ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute

Delhi, India

ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute

Delhi, India
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Boddupalli A.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Boddupalli A.,Iowa State University | Tiwari R.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma A.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Folia Microbiologica | Year: 2017

There is a growing interest in the use of bioinoculants to assist mineral fertilizers in improving crop production and yield. Azotobacter and Pseudomonas are two agriculturally relevant strains of bacteria which have been established as efficient bioinoculants. An experiment involving addition of graded concentrations of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles was undertaken using log phase cultures of Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Growth kinetics revealed a clear trend of gradual decrease with Pseudomonas; however, Azotobacter exhibited a twofold enhancement in growth with increase in the concentration of ZnO concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), supported by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, illustrated the significant effect of ZnO nanoparticles on Azotobacter by the enhancement in the abundance of globular biofilm-like structures and the intracellular presence of ZnO, with the increase in its concentration. It can be surmised that extracellular mucilage production in Azotobacter may be providing a barrier to the nanoparticles. Further experiments with Azotobacter by inoculation of wheat and tomato seeds with ZnO nanoparticles alone or bacteria grown on ZnO-infused growth medium revealed interesting results. Vigour index of wheat seeds reduced by 40–50% in the presence of different concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles alone, which was alleviated by 15–20%, when ZnO and Azotobacter were present together. However, a drastic 50–60% decrease in vigour indices of tomato seeds was recorded, irrespective of Azotobacter inoculation. © 2017, Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i.

Sepat S.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Thierfelder C.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Sharma A.R.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Pavuluri K.,Sirius Minerals Plc | And 3 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2017

Weed management in conservation agriculture is very important for attaining sustainable crop yields. The effect of tillage, crop establishment techniques and weed management practices was evaluated on weed population of Echinochloa colona (L.) Link and Digera arvensis (Forssk) as well as the productivity of soybean in the soybean-wheat system during 2009–2012. The four main treatments, viz. conventional-tillage with raised bed (CT-B), conventional tillage with flat bed (CT-F), zero-tillage with raised bed (ZT-B), and zero-tillage with flat bed (ZT-F), and four sub-treatments, viz. unweeded control, pendimethalin 0.75 kg ha−1 as pre-emergence (PE) followed by one hand weeding at 30 days after sowing (DAS); pendimethalin 0.75 kg ha−1 as PE followed by imazethapyr 0.075 kg ha−1 as post-emergence (POE), and imazethapyr 0.075 kg ha−1 as POE were evaluated in split-plot design with three replications. Results indicated that total weed density and biomass was maximum in the first year, and declined gradually in third and fourth years. In 2009, ZT-F recorded the highest weed density and weed biomass followed by ZT-B. However in 2012, the highest weed density and weed biomass was observed in CT-F, while the lowest weed biomass was found in ZT-B followed by CT-B. In 2009, the highest grain and stover yield of soybean was recorded in CT-B but ZT-B out-yielded all other treatments from 2010 onwards. The highest gross and net returns were found in ZT-B and ZT-F during the study period. Application of pendimethalin at 0.75 kg ha−1 along with one hand weeding at 30 days after sowing recorded the lowest total weed density and biomass. This treatment also recorded higher grain yield but lower net returns compared to pendimethalin 0.75 kg ha−1 + imazethapyr 0.075 kg ha−1. Overall, application of pendimethalin as PE and imazethapyr as POE in ZT proved to be the most effective herbicide strategy for weed management in soybean leading to higher grain yield and net returns, irrespective of crop establishment practices. However, high infestation of other weeds species such as Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd, Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees, Eleusine indica (L.) and Phyllanthus niruri (L.) in ZT is a concern. Furthermore, the possible build-up of herbicide residuals and its impact on the environment needs to be studied to devise an effective weed management strategy for soybean. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Hashim M.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Dhar S.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Vyas A.K.,Human Resource Management | Singh C.B.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2017

