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Verma N.,ICaR systems | Kashyap P.,ICaR systems | Arya M.P.S.,ICaR systems | Singh M.P.,ICaR systems | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2017

Women play substantial roles in farming systems and are vigorously involved in farm and livestock management, but their contribution in farming systems is generally overlooked and undervalued which has reflected them as invisible workers. Considering the importance of women's role in farming systems, the present study was conducted to study the extent of work performed by women in pre-dominant farming systems of western plain zone of Uttar Pradesh (WPZ). A total of 60 farm women were selected as respondents through random sampling technique. The results of study reveals that the farm women spent their maximum time (2204 hr) in livestock management activities amongst which fodder collection (574 hrs)was found the most time consuming activity. In crop production, maximum time was spent in detrashing and detopping (290-276 hr) of sugarcane followed by weeding activities (104 hr). Hoeing and weeding (198 hr) were found most time consuming activitiy amongst horticulture.The farm women found solely engaged in household, post-harvest management and processing activities. The status of farm women reported to be low due to her limited access to economic resources, viz. agricultural land, animals, income from farm etc. The study has shown that on an averagea farm woman contributes nearly 5232 hr annually in the pre-dominant farming systems as family worker which has an estimated economic value worth 10,104,6 whereas, the farm women working as hired labourers contribute 1656 hours annually receives 33,007 which is 14 to 35% less than the government wage rate.


Subash N.,P.A. College | Subash N.,ICaR systems | Singh S.S.,P.A. College | Priya N.,P.A. College
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2011

Frequent occurrences of extreme rainfall events create severe threat to agricultural production. This is one of the most significant consequences of global warming due to increase in greenhouse gases. A precise understanding of frequency and magnitude of these events and its influence on agricultural productivity can extensively help in policy decisions and planning agricultural as well as water management operations. This study has analyzed observed trends in extreme rainfall indices during monsoon months as well as seasonally at four stations located over different agro-ecological zones of Bihar, namely Samastipur (zone-I), Madhepura (zone-II), Sabour (zone-IIIA) and Patna (zone-IIIB). Mann-Kendall nonparametric test was employed for detection of trends and the slopes of the trend lines were determined using the method of least square linear fitting. Since rice is the important crop in this part of the region, the vulnerability of extreme rainfall indices on productivity also analysed using simple correlations. All the sites show an increasing trend of number of days with rainfall 10.0. cm or more (very heavy precipitation event) during monsoon season. Sabour shows a significant increasing trend of 0.4 and 0.6 day/decade, respectively during monsoon and annually. During September, occurrence of heavy precipitation events over Madhepura recorded a significant positive trend of 0.4 day/decade. Highly significant magnitudes of increasing trends were noticed for Madhepura (46.6. mm/decade) and Sabour (27.5. mm/decade) for occurrence of highest five-day total precipitation during monsoon season. The results show statistically significant positive trends of number of days with rainfall > R2.5. cm for all the study sites during August. All the sites, the magnitude of highest 1-day and 5-days maximum rainfall is showing increasing trend. Increasing trends of fraction of rainfall due to extremely wet days is also showing increasing trend in all the sites. The rice productivity showed 10th degree polynomial technological trend in all the sites and steady increase in all the sites except Samastipur. The correlation between extreme rainfall indices during monsoon season and productivity anomaly index indicate that almost all the extreme rainfall indices contribute positively to rice productivity except P95pTOT and R99pTOT over Sabour and R7.5. cm over Patna. If we assume the observed increasing trends in different extreme rainfall indices will continue, as estimated by the global circulation models, the chances of occurrence of intense rainfall events in near future will also increase proportionally and efforts should be made to prepare detailed site specific-at least at district level-disastrous management plan especially to reduce impact of extreme rainfall event on agricultural production system under changing climatic scenarios. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Chaudhary V.P.,ICaR systems | Gangwar B.,ICaR systems | Pandey D.K.,ICaR systems
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2014

