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Kumar Meena R.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumar Meena R.,University of Hyderabad | Kumar Singh R.,Banaras Hindu University | Pal Singh N.,Banaras Hindu University | And 4 more authors.
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology

In the present investigation, four low temperature surviving PGPR strains were isolated from root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plant growing widely in different agro-climatic regions of the great northern Indian plains made fertile by the mighty river Ganges. All the PGPR strains were able to show growth at upto 5. °C in yeast extract-mannitol-mineral salts broth, but isolates PR-12-12 and PR-12-15 showing significantly higher cell growth as compared to other PGPR strains. In order to study their in-vitro characteristics, all PGPR strains are able to solubilize phosphate (Pi) on Pikovskaya agar plates ranging from 16-25. mm (7 DAI). Besides solubilizing Pi they produced phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the range of 62.7-198.1. μg/ml. These PGPR strains exhibited highest resistance to DNA gyrase inhibitor antibiotic nalidixic acid and least resistance to ciprofloxacin. The results strongly suggest that the PGPR strains characterized under present investigation may be useful as a novel biofertilizers for crop production at low temperature of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of India. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ghosh B.N.,ICAR Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | Meena V.S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Alam N.M.,ICAR Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | Dogra P.,ICAR Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | And 3 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment

The carbon management index (CMI) and labile organic carbon (LOC) pools are postulated as very sensitive indicators of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) due to land degradation within a short time in response to management practices. To test this hypothesis, we investigated LOC and CMI under a field experiment (2007-2013) in relation to runoff, soil loss, maize and wheat yields on a 2% (1.15°) land slope of the Indian Himalayas. In this study, the impacts of several resource conservation practices, including different combinations of vegetative barriers (VB), minimum tillage (MT), different organic amendments (OA) and weed mulch, were evaluated. Results revealed that the plots under MT + OA with three applications of weed mulch had more SOC, macroaggregate-associated C concentrations and macroaggregates than conventional tillage (CT) + NPK with chemical weed control. Carbon management index varied from 47 to 59 and 42 to 55% with different conservation practices at depths of 0-5 and 5-15. cm depths, respectively. Incorporation of weed mulch along with application of OM, MT and VB (by Palmarosa) under MT improved CMI by 19.7 and 24.2% compared to CT plots with VB (by Panicum) and inorganic NPK at depths of 0-5 and 5-15. cm, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between CMI and maize yield (r= 0.948; n= 24; P<. 0.01), CMI and wheat yield (r= 0.872; n= 24; P< 0.01) and CMI and wheat equivalent yield (r= 0.906; n= 24; P< 0.01). However, significant negative correlations were obtained for CMI and runoff (r= -0.701; n= 20; P< 0.01) and CMI and soil loss (r= -0.768; n= 20; P< 0.01). Results established that Palmarosa as VB along with OA plus weed-mulch under MT was the best management practice for decreasing runoff and soil loss and increasing system productivity on a 2% slope in the region. The single value CMI was strongly positively correlated with crop productivity and negatively correlated with soil loss. Hence, this single value CMI could potentially be used for assessment of soil degradation elsewhere. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Saha M.,Banaras Hindu University | Maurya B.R.,Banaras Hindu University | Meena V.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Meena V.S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology

The present investigation comprises a total of fifty potassium solubilizing bacterial (KSB) strains which were isolated from Oryza sativa, Musa paradisiaca, Zea mays, Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum L. These strains were evaluated for their ability to solubilize the fixed K from waste biotite (WB). On the basis of K-solublization, the seven most efficient KSB strains were evaluated for K-solublizing dynamics from the WB at 7, 14 and 21 DAI (days after incubation) on MAMs (Modified Solid Aleksandrov Medium). Further, these screened seven KSB strains were used for their morphological, physiological and molecular chacterization. The KSB strains Bacillus licheniformis BHU18 and Pseudomonas azotoformans BHU21 showed significantly higher K-solublization 7.22 and 6.03 μg mL-1 at 30 °C and pH 7.0, respectively. A significantely higher zone of solubilization significantly higher was recorded with Pseudomonas azotoformans BHU21 (3.61 cm). Bacillus licheniformis BHU18 produced significantly higher (~23 μg mL-1) concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid. The diversity of KSB as bioinoculants to release potassium provides a win-win situation. Therefore, it is crucial to adopt efficient KSB strain interventions for the judicious use of chemical and biological resources for maximizing food production while reducing pollution and rejuvenating degraded land for agricultural benefit. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kumar A.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Metwal M.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Kaur S.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Gupta A.K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | And 7 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science

The science of nutritional biology has progressed extensively over the last decade to develop food-based nutraceuticals as a form of highly personalized medicine or therapeutic agent. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] is a crop with potentially tremendous but under-explored source of nutraceutical properties as compared to other regularly consumed cereals. In the era of growing divide and drawback of nutritional security, these characteristics must be harnessed to develop finger millet as a novel functional food. In addition, introgression of these traits into other staple crops can improve the well-being of the general population on a global scale. The objective of this review is to emphasize the importance of biofortification of finger millet in context of universal health and nutritional crisis. We have specifically highlighted the role that recent biotechnological advancements have to offer for enrichment of its nutritional value and how these developments can commission to the field of nutritional biology by opening new avenues for future research. © 2016 Kumar, Metwal, Kaur, Gupta, Puranik, Singh, Singh, Gupta, Babu, Sood and Yadav. Source

Mishra K.K.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Pal R.S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Bhatt J.C.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture

Total phenolics, condensed tannins, ascorbic acid, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, ferric reducing antioxidant power, radical scavenging activity (RSA) on DPPH&ABTS and metal chelating activity of methanolic and aqueous extract from cap and stipe of Lentinula edodes have been evaluated. Different extracts contained 2.40-5.60 mg gallic acid equivalent of phenolics, 1.23-3.26 mg catechins equivalent of condensed tannins, and 2.31-11.96 mg ascorbic acid per gram of extract. Aqueous extract from cap contained higher phenolics, condensed tannins, ascorbic acid, RSA on DPPH and ABTS, reducing power, and metal chelating activity. We found that this mushroom species present antioxidant potential especially higher for cap indicating that the cap is the material that most contributes to the antioxidant activity. Source

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