ICAR Research Complex

Sikkim, India

ICAR Research Complex

Sikkim, India
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Funde A.B.,ICAR Research Complex
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2013

Among the crustaceans, mudcrabs are considered as the important seafood item for aquaculture in Southeast Asian countries due to their esteemed delicacy, medicinal value and demand for local and export trades. Therefore extensive systematic analysis has been carried out on them based on their morphology, meristics, mandible structure, myotaxonomy studies etc. In all two species belonging to the genera, Scylla could be recognised along the south Konkan coast of Maharashtra. Two species of Scylla have been extensively described along with information on their synonyms, common English and local Marathi names and gear used, material examine, diagnosis, fresh colouration, remarks/ affinity etc. Copyright © EM International.

Kadirvel G.,ICAR Research Complex | Kadirvel G.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Machado A.S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Korneli C.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | And 7 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2012

After mating, many female mammals store a subpopulation of sperm in the lower portion of the oviduct, forming a reservoir. The reservoir lengthens sperm lifespan, regulates sperm capacitation, controls polyspermy, and selects normal sperm. It is believed that sperm bind to glycans on the oviduct epithelium to form the reservoir, but the specific adhesion molecules that retain sperm are unclear. Herein, using a glycan array to test 377 glycans for their ability to bind porcine sperm, we found two glycan motifs in common among all glycans with sperm-binding ability: the Lewis X trisaccharide and biantennary structures containing a mannose core with 6-sialylated lactosamine at one or more termini. Binding to both motifs was specific; isomers of each motif did not bind sperm. Further work focused on sialylated lactosamine. Sialylated lactosamine was found abundantly on the apical side of epithelial cells collected from the oviduct isthmus, among N-linked and O-linked glycans. Sialylated lactosamine bound to the head of sperm, the region that interacts with the oviduct epithelium. After capacitation, sperm lost affinity for sialylated lactosamine. Receptor modification may contribute to release from the reservoir so that sperm can move to the site of fertilization. Sialylated lactosamine was required for sperm to bind oviduct cells. Simbucus nigra agglutinin or an antibody specific to sialylated lactosamine with a preference for Neu5Acalpha2-6Gal rather than Neu5Acalpha2- 3Gal reduced sperm binding to oviduct isthmic cells, as did occupying putative receptors on sperm with sialylated biantennary glycans. These results demonstrate that sperm binding to oviduct 6-sialylated biantennary glycans is necessary for normal adhesion to the oviduct. © 2012 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

Sharmah D.,KVK ICAR | Bordaloi R.,ICAR Research Complex | Tripathi A.K.,ICAR Research Complex
Biopesticides International | Year: 2016

A field experiment was conducted in the experimental farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra (ICAR) to control ginger soft rot infection through biopesticides application. The results indicated that all the treatments were effective in sprouting and survival of rhizome as well as in reducing the incidence of soft rot, Pythium aphanidermatum disease as compared to control. The findings revealed that ginger rhizome treated with bioorganic (GF1) was superior over all other treatments in sprouting (91.81%), survival (90.65%) and disease infection (2.1%) and varied significantly among the treatments. Sprouting, survival of rhizome and disease infection was 84.59, 83.83 and 3.80%, respectively in the rhizomes treated with Trichodermma viride. The spraying of bioorganic (GF1) on 100 days old seedling resulted 75.42, 74.44 and 5.08% sprouting, survival of rhizome and disease infection, respectively. The reduction of disease infection in the rhizome treated with bioorganic (GF1) was 9.7 per cent followed by rhizome treated with Trichodermma viride (8.0%) and spraying of bioorganic (GF1) on hundred days old seedling (6.72%) over control. A maximum yield of rhizomes was 22.32 kg per plot when treated with bioorganic (GF1) followed by rhizome treated with Trichodermma viride (19.54 kg/plot) and spraying of bioorganic (GF1) on hundred days old seedling (18.22 kg/plot).

