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Idrissi O.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Sakr B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Dahan R.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Houasli C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plant Registrations | Year: 2012

Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus subsp. culinaris) is one of the oldest food legumes and is the third most important one in Morocco. It provides a valuable and balanced protein source in the human diet and plays an important role in cropping systems because of its ability to fix nitrogen. The productivity of the crop suffers because of numerous biotic and abiotic factors. High-yielding cultivars with improved characteristics are needed to increase lentil production and profitability. 'Chakkouf' (Reg. No. CV-34, PI 663991) lentil was developed using both modified pedigree and bulk methods by the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Morocco in collaboration with the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. Tested as ILL 6001-81, Chakkouf was approved for release in 2009 by the Office National de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits Alimentaires, Morocco. Chakkouf is a selection from an advanced F 6 line, FLIP 86- 15L, which was derived from a cross of 'Precoz' (ILL 4605; PI 515969) with 'Laird' (ILL 4349; PI 471916). Chakkouf is an early-flowering (~88 d), early-maturing (~139 d), and high-yielding (~40% over the local check variety 'L24') lentil cultivar with high zinc (62 mg kg -1) and iron (76.7 mg kg -1) in the seeds. Chakkouf showed good agronomic performance under drought conditions and wide adaptation for the Moroccan semiarid environments. Chakkouf showed field resistance for rust [caused by Uromyces viciae-fabae (Pers.) J. Schröt] and Ascochyta blight (caused by Ascochyta fabae Speg. f. sp. lentis) during the years of evaluation in replicated yield trials in all experimental stations. Chakkouf offers the producer an economic advantage in cropping systems where it is planted as a rainfed crop in moisture-deficient soils, usually in rotation with cereals. © Crop Science Society of America.


Henkrar F.,ICARDA INRA Cooperative Research Project | Henkrar F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Henkrar F.,Mohammed V University | El-Haddoury J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
3 Biotech | Year: 2016

Genetic characterization, diversity analysis and estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties using functional and random DNA markers linked to agronomic traits can provide relevant guidelines in selecting parents and designing new breeding strategies for marker-assisted wheat cultivar improvement. Here, we characterize 20 Moroccan and 19 exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using 47 functional and 7 linked random DNA markers associated with 21 loci of the most important traits for wheat breeding. The functional marker analysis revealed that 35, 45, and 10 % of the Moroccan cultivars, respectively have the rust resistance genes (Lr34/Yr18/Pm38), dwarfing genes (Rht1b or Rht2b alleles) and the leaf rust resistance gene (Lr68). The marker alleles for genes Lr37/Yr17/Sr38, Sr24 and Yr36 were present only in the exotic cultivars and absent in Moroccan cultivars. 25 % of cultivars had 1BL.1RS translocation. 70 % of the wheat cultivars had Ppo-D1a and Ppo-A1b associated with low polyphenol oxidase activity. 10 % of cultivars showed presence of a random DNA marker allele (175 bp) linked to Hessian fly resistance gene H22. The majority of the Moroccan cultivars were carrying alleles that impart good bread making quality. Neighbor joining (NJ) and principal coordinate analysis based on the marker data revealed a clear differentiation between elite Moroccan and exotic wheat cultivars. The results of this study are useful for selecting suitable parents for making targeted crosses in marker-assisted wheat breeding and enhancing genetic diversity in the wheat cultivars. © 2016, The Author(s).


Zaher H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Zaher H.,Cadi Ayyad University | Boulouha B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Baaziz M.,Cadi Ayyad University | And 4 more authors.
Plant OMICS | Year: 2011

'Picholine marocaine' is a predominant olive cultivar in Morocco, widely spread in all the olive growing regions. Clonal selection is one of the breeding methods used for developing varieties, and the clones that showed improved traits in field were selected from 'Picholine marocaine'. In this study, we compare the potential of microsatellite markers with morphological traits to differentiate the varieties and genotypes developed through clonal selections, and to estimate the relationships among the clonal selections, Moroccan local and Mediterranean varieties. For this purpose, we evaluated 7 clonal selections from 'Picholine marocaine', five Moroccan local and seven Mediterranean varieties for variation at 15 morphological traits and 20 microsatellite loci. The results clearly showed that microsatellite markers were more efficient compared to morphological traits to differentiate closely related varieties and genotypes developed through clonal selections,in addition to distantly related varieties. Nine out of the 20 microsatellites markers tested were polymorphic, revealing a total of 48 alleles. Average number of alleles per locus was 5.3, ranged from 3 to 9 alleles. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.42 to 1 with a mean of 0.79. Upon comparison, the dendrograms, constructed based on morphological traits and microsatellite markers, showed a positive and highly significant relationship. The combination of microsatellite marker profiles and the morphological characters serve as reliable tools for detailed description of olive varieties.


