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Subash N.,P.A. College | Subash N.,ICaR systems | Singh S.S.,P.A. College | Priya N.,P.A. College
Agricultural Water Management

Frequent occurrences of extreme rainfall events create severe threat to agricultural production. This is one of the most significant consequences of global warming due to increase in greenhouse gases. A precise understanding of frequency and magnitude of these events and its influence on agricultural productivity can extensively help in policy decisions and planning agricultural as well as water management operations. This study has analyzed observed trends in extreme rainfall indices during monsoon months as well as seasonally at four stations located over different agro-ecological zones of Bihar, namely Samastipur (zone-I), Madhepura (zone-II), Sabour (zone-IIIA) and Patna (zone-IIIB). Mann-Kendall nonparametric test was employed for detection of trends and the slopes of the trend lines were determined using the method of least square linear fitting. Since rice is the important crop in this part of the region, the vulnerability of extreme rainfall indices on productivity also analysed using simple correlations. All the sites show an increasing trend of number of days with rainfall 10.0. cm or more (very heavy precipitation event) during monsoon season. Sabour shows a significant increasing trend of 0.4 and 0.6 day/decade, respectively during monsoon and annually. During September, occurrence of heavy precipitation events over Madhepura recorded a significant positive trend of 0.4 day/decade. Highly significant magnitudes of increasing trends were noticed for Madhepura (46.6. mm/decade) and Sabour (27.5. mm/decade) for occurrence of highest five-day total precipitation during monsoon season. The results show statistically significant positive trends of number of days with rainfall > R2.5. cm for all the study sites during August. All the sites, the magnitude of highest 1-day and 5-days maximum rainfall is showing increasing trend. Increasing trends of fraction of rainfall due to extremely wet days is also showing increasing trend in all the sites. The rice productivity showed 10th degree polynomial technological trend in all the sites and steady increase in all the sites except Samastipur. The correlation between extreme rainfall indices during monsoon season and productivity anomaly index indicate that almost all the extreme rainfall indices contribute positively to rice productivity except P95pTOT and R99pTOT over Sabour and R7.5. cm over Patna. If we assume the observed increasing trends in different extreme rainfall indices will continue, as estimated by the global circulation models, the chances of occurrence of intense rainfall events in near future will also increase proportionally and efforts should be made to prepare detailed site specific-at least at district level-disastrous management plan especially to reduce impact of extreme rainfall event on agricultural production system under changing climatic scenarios. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Venkatesan P.,ICaR systems | Sundaramari M.,Gandhigram Rural Institute | Venkattakumar R.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Indigenous Tribal Agricultural Practices (ITAPs) have facilitated intensive farming for a long period of time without significant deterioration of land or decline in crop production. The tribes of the Kolli hills of Namakkal district in Tamil Nadu possessed rich tradition, heritage and experience in agriculture. Their rich wisdom in ITAPs can effectively be utilized for sustainable agricultural development of tribal areas by appropriately blending the ITAPs with recommended production technological package. In this context, a study was done for collecting, classifying, documenting, analyzing the rationality, and studying the adoption of the selected ITAPs in low land paddy. About 65 ITAPs on low land paddy, in different clusters of villages of Kolli hills were documented. For assessing the rationality, the selected ITAPs were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 35 ITAPs were related to crop production and the second 30 ITAPs were related to plant protection. Having identified and selected the list of ITAPs with their rationality scores, further analysis was undertaken to test verify their extent of adoption. The rational and effective ITAPs should be blended into the technology package for transfer of technology, so that the agricultural development will be sustainable. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved. Source

Method and system for reading and validating identity documents The method comprises:acquiring an image of a first and/or a second side of an identity document for a visible light spectrum using a camera of a portable device; - automatically reading MRZ characters and/or VIZ characters in said acquired image; andidentifying the type or model of said identity document, starting by correcting perspective distortions caused by a bad relative position of the identity document with respect to the camera for the purpose of obtaining a corrected and substantially rectangular image of the first and/or second side of the document at a predetermined scale which is used to perform, automatically, said identification of the identity document type or model and to automatically read and identify text and/or non-text information included in said corrected and substantially rectangular image. The system is suitable for implementing the proposed method.

The overall objective of ID_MOBILE is the development of a market-ready multiplatform system to verify the authenticity of identity documents by means of smartphones and tablets, based on a patent of our property and long commercial experience in the sector. This innovation will drive the change of our companys current license-based model to a Cloud-based service model as part of our plan for growth into new markets worth 300 million over a 4-year period. At ICAR Vision Systems we have spent the last ten years providing our clients banks, hotels, casinos, telecoms and IKEA, among others with the technological edge in the automated detection of document fraud. ID_MOBILE is part of our ID Cloud platform designed to enable smartphones and tablets to reliably perform the same ID reading and verification tasks as our desktop-based systems. This will help solve client support and capture bottlenecks in sectors like Financial Services and Consumer Credit, Hotels and Resorts, Insurance, Telecom, Utilities and others that use validation to avoid identity fraud, a problem that causes losses of up to 500 billion to European companies and 20 billion to EU individuals, according to Commission estimates. The feasibility assessment intended to be undertaken in Phase 1 covers a series of technical issues regarding the capture and processing of identity documents with mobile devices, including the choice of image capture improvement tools for development, the feasibility of facial recognition features, of manual verification modules for detected fraud and of data acquisition by streaming video. Also studied are issues related to the business plan, such as an in-depth market study of new sectors and services, IPR protection and a partner search for technology integrators.

Singh V.K.,ICaR systems | Rani M.,ICaR systems | Dwivedi B.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh S.K.,ICaR systems | And 3 more authors.
Soil Use and Management

Soil organic carbon (SOC) content and its spatial distribution in the Northern Gangetic Plain (NGP) Zone of India were determined to establish the cause-effect relationship between agro-ecological characteristics, prevailing crop management practices and SOC stock. Area Spread Index (ASI) approach was used to collect soil samples from the NGP areas supporting predominant cropping systems. Exponential ordinary kriging was found most suitable geo-statistical model for developing SOC surface maps of the NGP. Predicted surface maps indicated that 43.7% area of NGP had 0.5-0.6% SOC, while the rest of the area was equally distributed with high (0.61-0.75%) and low (< 0.5%) SOC content levels. Averaged across cropping systems, maximum SOC content was recorded in Bhabar and Tarai Zone (BTZ), followed by Central Plain Zone (CPZ), Mid-Western Plain Zone (MWPZ), Western Plain Zone (WPZ) and South-Western Plain Zone (SWPZ) of the NGP. The SOC stock was above the optimum threshold (> 12.5 Mg/ha) in 97.8, 57.6 and 46.4% areas of BTZ, CPZ and MWPZ, respectively. Only 9.8 and 0.4% area of WPZ and SWPZ, respectively, had SOC stock above the threshold value. The variation in SOC stock was attributed largely to carbon addition through recycling of organic sources, cropping systems, tillage intensity, crop or residue cover and land-use efficiency, nutrient-use pattern, soil texture and prevailing ecosystem. Adoption of conservation agriculture, balanced use of nutrients, inclusion of legumes in cropping systems and agro-forestry were suggested for enhancing SOC stock in the region. © 2015 British Society of Soil Science. Source

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