Kumar S.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Kumar S.,ICAR Research Complex | Radhamani J.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Srinivasan K.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

An experiment was conducted to elucidate the possible physiological and biochemical changes associated with seed deterioration during storage of Karanj (Pongamiapinnata L.) seed. The seeds of variety 'Bak 49' ('IC430529') were extracted, processed and stored at three different levels of relative humidity (RH) (75%, 33% and 5.5%) and temperatures (4°C, 20°C and ambient). The seed viability pattern, physiological and biochemical parameters under different conditions were monitored at regular intervals to assess the effect of storage. Among the different RH treatments, 33% RH showed significantly higher values for viability and vigour over 5.5% and 75% RH at all temperatures. The biochemical parameters like electrical conductivity of seed leachates and lipid peroxidation under different treatments showed significantly increased values with seed deterioration. The level of total soluble sugars increased gradually whereas total soluble proteins and enzyme activity (dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase) decreased with storage period in all the treatments. The optimal conditions for extending seed storability in karanj without having any adverse effect on physiological and biochemical parameters were 4°C and 20°C and 33% RH. This study could possibly be helpful for conventional storage of pongamia seeds on large scale and can be further exploited in other orthodox tree species.

Nath B.G.,ICAR Research Complex | Pathak P.K.,KVK Inc | Mohanty A.K.,KVK Inc | Tripathi A.K.,ICAR Research Complex
Asian Agri-History | Year: 2013

A study of management practices and performance of dairy cows was conducted in Dzongu, a tribal area in Sikkim, North India during November 2010 to March 2011. Data were collected from 80 respondents through a standard questionnaire interview schedule. In the study area, average herd size was 2.4 and average milk yield per cow per day was 1.99 L in the local breed and 5.6 L in Jersey cross. The gestation period in local and crossbred cows was 285.14 days and 279.37 days respectively. Fifty-Jive per cent farmers rear their dairy cattle in traditional open stall and almost all farmers use stall feeding system for their animals. For breeding, majority of the farmers (56.25%) used both artificial insemination and natural mating. The productive and reproductive performance of crossbred cows was superior to the local cows.

Nath A.,ICAR Research Complex | Bagchi B.,ICAR Research Complex | Misra L.K.,ICAR Research Complex | Deka B.C.,ICAR Research Complex
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The effect of ambient and refrigerated storage temperature on post-harvest phytochemical qualities of broccoli florets was investigated during storage. Fresh broccoli florets were packed in polypropylene (PP) micro-perforated film bags and stored, under open ambient storage conditions (15 ± 1 °C, 55 ± 2% RH), and laboratory refrigerated storage (4 ± 0.5 °C, 50 ± 2% RH) for a total period of 144 h. Quality of broccoli florets was evaluated in terms of physiological weight loss (PLW), ascorbic acid content, chlorophyll content, β-carotene and total antioxidant activity. Samples packed in PP micro-perforated film showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower losses of PLW, ascorbic acid, chlorophyll, β-carotene and total antioxidant activity (5.51%, 4.53%, 18.9%, 4.04% and 16.4%, respectively), during storage for up to 144 h under refrigerated conditions. For better phytochemical retention, the broccoli florets should be packed in PP micro-perforated film bags and stored under refrigerated conditions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kishore K.,ICAR Research Complex | Kalita H.,ICAR Research Complex | Singh M.,ICAR Research Complex | Avasthe R.,ICAR Research Complex | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Pollination studies in large cardamom were carried out at the research farm of ICAR Sikkim Centre, Gangtok, Sikkim, India during 2009-2010 to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of pollinators. Polleniferous flowers (65,890 ± 11,346.5. pollen/anther) of large cardamom produce spherical, large (108.64 μm × 96.32 μm) and echinate pollen with high pollen/ovule ratio (585.2 ± 134.8). Native bumblebee (Bombus braviceps Smith.), a nectar forager, was identified as the most effective pollinator in terms of pollination potential index score (0.88), pollen removal (55.39%) and deposition rate (4.5%), pollination efficiency and pollen delivery mechanism whereas honey bee acted as a pollen robber. Flowers appeared to be generalized; however, functional specialization was exhibited indicating that only bumblebee is adaptable for pollination moreover, pollination mechanism was an indicative of "pollination syndrome" © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Prakash J.,ICAR Research Complex | Chattopadhyay K.,ICAR Research Complex | Singh N.P.,ICAR Research Complex
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2012

