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Ramesh T.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Ramesh T.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region | Manjaiah K.M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Tomar J.M.S.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | Ngachan S.V.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2013

A 26 years old agroforestry plantation consisting of four multipurpose tree species (MPTs) (Michelia oblonga Wall, Parkia roxburghii G. Don, Alnus nepalensis D. Don, and Pinus kesiya Royle ex-Gordon) maintained at ICAR Research Complex, Umiam, Meghalaya, India were compared with a control plot (without tree plantation) for soil fertility status and CO2 efflux. The presence of trees improved all the physico-chemical and microbial biomass parameters studied in this experiment. Relative to control, soils under MPTs showed significant increases of 17 % soil organic carbon, 26 % available nitrogen (AN), 28 % phosphorus (AP), 50 % potassium (AK), 65 % mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates, 21 % moisture and 34 % soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) while reducing the mean bulk density (7 %). However, these parameters significantly differed among the tree species i.e., soils under A. nepalensis and M. oblonga had higher values of these attributes except bulk density, than under other species. Irrespective of treatments, the values of all these attributes were higher in surface soils while bulk density was highest in subsurface (60-75 cm). Cumulative CO2 efflux under MPTs was significantly higher (15 %) and ranged from 1.71 g 100 g-1 (M. oblonga) to 2.01 g 100 g-1 (A. nepalensis) compared to control at 150 days of incubation. In all the treatments, increment in temperature increased the oxidation of soil organic matter, thereby increased the cumulative CO2 efflux from soils. Of the tree species, with increment in temperature, A. nepalensis recorded more CO2 efflux (2.50 g 100 g-1) than other MPTs but the per cent increase was more in control plot. P. kesiya and A. nepalensis recorded highest activation energy (59.1 and 39 kJ mol-1, respectively). Net organic carbon sequestered in soil was highest under A. nepalensis (25.7 g kg-1) followed by M. oblonga (19.3 g kg-1), whereas control showed the lowest values. Amount of net carbon stored in the soil had significant and positive correlation with MBC (r = 0.706**), MWD (r = 0.636*), and AN (r = 0.825**). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Kumar P.S.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region | Pranabjyoti S.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region | Bhuyan M.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region | Bhagawati R.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

A study was conducted at ICAR RC NEH Region, AP Centre, Basar, Arunachal Pradesh, to evaluate the effect process variables viz., Water loss (WL), solid gain (SG) and mass reduction (MR) on osmo-dehydration of papaya segments. Ready to use osmo-dehydrated papaya slices which are light in weight can be prepared successfully from firm and ripe papaya fruits. 1.5 cm thick, 10 cm length, 4 cm breadth papaya segments were dipped in sucrose solution of different concentrations (20, 30, 40 and 50°Bx) with varying temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 40°C) containing 0.05% KMS and 0.1% citric acid. The ratio of the fruits and osmotic solution was maintained at 1:4 ratios, in order to ensure proper soaking of the samples with agitation. Samples were withdrawn at regular interval (1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6 h), drained quickly and wiped gently with tissue paper. All experiments were carried out in triplicate and average values were reported. The results indicated that water loss, solid gain and mass reduction were found to increase with increase in sucrose concentration and temperature of the solution at the end of osmosis. The optimum solid gain (9.8%), water loss (33.8%) and mass reduction (22.7%) were recorded at 40°Bx sucrose solution with 30°C temperature. Besides, osmotic drying considerably increased sugar content and reduced acidity with no significant change to colour, texture and original flavour of the fruits. Regression analyses of different parameters (immersion time, temperature and concentration) of osmosis were found to be significant. Descriptive analysis on sensory attributes revealed that process variables significantly affected the sensory characteristics of papaya segments. Source


Sanwal S.K.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region | Yadav R.K.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region | Singh P.K.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region | Buragohain J.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region | Verma M.R.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2010

The findings show the variability of gingerol compounds in Indian commercial and experimental ginger genotypes. The genotype 'Meghalaya Local' contained the highest concentration of total gingerol and was therefore the most pungent of the genotypes assessed. 'Meghalaya Local' may thus be suitable for commercial production of highly pungent ginger rhizomes with potential application in both the pharmaceutical and flavour industries. Source


Ramesh T.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Ramesh T.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region | Manjaiah K.M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Mohopatra K.P.,ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region | And 2 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2015

Soil total organic carbon (TOC) is not sensitive enough to measure the short and medium term changes due to land use change practices, and thus meaningful fractions of soil organic carbon (SOC) should be measured. The objective of this study was to evaluate four agroforestry systems (AFSs) in order to test the hypothesis that agroforestry systems promote an increase in the soil organic carbon stocks and fractions, thus improving soil quality. For this, four 26 years old agroforestry systems consisting of multipurpose tree species (MPTs) (Michelia oblonga Wall, Parkia roxburghii G. Don, Alnus nepalensis D. Don, and Pinus kesiya Royle ex- Gordon) maintained at ICAR Research Complex, Umiam, Meghalaya, India were tested and compared with control plot for SOC stocks, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), readily oxidizable carbon (ROC), non-labile carbon (CNL), particulate organic carbon (POC), and carbon management index (CMI). The soil samples were collected at five depths: 0–15, 15–30, 30–45, 45–60, and 60–75 cm. The TOC, POC, ROC, CNL and MBC in soils of agroforestry land use, on average, increased significantly by 26.3, 60.1, 27.1, 46.4 and 34 %, respectively in relative to control plot. However, the AFS consisting A. nepalensis recorded the highest mean SOC stocks (60.2 Mg ha−1), TOC (3.60 g 100 g−1), POC (5.42 g kg−1), ROC (10.16 g kg−1) and MBC (548 mg kg−1) than other AFSs. Furthermore, the CMI was highest under A. nepalensis (129.6) followed by M. oblonga (119.4), whereas P. kesiya showed the lowest value (91.1). The SOC stocks and fractions were, on average, 35.3 and 70 %, respectively higher in upper soil layer (0–15 cm) compared to subsurface soil layers (15–75 cm) in all the AFSs. The strong and positive correlation (P < 0.05) between labile soil carbon fractions with TOC (r = 0.680** for POC; r = 0.683** for ROC and r = 0.758** for MBC) indicates that the changes in TOC content of soils is mainly influenced by the labile C pools and are the sensitive indicators of soil quality improvements. The AFSs, A. nepalensis in particular, can, therefore, be recommended as an alternative soil management strategy for food production, and for the maintenance of soil quality and agricultural sustainability through increased SOC sequestration in the highly fragile agro-ecosystems of northeast India. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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