Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR

Coimbatore Tamil Nadu, India

Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR

Coimbatore Tamil Nadu, India
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Govindaraj P.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR | Sreenivasa V.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR
Sugar Tech | Year: 2014

Sugarcane belongs to the family Poaceae (Gramineae) and its inflorescence is a panicle called as arrow. In general each flowering stalk terminates into single arrow. In EA Bethuadahari, a clone belongs to Erianthus arundinaceus produced multiple inflorescence from each stalk. Up to four inflorescences in each stalk with varying length was observed. Slight variation in pollen fertility was also recorded. Although it has less significance for commercial exploitation, its importance in crossing programme, genetical studies and implication of genes controlling multiple inflorescence in other Gramineae species are discussed. © 2013, Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Suresha G.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Suresha G.S.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR | Kumar S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Santha I.M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Biologia (Poland) | Year: 2013

The synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the most abundant fatty acids in plants, begins with a reaction catalyzed by fatty acid desaturase-2 (FAD2; EC, also called as microsomal Δ12 oleate desaturase. The gene (Bjfad2; GenBank accession No. EF639848) coding for this enzyme from Brassica juncea was previously isolated and characterized. However, functional identity of Bjfad2 was not established. Utilizing the known Bjfad2 cDNA sequence, the ORF of Bjfad2 gene was cloned into the pMAL C2X Escherichia coli expression vector and produced recombinant plasmid by insertion of isolated ORF downstream to the maltose-binding protein coding sequence. The pMALC2X-Bjfad2 vector was used to transform the TB1 strain of E. coli. Induced expression of pMAL-BJFAD2 fused product resulted in the synthesis of a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 80 kDa, which was 8 kDa less than calculated mass as determined by SDS-PAGE, since the fused MalE-Bjfad2 gene contains eight additional codons located between the MalE and Bjfad2 gene. In vitro activity assay of oleate desaturase using the corresponding bacterial crude extracts confirmed that the polypeptide was the product of the Bjfad2 gene. The reaction products analysis of the fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography showed the presence of a new peak with a similar retention time to linoleic acid, which was absent in the control activity assay without electron donors. Thus, B. juncea gene has been functionally identified since it encodes the enzyme that catalyzed the desaturation of oleate to linoleate. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

Suresha G.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Suresha G.S.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR | Rai R.D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Santha I.M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2012

In plants the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) associated oleate desaturase (FAD2) is the key enzyme responsible for the production of linoleic acid in non-photosynthetic tissues. In the present study, we isolated a novel gene encoding fad2 isoform through RT-PCR, designated as Bjfad2 (Gen Bank Accession No. EF639848) from Brassica juncea, important source of edible oil in India. The cDNA sequence of Bjfad2 was 1,445 bp containing a 1,155 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 384 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences of the isolated gene displayed the typical three histidine boxes, characteristic of all membrane bound desaturases and possessed a C-terminal signal for ER retention. Phylogenetic analysis showed Bjfad2 grouped within the plant housekeeping-type fad2 genes. Genomic Southern blot analysis was consistent with the presence of atleast two copies of Bjfad2 gene in B. juncea genome. Study of tissue specific expression confirmed that Bjfad2 was constitutively expressed in both vegetative tissues and developing seeds. Expression of Bjfad2 gene is developmentally regulated with increased expression in mid-maturation stage [30 days after flowering (DAF)], as compared to early (15 DAF) and late (45 DAF) stages of seed development. Real-Time PCR analysis of fad2 expression showed one fold higher under the lower temperature and three fold lower under the higher temperature treatments. Differences in fatty acid contents among the temperature treatments were consistent with the expression data of the gene. Differential expression of the fad2 gene was observed between high and low erucic acid B. juncea genotypes.