Idrissi O.,Ghent University | Idrissi O.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Houasli C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Udupa S.M.,ICARDA INRA Cooperative Research Project | And 4 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2015

Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is usually grown under rainfed environments and often encounters drought stress from limited rainfall. Little information is available about shoot and root traits in association with drought tolerance. We studied variability for root and shoot traits related to drought tolerance using an F6–8 population of 133 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross ILL6002 × ILL5888. We found important variation between genotypes and also high variation in heritability values for root and shoot traits at 38 days after sowing the parents and RILs under both well-watered and drought-stressed treatments during two consecutive seasons in the greenhouse. The higher heritability values were obtained under drought stress treatment and suggest that selection in water-limited environments would be more effective in achieving genetic gains. Drought had reduced trait values, except root–shoot ratio that was likely to be enhanced underlying the importance of this trait for drought tolerance. The quantitative and continuous distributions of variation are the evidence for polygenic control of these traits and the possibility of mapping the quantitative trait loci (QTL). Statistically significant associations between root and shoot traits such as dry shoot biomass and chlorophyll content were noted, highlighting the reliability of indirect selection for underground traits (root) based on these aboveground traits in breeding programs. Significant correlations and regressions were demonstrated between dry root biomass, lateral root number, root surface area, dry shoot biomass, root–shoot ratio, chlorophyll content and drought tolerance as estimated by wilting severity from limited water supply. This shows the importance of a well-developed root system and early biomass development for drought tolerance. Identification and mapping of QTL related to studied traits in this population would be a first step for starting marker-assisted selection. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Elboutahiri N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Thami-Alami I.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Udupa S.M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Udupa S.M.,ICARDA INRA Cooperative Research Project
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2010

Background. Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae are symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria in root nodules of forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). In Morocco, alfalfa is usually grown in marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions frequently affected by drought, extremes of temperature and soil pH, soil salinity and heavy metals, which affect biological nitrogen fixing ability of rhizobia and productivity of the host. This study examines phenotypic diversity for tolerance to the above stresses and genotypic diversity at Repetitive Extragenic Pallindromic DNA regions of Sinorhizobium nodulating alfalfa, sampled from marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco. Results. RsaI digestion of PCR amplified 16S rDNA of the 157 sampled isolates, assigned 136 isolates as S. meliloti and the rest as S. medicae. Further phenotyping of these alfalfa rhizobia for tolerance to the environmental stresses revealed a large degree of variation: 55.41%, 82.16%, 57.96% and 3.18% of the total isolates were tolerant to NaCl (>513 mM), water stress (-1.5 MPa), high temperature (40°C) and low pH (3.5), respectively. Sixty-seven isolates of S. meliloti and thirteen isolates of S. medicae that were tolerant to salinity were also tolerant to water stress. Most of the isolates of the two species showed tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Mn and Zn) and antibiotics (chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin and tetracycline). The phenotypic clusters observed by the cluster analysis clearly showed adaptations of the S. meliloti and S. medicae strains to the multiple stresses. Genotyping with rep-PCR revealed higher genetic diversity within these phenotypic clusters and classified all the 157 isolates into 148 genotypes. No relationship between genotypic profiles and the phenotypes was observed. The Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed that largest proportion of significant (P < 0.01) genetic variation was distributed within regions (89%) than among regions (11%). Conclusion. High degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity is present in S. meliloti and S. medicae populations from marginal soils affected by salt and drought, in arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco. Some of the tolerant strains have a potential for exploitation in salt and drought affected areas for biological nitrogen fixation in alfalfa. © 2010 Elboutahiri et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Zarkti H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Zarkti H.,Hassan 1er University | Ouabbou H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Taghouti M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Plant OMICS | Year: 2010

Morocco is characterized by its tremendous diversity at all levels for various species, including several crop species, such as durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The precise identification and characterization of the accessions conserved in the National Genebank of Morocco is of great value for quantifying the extent of genetic diversity within accessions, detecting duplications of genetic materials in germplasm collection, improving and securing durum wheat cultivars in Morocco and in the world. The objective of the present study was to characterize a subset of 23 Moroccan durum wheat accessions held in the genebank for their variability related to quality properties using protein markers of prolamin loci (gliadin and glutenin). The allelic variation at prolamin proteins were studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis namely, A-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. The prolamin differences in the durum accessions were analyzed at the Glu-A1, Glu-A2, Glu-A3/Glu-B3/Glu-B2, and Gli-B1 loci. For the HMW-GS, all the durum wheat accessions studied possess the null subunit at Glu-A1, except for the accession number 4 which possesses the HMW-GS1. At the Glu-B1 alleles, results showed that the majority of accessions possess subunits 20x + 20y or subunit 20; accessions 2, 4, and 19 possess subunits 6 + 8; accession 18 possesses subunit 7 and accessions 6, 7, and 22 possess subunits 7 + 8. The electrophoretic data indicated that the evaluated germplasm encompasses useful variations at prolamin loci. Further investigations are in progress to study the genetic variations in Moroccan durum wheat collection using molecular markers.