Aim: Integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers has better effects on crop growth and yield components of crop as well as soil health than alone. The main objective of the study was to find out the impact of integrated nutrient management on yield and soil health in maize-wheat cropping system. Methodology: The maize crop was harvested when cob sheath turned brownish and grains became hard and grains were separated from cobs by hand shelling. When wheat crop matured and dry plants from net plot area were harvested and threshing was done by using wheat thresher and expressed as t ha-1. The soil samples were collected from different plots of the experimental field and were analysed for physical (bulk density, hydraulic conductivity) and chemical (organic carbon, available N, P and K) properties. Infiltration rate was measured at the experimental field with the help of double ring infiltrometer. Results: Addition of NPK fertilizer along with organic manure and biofertilizers improved yield and increased organic carbon content, available N, P, K and infiltration rate and hydraulic conductivity of the soil while reducing bulk density. Application of 50% recommended dose of fertilizer + 50% recommended dose of nitrogen produced significantly higher maize grain yield and significantly higher wheat grain yields were recorded with the application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer over control. Lowest bulk density, highest hydraulic conductivity and infiltration rate were recorded with the application of 37.5% recommended dose of fertilizer + 37.5% recommended dose of nitrogen + biofertilizer to wheat. Application of 50% recommended dose of fertilizer + 50% recommended dose of nitrogen to maize and application of 37.5% recommended dose of fertilizer + 37.5% recommended dose of nitrogen + bio fertilizer to wheat resulted in increased available N by 10.2, 19.6% and 15.5, 26.2%, available P by 13.7, 20.4% and 17.1, 33.2%, available K by 5.1, 7.6% and 6.4, 10.7% and organic carbon by 3.1, 7.3% and 4.3, 12.5% over control during 2011 and 2012, respectively. Interpretation: Grain yield, soil physical and chemical properties was found to be affected by the integrated nutrient management. It can be concluded that integrated use of crop residue mixed farmyard manure and inorganic sources of nutrients along with biofertilizers proved better nutrient management option for higher yield, soil health and net returns from maize-wheat cropping system. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).

Bagul S.Y.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Bharti R.K.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Dhar D.W.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Microalgae are efficient source of renewable biodiesel which should be able to meet the global demand of transport fuels. The wastewater grown indigenous microalga Chlorella sp. for fuel quality parameters was evaluated. Microalgae were successfully grown in secondary treated wastewater diluted with tap water (25% dilution) in glass house. The microalga showed a dry weight of 0.849 g/L with 27.1% lipid content on dry weight basis on 21st day of incubation. After transesterification, fatty acid methyl ester yield was 80.64% with major fatty acids as palmitic, linoleic, oleic and linolenic. The physical parameters predicted from empirical equations in the biodiesel showed cetane number as 56.5, iodine value of 75.5 gI2/100 g, high heating value of 40.1 MJ/kg, 135°C flash point, 4.05 mm2/s kinematic viscosity, with density of 0.86 g/ cu cm, and cold filter plugging point as 0.7°C. FTIR, 1H, 13C NMR spectrum confirmed the chemical nature of biodiesel. The quality of biodiesel was almost as per the criterion of ASTM standards, thus, wastewater grown Chlorella sp. can be used as a promising strain for biodiesel production.

Dutta A.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Mandal A.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Manna S.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh S.B.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2015

Soil organic matter (SOM) content is the major soil component affecting pesticide sorption. However, recent studies have highlighted the fact that it is not the total carbon content of the organic matter, but its chemical structure which have a profound effect on the pesticide’s sorption. In the present study, sorption of atrazine and metsulfuron-methyl herbicides was studied in four SOM fractions viz. commercial humic acid, commercial lignin, as well as humic acid and humin extracted from a compost. Sorption data was fitted to the Freundlich adsorption equation. In general, the Freundlich slope (1/n) values for both the herbicides were <1. Except for atrazine sorption on commercial humic acid, metsulfuron-methyl was more sorbed. Desorption results suggested that atrazine was more desorbed than metsulfuron-methyl. Lignin, which showed least sorption of both the herbicides, showed minimum desorption. Sorption of atrazine was best positively correlated with the alkyl carbon (adjusted R2 = 0.748) and carbonyl carbon (adjusted R2 = 0.498) but, their effect was statistically nonsignificant (P = 0.05). Metsulfuron-methyl sorption showed best positive correlation with carbonyl carbon (adjusted R2 = 0.960; P = 0.05) content. Sorption of both the herbicides showed negative correlation with O/N-alkyl carbon. Correlation of herbicide’s sorption with alkyl and carbonyl carbon content of SOM fractions suggested their contribution towards herbicide sorption. But, sorption of metsulfuron-methyl, relatively more polar than atrazine, was mainly governed by the polar groups in SOM. IR spectra showed that H-bonds and charge-transfer bonds between SOM fraction and herbicides probably operated as mechanisms of adsorption. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Bai B.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Kumar A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Choudhary A.K.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2016

