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Chatterjee D.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Deka B.C.,Agricultural Technology Application Research Institute ATARI | Kumar M.,Research Complex for North Eastern Hill Region Nagaland Center | Kuotsu R.,Research Complex for North Eastern Hill Region Nagaland Center | And 2 more authors.
Research on Crops | Year: 2016

In upland direct seeded jhum rice, weed infestation is a serious problem, which results in drastically reduced the crop yield. Average yield of rice crop in North-Eastern Hilly region including the Nagaland is very low due to non- Availability of adequate and suitable crop production technology. Among them, the principal factor associated with low yield in jhum rice is severe weed competition. Jhum farmers of this region traditionally apply common salt (NaCl) in upland rice as a post-emergence to manage broad leaf weeds. Keeping the above facts in view, an efforts have been made to study the validation of indigenous technical knowledge for weed management in upland jhum rice to evolve a feasible weed management practices for tribal community of the region. Therefore, a replicated field experiment with rice cv. Bhalum-3 was conducted during kharif seasons of 2013 and 2014 at farmers' field in Medziphema village of Dimapur district in Nagaland. The following 12 treatments of common salt (2-20% or 20-200 kg/ha) including control and weed free check were imposed in completely randomized block design and replicated thrice. The common salt was applied as foliar spray through flat fan nozzle using water as a carrier @ 500-600 l/ha at 20 and 40 DAS to the rice. Results revealed that altogether 17 weed species were identified in upland jhum rice, among them the broad-leaved weeds viz. Borreria hispida, Urena lobota, Eupotorium odoratum and Biden pilosa noted the prominent weed flora. Application of increasing levels of common salt i.e. 2 to 20% NaCl increased weed control efficiency (WCE%) but highest values were recorded with application of 20% common salt at 20 DAS as compared to salt applied at 40 DAS. Among the levels of common salt, application of 10% NaCl gave significantly higher grain yield (2315.6 kg/ha) as compared to their preceding levels except weed free check (2517.7 kg/ha).


Thongbam P.D.,ICAR RC for NEH Region | Kumar A.,ICAR RC for NEH Region | Nonglait K.K.L.,ICAR RC for NEH Region | Pandey A.,ICAR RC for NEH Region
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

The objective of our study was to know the differences in expression of total protein, total phenol, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities in self-defense in plant tissues against rice blast diseases. The activities of these compounds were studied in different genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Ngoba, Bhalum-1, Lampnah and IET 7614 with varying degrees of susceptibility to Magnaporthe grisea. Observation was taken after two successive days interval up to 15 days repeatedly (eight times) and the data was subjected to repeated measure analysis. Gradual declination was observed for total protein, whereas total phenol, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity has shown increasing trend. Rice genotypes have shown considerable difference in expression which was well-correlated with the degrees of resistance in specificity of pathogen. Univariate test for between and within subject factors were calculated and found to be significant (P<0.001). Since sphericity assumption was violated, MANOVA test was also done and significant difference among characters and genotypes were observed in due course of time.


PubMed | ICAR RC for NEH Region, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Central Agricultural University and ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Heliyon | Year: 2017

Identification of a reference gene unaffected by the experimental conditions is obligatory for accurate measurement of gene expression through relative quantification. Most existing methods directly analyze variability in crossing point (Cp) values of reference genes and fail to account for template-independent factors that affect Cp values in their estimates. We describe the use of three simple statistical methods namely analysis of variance (ANOVA), normal quantile-quantile correlation (NQQC) and effective expression support (EES), on pooled expression ratios of reference genes in a panel to overcome this issue. The pooling of expression ratios across the genes in the panel nullify the sample specific effects uniformly affecting all genes that are falsely reflected as instability. Our methods also offer the flexibility to include sample specific PCR efficiencies in estimations, when available, for improved accuracy. Additionally, we describe a correction factor from the ANOVA method to correct the relative fold change of a target gene if no truly stable reference gene could be found in the analyzed panel. The analysis is described on a synthetic data set to simplify the explanation of the statistical treatment of data.