The field investigations were carried out for energy dynamics in terms of various input used and outputs harvested under rice (Oryza satva L.) based cropping systems at the research farm of Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research, Modipuram, Meerut, India during 2003 to 2007. The experiments were conducted with five rice planting methods, viz. direct seeding; 1) dry bed, drum seeding 2) wet bed, mechanical transplanting 3) puddled, mechanical transplanting 4) unpuddled and manual transplanting 5) puddled and three cropping systems involving rice (Oryza satva Z.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori. Paol), rice-chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) and rice-mustard (Brassica Juncia L. czernj & coss.) crops in randomized block design replicated three times. The results revealed that the input energy consumed was 40, 27, 14 and 7.7 percent in fertilizer, diesel fuel for irrigation, machineries, and labour of total energy used, respectively, for crop production in rice-wheat system. The comparison of different cropping systems shows that rice-chickpea consumed least input energy (i.e. 30, 698 to 35, 046 MJ/ha) followed by rice-mustard (varied from 36, 195 to 40, 543 M J/ha) and rice-wheat (varied from 39, 984 to 44, 332 MJ/ha). System wise energy analysis indicated that the highest input energy (44, 332 MJ/ha) was consumed in manually transplanted (puddled) followed by mechanically transplanted-puddled (43, 686 MJ/ha) while lowest was mechanically transplanted-unpuddled (39, 984 MJ/ha), direct seeded-dry bed (42, 027 MJ/ha) and drum seeded-wet bed (42, 197 MJ/ha) in rice-wheat system. The output energy was highest in drum seeded (212, 798 MJ/ha) closely followed by direct seeded (211, 350 MJ/ha) and lowest was manually transplanted in puddled (193, 916 MJ/ha) which is statistically at par. The net return energy of the system was found to be high in drum seeded (170, 595 MJ/ha) followed by direct seeded (169, 271 MJ/ha) and lowest was in manually transplanted in puddled (149, 390 MJ/ha) which were nonsignificant. The direct and drum seeded required about 5 percent less input energy and gave 8 to 9 percent higher output energy as compared to manually transplanted in puddled field. Whereas, in case of mechanically transplanted (unpuddled), it required 10 percent less input energy and provided 6 percent higher output energy, however, in puddled condition mechanically transplanted required 1.5 percent less input energy and gave 3 percent higher output energy as compared to manually transplanted (puddled). Similar pattern of energy dynamics were also found in rice-chickpea and ricemustard systems.


Venkatesan P.,ICaR systems | Sundaramari M.,Gandhigram Rural Institute | Venkattakumar R.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2016

Indigenous Tribal Agricultural Practices (ITAPs) have facilitated intensive farming for a long period of time without significant deterioration of land or decline in crop production. The tribes of the Kolli hills of Namakkal district in Tamil Nadu possessed rich tradition, heritage and experience in agriculture. Their rich wisdom in ITAPs can effectively be utilized for sustainable agricultural development of tribal areas by appropriately blending the ITAPs with recommended production technological package. In this context, a study was done for collecting, classifying, documenting, analyzing the rationality, and studying the adoption of the selected ITAPs in low land paddy. About 65 ITAPs on low land paddy, in different clusters of villages of Kolli hills were documented. For assessing the rationality, the selected ITAPs were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 35 ITAPs were related to crop production and the second 30 ITAPs were related to plant protection. Having identified and selected the list of ITAPs with their rationality scores, further analysis was undertaken to test verify their extent of adoption. The rational and effective ITAPs should be blended into the technology package for transfer of technology, so that the agricultural development will be sustainable. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.


Chaudhary V.P.,ICaR systems | Gangwar B.,ICaR systems | Gangwar S.,ICaR systems
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2015

Tillage influence soil aggregation, microbial activity in the soil and enhance the oxidation of soil organic carbon (SOC). A long term study was carried out to investigate the impact of conservation tillage on soil aggregates, SOC and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in rice (Oryza sativa)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system at experimental station of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh under the aegis of All India Co-ordinated Research Project (AICRP) of Integrated Farming Systems (IFS) during 2003-10. The four rice crop establishment techniques i.e., direct seeding in zero tilled soil (P1), wet seeding of sprouted rice seed with drum seeder in puddled condition (P2), manual transplanting in puddled soil (P3) and mechanical transplanting in puddled soil (P4) served as horizontal treatments while four tillage practices in wheat (i.e. T1-rotavator till drill, T2-conventional sowing, T3-strip till drilling, T4-Zero till drilling) served as vertical treatments in strip plot design with three replications. Total water stable aggregates (WSA)(> 0.053 mm) in the soil at surface 0-15 cm depth, ranged between 69.92 and 88.78 % in rice crop, while in winter crop it varied between 74.62 and 83.57 %. According to mean weight diameter (MWD) different treatments in regard to crop establishment technique of rice could be ranked in the order P1 > P4 > P2 > P3 and T4 > T3 > T1 > T2 in wheat strip regarding tillage practices. However, the MWD decreased drastically in lower soil depth. The SOC ranged from 4.06 to 5.67 g kg-1 in soil samples from rice plots and from 4.32 to 5.24 g kg-1 in different tillage treatments in wheat at surface 0-15 cm layer. SOC contents in direct seeding in zero tilled rice strip (5.67 g kg-1) and zero till drill in wheat strip (5.24 g kg-1) were significantly higher than other treatments in all soil depth. The MBC of direct drilling zero tilled (441 μg g-1) in rice strip and zero till drill in wheat strip (395 μg g-1) had the highest values while the manually transplanted-puddled (383 μg g-1) rice and conventional wheat sowing had the lowest values (334 μg g-1) at all the depths. The differences were significant in at P < 0.01 for both SOC and MBC and ranked in order of P1 > P2 > P4 > P3 of rice crop strip and T4 > T3 > T> T2 in wheat crop strip under 0-15 cm soil depth. The decrease in SOC an average all treatments was about 51 and 89 percent from layer 0-15 to 15-30 and 30-45 cm, respectively. The interaction effects of P at same level of T and T at same level of P treatments on MWD, SOC and MBC were significant (P < 0.01) in 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil depth.