Zarkti H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Zarkti H.,University Hassan I | Ouabbou H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hilali A.,University Hassan I | Udupa S.M.,ICARDA INRA Cooperative Research Project
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Characterization of germplasm by agro-morphological, biochemical and DNA-markers provide powerful tools to precise germplasm identification, quantify the genetic diversity and to estimate the phylogenetic relationship among accessions in many crop species. The objective of the present study was to characterize a subset of 23 Moroccan relevant durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) accessions selected from the National Gene Bank of Morocco for their genetic diversity using agromorphological and microsatellite markers, and to measure the genetic distance among these accessions using UPGMA cluster analysis. Durum wheat accessions were planted under field condition and their agro-morphological characters such as days to emergence, days to tillering, days to booting, days to head emergence, days to flowering, days to physiological maturity, plant height, and thousands kernel weight were recorded. The same set of accessions was also analyzed for polymorphism with 7 genomic microsatellite markers. The results indicated that the evaluated germplasm comprises of useful variation for future breeding activities. Furthermore, the cluster analysis based on microsatellite data showed the closest correlation with the groupings of particular genotypes based on agro-morphological characters. The authors results suggest that the characterization based on agro-morphological traits and genotypic markers will be a useful tool to the breeders to choose genotypes with appropriate diversity. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Idrissi O.,Ghent University | Idrissi O.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Udupa M.S.,ICARDA INRA Cooperative Research Project | de Keyser E.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | And 3 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2015

Genetic diversity of 70 Mediterranean lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medicus) landraces was assessed using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). These landraces were also assessed for variation in root and shoot traits and drought tolerance as estimated by relative water content (RWC), water losing rate (WLR) and wilting score (WS). Genetic diversity and clear differentiation of Moroccan landraces from those from northern Mediterranean regions (Italy, Turkey and Greece) were found. High genetic variation in root and shoot traits and traits related to drought tolerance was also observed. No relationship was found between drought tolerance of landraces and their geographic origin. Landraces with higher dry root biomass, chlorophyll content and root–shoot ratio were drought tolerant as evidenced by higher RWC and lower WLR and wilting severity. Kruskal–Wallis non-parametric test (K-W) was used to find SSRs and AFLPs associated with RWC, WLR and WS. Regression analysis showed six SSR and AFLP alleles explaining the highest phenotypic variation of RWC, WLR and WS (ranging from 21 to 50 % for SSRs and from 14 to 33 % for AFLPs). Functional genetic diversity analysis showed relationships between drought response of landraces and linked SSR and AFLP alleles to RWC, WLR and WS according to K-W test using canonical discriminant analysis. Our results confirm the feasibility of using association mapping to find DNA markers associated with drought tolerance in larger numbers of lentil landraces. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Nordine A.,National Agency of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Nordine A.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Udupa S.M.,ICARDA INRA Cooperative Research Project | Iraqi D.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | And 4 more authors.
Chemistry and Biodiversity | Year: 2016

In this study, the in vitro and in vivo essential oil (EO) composition and genetic variability in six micropropagated genotypes of Thymus saturejoides Coss., a Mediterranean medicinal and aromatic plant, were analyzed by GC/MS and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Yield and composition of the EO varied between genotypes. Cluster analysis based on RAPD data and EO grouped the six genotypes in three groups in both culture conditions, thus showing considerable intraspecific genetic and chemical variations. Applying the Mantel test, the result showed a significant correlation between the two proximity matrices RAPD and EO obtained from in vitro genotypes, whereas this correlation was not observed when using the EO obtained from the in vivo genotypes. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.


PubMed | Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research, National Agency of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Mohammed V University, ICARDA INRA Cooperative Research Project and Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chemistry & biodiversity | Year: 2016

In this study, the in vitro and in vivo essential oil (EO) composition and genetic variability in six micropropagated genotypes of Thymus saturejoides Coss., a Mediterranean medicinal and aromatic plant, were analyzed by GC/MS and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Yield and composition of the EO varied between genotypes. Cluster analysis based on RAPD data and EO grouped the six genotypes in three groups in both culture conditions, thus showing considerable intraspecific genetic and chemical variations. Applying the Mantel test, the result showed a significant correlation between the two proximity matrices RAPD and EO obtained from in vitro genotypes, whereas this correlation was not observed when using the EO obtained from the in vivo genotypes.

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