Pineapple is grown in India in diverse agro-ecological zones and Queen, Kew and Mauritius are grown in commercial plantation and farming systems. Selections of superior genotypes of existing varieties are important in identifying potential regions for area expansion in new region as well. Morphological and molecular diversity of four pineapple cultivars of Tripura were undertaken. High phenotypic variances were observed for number of suckers, number of slips, crown weight, fruit weight, percentage of heart rot and percentage of cannery recovery. On the other hand heritability of most of the characters was found very high, except fruit length and number of eyes per fruit. In morphological analysis, clone, belonging to Mauritius showed dissimilarity with Kew but similarity with Queen. Ten ISSR and 20 RAPD primers were tested for their ability to give reaction to pineapple DNA. Among them, 8 primers showed polymorphism. However, RA1 and IS-12 gave only monomorphic bands. Level of polymorphism was found very low. Among the RAPD primers, RA2 showed the highest PIC value (0.30) followed by RA 4 (0.18) and among the ISSR primers IS-9 and IS-6 with 0.28 were found informative. Molecular analysis showed close similarity with Queen and Kew. Clone PQM-1, though was more similar to Queen in morphological parameters was distant from Queen in molecular diversity analysis. Mauritius was almost similar to Queen, which was shown from the very low Euclidian distance coefficient (52.0). The highest dissimilarity coefficient was estimated for Kew (452.8).

Kumar A.,ICAR Research Complex | Avasthe R.K.,ICAR Research Complex | Borah T.R.,ICAR Research Complex | Lepcha B.,ICAR Research Complex | Pandey B.,ICAR Research Complex
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2012

Field experiments were conducted during 2004-09 at ICAR Sikkim Centre, Tadong at an altitude of 1,400 m AMSL to identify suitable organic mulch material for higher yield and dsisease suppression in local ginger cv. Bhaisey. Green leaves of Artemisia vulgaris, Schima wallichii, Eupatorium odoratum, Alnus nepalensis and Datura spp. were used as organic mulches. Among the different tree leaf mulches used in ginger, the maximum yield was recorded for Schima wallichii (35,388.40 kg/ha) which was followed by Datura spp. (21766.80 kg/ha). The highest incidence of bacterial wilt (38%), soft rot (48%), and leaf spot (40%) was recorded in the control plots, whereas the lowest incidence of bacterial wilt (8%), soft rot (12%) and leaf spot (35%) was recorded under S. wallichii treatment followed by Datura spp. mulching. Schima wallichii mulch recorded significantly higher number of leaves (22.40), rhizome length (9.00 cm), and No. of fingers/plant (41.00) as compared to all other organic mulching materials. Highest B:C ratio (4.88) was found in mulching with S. wallichii followed by Datura spp. mulching (3.0) in organic ginger production.

Kishore K.,ICAR Research Complex | Kalita H.,ICAR Research Complex | Rinchen D.,ICAR Research Complex | Pandey B.,ICAR Research Complex
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

A study on floral phenology, floral visitors, foraging nature of floral visitors, nectar production, pollination efficiency and stigma receptivity of large cadamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) of the family Zingiberaceae conducted during 2009-10. Anthesis in large cardamom took place in the early morning (around 5:30 am) and flowers offer plenty of anthers and moderate amount of nectar to floral visitors. There were four floral visitors; bumble bee (Apis braviceps Smith), honey bee (Apis cerena), fruit fly (Bactocera sp.) and moth (Udaspes folus), and among them A. braviceps was found to be the major pollinator due to its high pollination efficiency attributed to its big body size and foraging habit, while A. cerena acts as a pollen robber. Each flower receives 45.92 visits of bumble bee with the foraging time of 118.93 seconds in a day. Pollination efficiency of bumble bee was as high as 100% while honey bee could pollinate only 8.41% of flower. Bumble bee delivers pollens in the receptive cup pf stigma, in contrary honey on the non-receptive hairs surrounding stigma cup. Nectar secretion begins at 9 hr on the day anthesis and reaches to its peak at 14 hr, followed by reduction in nectar production. A temperature range of 25-28°C and air humidity of 50-60% favoured high nectar production. Increase in 0.77 unit of temperature and decrease in 2.04 unit of air humidity resulted in 1 unit increase in nectar content. The visitation frequency and foraging time of bumble bee were not correlated with the nectar production. Bumble bee and honey bee had almost equal pollen load, but pollen carrying mechanism was quite different as honey bee carries pollen in pollen basket and bumble bee on its head and thorax. Stigma became receptive 12 hr before anthesis (protogynous) and remains receptive even after 15 hr of flower senescence. The best time of pollination was between 6 and 9 hr on the day of anthesis.

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