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Pandey A.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Pandey A.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region Umiam | Bisht I.S.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Bhat K.V.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Mehta P.S.,NBPGR Regional Station Bhowali
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

Role of informal seed system in landrace diversification, in situ conservation on-farm and sustainability in production were investigated as a case study for rice diversity in Indian Himalayas. The diachronic pattern of landrace occurrence revealed substantial increase, both in landrace number and frequency, in time. The local level seed supply in Uttarakhand Himalaya revealed that about 96% seed supply originated from informal system and a mere 4% seed supply is met from formal seed supply networks. In higher elevation ranges, beyond 1200 masl, largely landrace cultivation is practiced and a greater landrace diversification in traditional production was observed. Substantial variations due to environmental adaptations in niche habitats help provide important donor germplasm for crop improvement to users. Further, the population genetic structure also indicated enough diversity being maintained on-farm. Developing pathways for strengthening local level seed system for landrace diversification linked to sustainability in food production and conserving agro-biodiversity has been emphasized. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Das A.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region Umiam | Layek J.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region Umiam | Ramkrushna G.I.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region Umiam | Patel D.P.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | And 3 more authors.
Paddy and Water Environment

The crop and water productivity (WP) of monocropped rice in lowland of north-eastern region of India is low mainly due to cultivation of long duration variety, meagre use of fertilizer and manure, and inefficient water management, which needs to be improved for sustaining food security. Raised and sunken bed (RSB) land configuration (removing the surface soil layer from an area and depositing on the adjacent area to a height of about 50 cm by cutting and filling method) was demonstrated in a participatory research mode in farmers’ field during 2010–2012 for promoting crop diversification, enhancing crop and WP, and improving livelihood. The results indicated significant improvement in cropping intensity, productivity, employment, and income of farmers due to adoption of RSB land configuration compared to farmers’ practice (FP) of rice monocropping. The average rice equivalent yield (REY) of RSB land configuration was 16.20 t ha−1 compared to 3.24 t ha−1 under FP. The enhancement in employment and water-use efficiency were 445 and 291 % due to RSB over FP, respectively. The WP enhanced by four times due to RSB (0.69 kg m−3 water) compared to FP (0.18 kg m−3 water). In raised beds, the highest gross (USD 7,346 ha−1) and net returns (USD 4,524 ha−1) were recorded under tomato–okra–broccoli sequence, while in sunken beds, the highest gross and net returns were obtained under rice–pea (USD 2,633 and 1,590 ha−1, respectively) and these were substantially higher than those observed under FP (USD 775 ha−1 and USD 383 ha−1, respectively). Multiple cropping index, cultivated land utilization index, and diversity index also increased substantially due to RSB land configuration. © 2014, The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering and Springer Japan. Source

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