Gomathi R.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR | Manohari G.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR | Rakkiyappan P.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR
Sugar Tech | Year: 2012

Antioxidant system in terms of activity (superoxide dismutase [SOD], peroxidase [POX] and ascorbate peroxidase [APX]) and isozyme pattern (POX and SOD) in relation to cell membrane integrity was studied in different sugarcane varieties under flooding stress. Higher activity of POX, SOD and APX protects cells from oxidative damage and hence resistant types (Co 99006, Co 8371 and Co 99004) recorded lower malondialdehyde content (lipid peroxidation) compared to susceptible variety. A short term flooding stress induced over expression of the SOD and POX isoforms in tolerant types, while intensity of expression was comparatively less in susceptible type. These results suggested that the non specific POX, APX and SOD play a major role to control the reactive oxygen species and protect the cell from membrane damage induced during flooding stress. © 2012 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Chhabra M.L.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR | Jalali B.L.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Journal of Biopesticides | Year: 2013

In the present study impact of five pesticides viz. G- 696, Bavistin, Thiram, Captan and Aldrin on VAM colonization, host growth and nutrient uptake of wheat has been quantified. Most of the test pesticides suppressed the plant height, total dry weight of root-shoot and mycorrhizal density of host plants as compared to VAM alone treated plants. Captan application exhibited most inhibitory effect on all the parameters followed by Thiram and Bavistin. The plant nutrients i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potash uptake was also significantly affected by the application of pesticides. © 376.

Prathap D.P.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR
Sugar Tech | Year: 2013

Sugarcane production technologies have been delivered through different media over the years, in countries such as India. In the early years, radio had played a significant role in the transfer of technology process, followed by Television. Farm magazines and newspapers too have played a role throughout. In the 1990s, the Internet arrived and has interconnected the communities to an unimaginable extent. The extension educators in the developed countries had been quick to discover the power of posting information on the web where thousands of people can download and view this information. The commitment of Government of India is that by the end of 2012, every single panchayat will be connected with high-speed broadband access. It is imperative therefore for the sugarcane extension system operating across the states, to shift from being predominantly print-focused, in line with the demands and requirements of the information age. Keeping this in view, the Sugarcane Breeding Institute of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, has taken the lead and developed a user-centered and database-driven website, CaneInfo (available in to cater to the needs of the stakeholders in sugarcane farming. The paper describes how CaneInfo was developed systematically, taking into account the information needs of the target audience, and how it was evaluated before hosting. Finally, explaining various features of the website, the paper dwells on the role CaneInfo is expected to play, in disseminating research-based and timely information to the sugarcane growers and sugar factory personnel, in its quest to make sugarcane production more remunerative in the country. © 2012 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Suresha G.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Suresha G.S.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR | Santha I.M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Plant OMICS | Year: 2013

The oleate desaturase represents a diverse gene family in plants and is responsible for conversion of oleic acid (18:1) to linoleic acid (18:2). Using the sequence information of Bjfad2 (EF639848) gene that was isolated and characterized earlier from Brassica juncea, three additional novel fad2 gene homologues designated as Bjfad2a (FJ696650), Bjfad2b (FJ696651) and Bjfad2c (FJ696652) were isolated from sub-genomic library of B. juncea. Sequence analysis of these genes revealed the sequence size of 2526 bp (Bjfad2a), 2326 bp (Bjfad2b) & 2325 bp (Bjfad2c), an open reading frame of 1155 bp that encodes a single polypeptide of 384 amino acids. Sequence comparison of isolated Bjfad2 gene sequences shared 99% (Bjfad2a), 96% (Bjfad2b) and 95% (Bjfad2c) sequence similarity to reported B. juncea fad2 gene (EF639848). The deduced amino acids of the these gene homologues displayed the typical three histidine boxes, a characteristic of all membrane bound desaturases along with five membrane spanning domains that are different from known plant desaturases. The signature amino acid sequence 'YNNKL' was found to be present at the N terminus of the protein, which is necessary and sufficient for ER localization of enzyme. Neighbor-Joining tree generated from the genomic structures alignment grouped them within the cluster of fad2 gene(s) of Brassicacea and are distinct from fad2 gene sequences from sesame (42%), soybean (38%) and sunflower (19%). Comparison of the Bjfad2 genomic structures with other plant fad2 genes revealed the presence of single large intron in their 5' UTR region which is evolutionarily conserved. However, the length of the intron varies across the plant species. Variation in the restriction sites of all three Bjfad2 genes and its further confirmation through restriction analysis showed that the isolated genes are different homologues but code for the same enzyme, oleate desaturase. These observations confirm that atleast four copies of fad2 gene exist which is consistent with the tetraploid nature of B. juncea genome.