Field experimentation was conducted at Palampur, India during 2011–2012 in an acid Alfisol to quantify the influence of integrated use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Rhizobium and inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on growth, productivity, profitability, and nutrient use efficiencies in garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) replicated thrice comprising 13 treatments involving AMF (Glomus mosseae), Rhizobium (R. leguminosarum), and inorganic N and P fertilizers. The results revealed that dual inoculation of pea seed with AMF and Rhizobium enhanced the plant height, leaf area index, and dry matter accumulation significantly by 19.4 and 13.1, 10.7 and 10.7, and 16.6 and 16.7%, respectively at 60 and 120 days after sowing (DAS). Similarly, dual inoculation exhibited significant respective increases of 9.5 and 14.6% in absolute and crop growth rates over generalized recommended NP potassium (K) dose (GRD) during 60–120 DAS. The dual inoculation led to significant respective increases of 1.0 and 2.2, 1.06 and 1.74, 0.21 and 1.5, and 1.05 and 1.60 folds in partial factor productivity, crop recovery efficiency, physiological efficiency, and % recovery of applied N and P, respectively over GRD. The magnitude of increase in pea productivity, net returns, and boron to carbon (B:C) ratio following dual inoculation was to the tune of 20, 54.4, and 104.1%, respectively over GRD. Dual inoculation also exhibited significant increases of 19.4 and 53.1% in production and monetary efficiencies of pea over GRD. Overall, dual inoculation of AMF and Rhizobium with 75% soil-test-based N and P dose in pea has great potential in enhancing pea productivity, profitability, and nutrient use efficiency besides saving about 25% fertilizer N and P without impairing pea productivity in Himalayan acid Alfisol. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

Tufchi M.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Rashmi,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Jha S.K.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh N.K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2015

The tryptophan concentration of the 85 BC2F2:3 progenies derived from a cross between normal maize inbred line, Pant 10k1375 and o2 donor line, CML 161 were determined. The genic marker phi057 positive progenies showed significant variation for tryptophan concentration in BC2F2:3 progenies with tryptophan as low as 0.046 per cent in BC2F2:3-80, whereas BC2F2:3-78 possessed maximum tryptophan concentration of 0.082 per cent. Normal maize line Pant10k1375 possessed tryptophan concentration of 0.040 per cent whereas o2 donor line CML161 had tryptophan concentration of 0.089 per cent. All the BC2F2:3 progenies had tryptophan concentration higher than the normal maize inbred, whereas none of the progenies had tryptophan concentration higher than the donor line CML161. Twelve lines of BC2F2:3 populations had tryptophan concentration 0.075 per cent or more, the level used to determine quality protein maize. Variability in amino acid modifier genes in the background and/or the insertion of transposable element at the regulatory sites indicated by unusual segregation pattern of phi057 and umc1066 in backcross progenies could be the possible reasons for such high level of variation in tryptophan concentration. The progenies with tryptophan concentration > 0.075 per cent may serve as potential germplasm in development of quality protein maize hybrids. © 2015, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

Mridha N.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Chattaraj S.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Chakraborty D.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Anand A.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Bioelectromagnetics | Year: 2016

Soil moisture stress during pod filling is a major constraint in production of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), a fundamentally dry land crop. We investigated effect of pre-sowing seed priming with static magnetic field (SMF) on alleviation of stress through improvement in radiation and water use efficiencies. Experiments were conducted under greenhouse and open field conditions with desi and kabuli genotypes. Seeds exposed to SMF (strength: 100 mT, exposure: 1 h) led to increase in root volume and surface area by 70% and 65%, respectively. This enabled the crop to utilize 60% higher moisture during the active growth period (78–118 days after sowing), when soil moisture became limiting. Both genotypes from treated seeds had better water utilization, biomass, and radiation use efficiencies (17%, 40%, and 26% over control). Seed pre-treatment with SMF could, therefore, be a viable option for chickpea to alleviate soil moisture stress in arid and semi-arid regions, helping in augmenting its production. It could be a viable option to improve growth and yield of chickpea under deficit soil moisture condition, as the selection and breeding program takes a decade before a tolerant variety is released. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:400–408, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kumar R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Nikam V.R.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma J.P.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

The livestock sector contributes 4.11% in overall GDP, however, its full potential has not been utilized, necessitating need of innovations and the use of best practices for sustainable and profitable production. Farmers are a rich source of indigenous knowledge and they innovate, experiment and adapt continuously. Documentation of these success stories may serve as a lightening conductor for other farmers. The study was carried out with 35 progressive farmers from 10 agro-climatic regions of Karnataka. The study found that stall feeding for sheep, silage preparation and storage in bunkers, low cost dairy shed and locally made milking machine were innovations made by farmers. New technology adopted by the farmers included improved crossbreeds of sheep, emu farming, high tech dairy unit and fast growing breeds of pig. Farmers frequently used literature and KVK personnel as a source of information. Development of marketing linkages, direct marketing and contract farming were important aspects in post production operations. Farmers used some of the best practices like integrated farming system; clean and hygienic methods of milking, regular vaccinations, daily chart of feed, silage and bunker storage, rotation period, use of high jet water spray for washing of animal etc. Study concluded that qualities and traits like ability to select and integrate enterprise wisely; knowing and judging market demand correctly; developing market linkages; constant seeking of information and practical intelligence to use locally available resources were the key to success of dairy farmers. Dairy extension should play a pivotal role in imparting training to farmers about these aspects and spreading the success of these innovative farmers through literature in other parts of the country for its replication on large scale.

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