sorption of metsulfuron-methyl, relatively more polar than atrazine, was mainly governed by the polar groups in SOM. IR spectra showed that H-bonds and charge-transfer bonds between SOM fraction and herbicides probably operated as mechanisms of adsorption. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Bai B.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Kumar A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Choudhary A.K.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2016

Field experimentation was conducted at Palampur, India during 2011–2012 in an acid Alfisol to quantify the influence of integrated use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Rhizobium and inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on growth, productivity, profitability, and nutrient use efficiencies in garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) replicated thrice comprising 13 treatments involving AMF (Glomus mosseae), Rhizobium (R. leguminosarum), and inorganic N and P fertilizers. The results revealed that dual inoculation of pea seed with AMF and Rhizobium enhanced the plant height, leaf area index, and dry matter accumulation significantly by 19.4 and 13.1, 10.7 and 10.7, and 16.6 and 16.7%, respectively at 60 and 120 days after sowing (DAS). Similarly, dual inoculation exhibited significant respective increases of 9.5 and 14.6% in absolute and crop growth rates over generalized recommended NP potassium (K) dose (GRD) during 60–120 DAS. The dual inoculation led to significant respective increases of 1.0 and 2.2, 1.06 and 1.74, 0.21 and 1.5, and 1.05 and 1.60 folds in partial factor productivity, crop recovery efficiency, physiological efficiency, and % recovery of applied N and P, respectively over GRD. The magnitude of increase in pea productivity, net returns, and boron to carbon (B:C) ratio following dual inoculation was to the tune of 20, 54.4, and 104.1%, respectively over GRD. Dual inoculation also exhibited significant increases of 19.4 and 53.1% in production and monetary efficiencies of pea over GRD. Overall, dual inoculation of AMF and Rhizobium with 75% soil-test-based N and P dose in pea has great potential in enhancing pea productivity, profitability, and nutrient use efficiency besides saving about 25% fertilizer N and P without impairing pea productivity in Himalayan acid Alfisol. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

Tufchi M.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Rashmi,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Jha S.K.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh N.K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2015

The tryptophan concentration of the 85 BC2F2:3 progenies derived from a cross between normal maize inbred line, Pant 10k1375 and o2 donor line, CML 161 were determined. The genic marker phi057 positive progenies showed significant variation for tryptophan concentration in BC2F2:3 progenies with tryptophan as low as 0.046 per cent in BC2F2:3-80, whereas BC2F2:3-78 possessed maximum tryptophan concentration of 0.082 per cent. Normal maize line Pant10k1375 possessed tryptophan concentration of 0.040 per cent whereas o2 donor line CML161 had tryptophan concentration of 0.089 per cent. All the BC2F2:3 progenies had tryptophan concentration higher than the normal maize inbred, whereas none of the progenies had tryptophan concentration higher than the donor line CML161. Twelve lines of BC2F2:3 populations had tryptophan concentration 0.075 per cent or more, the level used to determine quality protein maize. Variability in amino acid modifier genes in the background and/or the insertion of transposable element at the regulatory sites indicated by unusual segregation pattern of phi057 and umc1066 in backcross progenies could be the possible reasons for such high level of variation in tryptophan concentration. The progenies with tryptophan concentration > 0.075 per cent may serve as potential germplasm in development of quality protein maize hybrids. © 2015, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

Mridha N.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Chattaraj S.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Chakraborty D.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Anand A.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Bioelectromagnetics | Year: 2016

Soil moisture stress during pod filling is a major constraint in production of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), a fundamentally dry land crop. We investigated effect of pre-sowing seed priming with static magnetic field (SMF) on alleviation of stress through improvement in radiation and water use efficiencies. Experiments were conducted under greenhouse and open field conditions with desi and kabuli genotypes. Seeds exposed to SMF (strength: 100 mT, exposure: 1 h) led to increase in root volume and surface area by 70% and 65%, respectively. This enabled the crop to utilize 60% higher moisture during the active growth period (78–118 days after sowing), when soil moisture became limiting. Both genotypes from treated seeds had better water utilization, biomass, and radiation use efficiencies (17%, 40%, and 26% over control). Seed pre-treatment with SMF could, therefore, be a viable option for chickpea to alleviate soil moisture stress in arid and semi-arid regions, helping in augmenting its production. It could be a viable option to improve growth and yield of chickpea under deficit soil moisture condition, as the selection and breeding program takes a decade before a tolerant variety is released. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:400–408, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kumar R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Nikam V.R.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma J.P.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

The livestock sector contributes 4.11% in overall GDP, however, its full potential has not been utilized, necessitating need of innovations and the use of best practices for sustainable and profitable production. Farmers are a rich source of indigenous knowledge and they innovate, experiment and adapt continuously. Documentation of these success stories may serve as a lightening conductor for other farmers. The study was carried out with 35 progressive farmers from 10 agro-climatic regions of Karnataka. The study found that stall feeding for sheep, silage preparation and storage in bunkers, low cost dairy shed and locally made milking machine were innovations made by farmers. New technology adopted by the farmers included improved crossbreeds of sheep, emu farming, high tech dairy unit and fast growing breeds of pig. Farmers frequently used literature and KVK personnel as a source of information. Development of marketing linkages, direct marketing and contract farming were important aspects in post production operations. Farmers used some of the best practices like integrated farming system; clean and hygienic methods of milking, regular vaccinations, daily chart of feed, silage and bunker storage, rotation period, use of high jet water spray for washing of animal etc. Study concluded that qualities and traits like ability to select and integrate enterprise wisely; knowing and judging market demand correctly; developing market linkages; constant seeking of information and practical intelligence to use locally available resources were the key to success of dairy farmers. Dairy extension should play a pivotal role in imparting training to farmers about these aspects and spreading the success of these innovative farmers through literature in other parts of the country for its replication on large scale.

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