Pandey S.K.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR
Annals of Biology | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted to determine an adequate diet for rearing of rice grain moth (Corcyra cephalonica) in the laboratory so as to use this factitious host for Trichogramma mass production. The research was conducted at 30±1°C, RH 60±10% and Photo phase of 14 h. Fourteen artificial diets viz., (A) Maize (whole), (B) Maize (15 mesh), (C) Maize (30 mesh), D) Maize (45 mesh), (E) Sorghum (whole), (F) Sorghum (15 mesh), (G) Sorghum (30 mesh), (H) Sorghum (45 mesh), (I) Rice (whole), (J) Rice (flour), (K) Parboiled rice, (L) Parboiled rice (flour), (M) Paddy (whole) and (N) Paddy flour were compared in this study. All the diets studied were suitable for the development of C. cephalonica except diet L (Parboiled rice flour). However, diets with sorghum-based media having 15 mesh size followed by crushed maize of 15 mesh size proved to be the most suitable ones for rearing the moth. These diets produced not only the highest and heaviest but also reduced the time period of its life cycle and increased the longevity of the moths.

Gomathi R.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR | Vasantha S.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR | Thandapani V.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute ICAR
Sugar Tech | Year: 2010

A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of salt stress on degree salt tolerance of four sugarcane genotypes during 2001-2002. The result of water related parameters viz., osmotic potential (p{cyrillic}l), leaf water potential (ψl), turgor potential (P) and relative water content (RWC) revealed that the tolerant genotypes viz., C 92038 and Co 85004 showed higher degree of osmotic adjustment by lowering of p{cyrillic}leaf and ψleaf resulting from accumulation of free proline, polyols, total free amino acid and thus P and RWC were maintained under salinity. The endogenous level of free proline, free amino acid and polyols increased to the tune of 45.18, 31.02 and 15.01%, respectively under salinity condition. Among the genotypes the mean influence of GA3 was maximum in Si 94050 (32.31%) followed by C 92038 (29.02%) while, Co 85036 had lest influence of 13.08% over T2. In salt stress condition, chlorophyll fluorescence ratio (Fv/Fm) is influenced by 19.40% and the reduction in Fv/Fm was comparatively less in Co 85004 (9.23%) than Si 94050 (22.39%). Among the treatments tested, supplementing of 150 ppm GA3 under salinity conditions, import salt tolerance in terms of increasing physiological efficiency of the sugarcane crop. © 2011 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Effect of neem seed kernel extract (NSKE), nimin, neem cake and four insecticides, namely, chlorpyriphos, phorate, sevidol (carbaryl 4% : gamma HCH 4%) and gamma HCH was studied against early shoot borer, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen of sugarcane. Among the four insecticides, gamma HCH was found to be the most effective in reducing the early shoot borer attack at early stage of 45-60 days. The highest cane yield of 78.8 t/ha was obtained from the plot treated with gamma HCH at 1.0 kg a. iTha and gave 0.76,2.28 and 2.66% higher cane yield than sevidol 4 : 4 G @ 1.0 kg a. iTha, phorate 10 G @ 1.0 kg a. L/ha and chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 1.0 kg a. i./ha, respectively. Neem products (nimin, NSKE and neem cake) were nearly half as effective as chemical treatments. In spite of the differences in the effect of the various insecticides at 45, 60 and 75 days after planting, there was a consistency in the effect of sevidol 4 :4G@ 1.0 kg a. iVha, chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 1.0 kg a. iVha, phoratelO G @ 1.0 kg a. i./ha and gamma HCH 6 G @ 1.0 kg a. iVha as they were statistically at par with each other and significantly superior over other treatments. Neem cake showed its highest efficacy at 75-90 days after planting when it was observed to become decomposed.

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