Berenguel A.,University of Barcelona | Berenguel A.,ICaR systems | Terrades O.R.,University of Barcelona | Llados J.,University of Barcelona | Canero C.,ICaR systems
Proceedings - 12th IAPR International Workshop on Document Analysis Systems, DAS 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper is focused on the detection of counterfeit photocopy banknotes. The main difficulty is to work on a real industrial scenario without any constraint about the acquisition device and with a single image. The main contributions of this paper are twofold: first the adaptation and performance evaluation of existing approaches to classify the genuine and photocopy banknotes using background texture printing analysis, which have not been applied into this context before. Second, a new dataset of Euro banknotes images acquired with several cameras under different luminance conditions to evaluate these methods. Experiments on the proposed algorithms show that mixing SIFT features and sparse coding dictionaries achieves quasi perfect classification using a linear SVM with the created dataset. Approaches using dictionaries to cover all possible texture variations have demonstrated to be robust and outperform the state-of-the-art methods using the proposed benchmark. © 2016 IEEE.


The method comprises:a) acquiring an image of a first and/or a second side of an identity document for a visible light spectrum using a camera of a portable device;b) automatically reading MRZ characters and/or VIZ characters in said acquired image; andc) identifying the model of said identity document, starting by correcting, before or after said step a), perspective distortions caused by a bad relative position of the identity document with respect to the camera for the purpose of obtaining a corrected and substantially rectangular image of the first and/or second side of the document at a predetermined scale which is used to perform, automatically, said identification of the identity document model and to automatically read and identify text and/or non-text information included in said corrected and substantially rectangular image. The system is suitable for implementing the proposed method.


Method and system for reading and validating identity documents The method comprises:acquiring an image of a first and/or a second side of an identity document for a visible light spectrum using a camera of a portable device; - automatically reading MRZ characters and/or VIZ characters in said acquired image; andidentifying the type or model of said identity document, starting by correcting perspective distortions caused by a bad relative position of the identity document with respect to the camera for the purpose of obtaining a corrected and substantially rectangular image of the first and/or second side of the document at a predetermined scale which is used to perform, automatically, said identification of the identity document type or model and to automatically read and identify text and/or non-text information included in said corrected and substantially rectangular image. The system is suitable for implementing the proposed method.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SME-1 | Phase: ICT-37-2014-1 | Award Amount: 71.43K | Year: 2015

The overall objective of ID_MOBILE is the development of a market-ready multiplatform system to verify the authenticity of identity documents by means of smartphones and tablets, based on a patent of our property and long commercial experience in the sector. This innovation will drive the change of our companys current license-based model to a Cloud-based service model as part of our plan for growth into new markets worth 300 million over a 4-year period. At ICAR Vision Systems we have spent the last ten years providing our clients banks, hotels, casinos, telecoms and IKEA, among others with the technological edge in the automated detection of document fraud. ID_MOBILE is part of our ID Cloud platform designed to enable smartphones and tablets to reliably perform the same ID reading and verification tasks as our desktop-based systems. This will help solve client support and capture bottlenecks in sectors like Financial Services and Consumer Credit, Hotels and Resorts, Insurance, Telecom, Utilities and others that use validation to avoid identity fraud, a problem that causes losses of up to 500 billion to European companies and 20 billion to EU individuals, according to Commission estimates. The feasibility assessment intended to be undertaken in Phase 1 covers a series of technical issues regarding the capture and processing of identity documents with mobile devices, including the choice of image capture improvement tools for development, the feasibility of facial recognition features, of manual verification modules for detected fraud and of data acquisition by streaming video. Also studied are issues related to the business plan, such as an in-depth market study of new sectors and services, IPR protection and a partner search for technology integrators.


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