Kumar R.,Nagaland Center | Deka B.C.,Nagaland Center | Kumar M.,ICAR RC for NEH Region | Ngachan S.V.,ICAR RC for NEH Region
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2015

A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive years of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 to study the effect of biofertilizers in conjunction with organic and inorganic sources of nutrient management on productivity, quality and soil health on field pea at ICAR RC for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with five nutrient sources in main plots and four treatment of biofertilizers with zinc in sub plots. Results indicated that the application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) through inorganic + 50% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) through vermicompost significantly improved root nitrogen (N) content, cation exchange capacity (CEC) of roots, NA activates, seed yield (1153 and 1262 kg ha−1), straw yield (2182 and 2332 kg ha−1) in the year of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012, respectively. Nutrients (N, P, K, S and Zn) uptake by seed and straw, protein content, protein harvest, soil organic carbon (SOC), available N, P, K, S, Zn and economics significantly higher with 100% RDF through inorganic + 50% RDN through vermicompost during both the years. Seed inoculation with biofertilizers along with 5 kg Zn ha−1 markedly enhanced the root N content, CEC of roots, nitrogenase activities (NA), seed yield (1080 and 1193 kg ha−1), straw yield (1978 and 2128 kg ha−1), nutrients [N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S) and zinc (Zn)] uptake, soil organic carbon (SOC) (%), and available N, P, K, S, and Zn of pea in both the years, respectively. These sources also give more income and benefit cost ratio per rupees invested. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Pandey A.,ICAR RC for NEH Region | Kumar A.,ICAR RC for NEH Region | Ramya P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Molecular characterization of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) germplasm is essential for scientific assessment of variability and diversity for its better utilization in breeding programs. In this study, 120 accessions of green gram were analysed for 27 Sequence Tagged Microsatellites (STMS) loci. For data analysis, accessions were grouped into Indian and exotic. DNA profiling of the 120 accessions yielded 42 STMS products. The proportion of polymorphic products was 55.56% in Indian accessions and 51.85% in exotic accessions. Average Jaccard's similarity coefficient among all pairs of comparisons was 0.695. In unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram, 5 major clusters were identified. High similarities among the Indian and exotic accessions were found and this could be due to free movement of Indian germplasm to other countries through international institutes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) analysis indicated that sampling should be practiced more extensively within populations to capture maximum variation. The study highlighted the need to make more elaborate collections from India to capture the diversity existing in green gram and to go for genetic enhancement for widening of the genetic base of cultivated green gram using wild relatives. © 2011 Academic Journals.


Pandey A.,ICAR RC for NEH Region | Gupta S.,ICAR RC for NEH Region | Kumar A.,ICAR RC for NEH Region | Thongbam P.D.,ICAR RC for NEH Region | Pattanayak A.,ICAR RC for NEH Region
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Twenty two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes were evaluated during rabi seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09 to explore the possibility of introducing chickpea crop into the cropping system of the mid-altitudes of Meghalaya. Luxuriant chickpea growth with a wide spectrum of variability for plant height, number of branches/plant, days to flowering, number of pods/plant and 100 seed weight was observed. The genotypic variance was moderate to high for the said characters which resulted in moderate to high heritability and genetic advance values. Grain yield/plant was positively and significantly correlated with days to flowering, plant height, number of branches/plant, number of pods/plant and 100 seed weight. Moderate to high heritability and genetic advance of these plant characters vis-a-vis their positive association and direct positive effect on grain yield/plant suggested for their consideration during selection of high yielding genotypes. All the test chickpea genotypes could be grouped into five distinct clusters. An analysis of the percentage contribution of individual characters towards genetic diversity revealed that days to flowering, 100-seed weight and number of pods/plant were the major characters contributing to genetic diversity in chickpea. Based on the results it may be concluded that chickpea can be successfully grown in Meghalaya and chickpea improvement can be undertaken in the mid hill conditions of north eastern hill region of India.


Kumar A.,ICAR RC for NEH Region | Pandey A.,ICAR RC for NEH Region | Gowda M.V.C.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2015

Phosphorous (P) is one of the most deficient nutrients owing to its fixation and low mobility in acid soils. A total of 324 genotypes were screened in both P sufficient and insufficient conditions to evaluate the P uptake efficiency. Thirty-four responsive genotypes were evaluated in solution culture with two checks, ICGV 86590 and JL 24. The components of variability revealed high magnitude and highly heritable nature of the variation. Highly responsive genotypes to P insufficiency; ICG 14475, ICGV 92188, and M 68 were further tested for phosphorus uptake efficiency at 15, 30, and 45 days after sowing (DAS) along with checks in sand culture in pots. ICG 14475, ICGV 92188, and ICGV 86590 were found superior in both acquisition and utilization of phosphorus due to enhanced root production for P exploration and shoot expansion, respectively. JL 24 was poor in acquisition due to lack of response in root traits under P insufficiency. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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