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Kumar S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Raizada A.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Biswas H.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Mondal B.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2016

This paper aims at assess district-wise vulnerability index of the state of Karnataka State, which is predominantly is rainfed and is highly susceptible to climatic variability. Secondary data on relevant indicators were collected to prepare indices viz., crop production losses, exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Following normalization and using appropriate weights for indicators, these four indices were used for constructing vulnerability index, which can be used a rapid assessment method for prioritizing districts that need measures to moderate the detrimental impact of climate change. It has been observed that Climatic variability caused higher production losses in cereals, pulses and oilseeds in Davangere, Gulbarga and Raichur districts, respectively. Districts like Koppal, Raichur, Bijapur Gulbarga, Gadag, Bagalkote and Bellary were placed under extreme degree of exposure. As per the sensitivity index scores, Kolar district is the most sensitive. Further, Bengaluru (Urban), Dakshin Kannada and Kodagu are ranked first, second and third in terms of adaptive capacity in the state. Overall, vulnerability index scores indicate that Gulbarga, Koppal, Raichur, Bellary, Bagalkote, Bijapur and Belgaum are extremely vulnerable districts in the state. It was also estimated that around 70% of the cultivated area, which supports 60% and 67% of livestock and rural population of the state, respectively are facing ‘extreme to high’ level of vulnerability. The ranking based prioritization of the vulnerable areas calls for a holistic approach for each district or a group of districts to reduce their sensitivity, minimize exposure to rainfall variability through implementation of site-specific and leverage adaptive capacity through better health and education facilities, expansion of employment opportunities in other sectors or reducing over dependence on agriculture. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


PubMed | ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources and ICAR National Rice Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC genetics | Year: 2016

Hill rices (Oryza sativa L.) are direct seeded rices grown on hill slopes of different gradients. These landraces have evolved under rainfed and harsh environmental conditions and may possess genes governing adaptation traits such as tolerance to cold and moisture stress. In this study, 64 hill rice landraces were collected from the state of Arunachal Pradesh of North-Eastern region of India, and assessed by agro-morphological variability and microsatellite markers polymorphism. Our aim was to use phenotypic and genetic diversity data to understand the basis of farmers classification of hill rice landraces into two groups: umte and tening. Another goal was to understand the genetic differentiation of hill rices into Indica or japonica subspecies.According to farmers classification, hill rices were categorized into two groups: umte (large-grained, late maturing) and tening (small-grained, early maturing). We did not find significant difference in days to 50% flowering between the groups. Principal component analysis revealed that two groups can be distinguished on the basis of kernel length-to-width ration (KLW), kernel length (KL), grain length (GrL), grain length-to-width ration (GrLW) and plant height (Ht). Stepwise canonical discriminant analysis identified KL and Ht as the main discriminatory characters between the cultivar groups. Genetic diversity analysis with 35 SSR markers revealed considerable genetic diversity in the hill rice germplasm (gene diversity: 0.66; polymorphism information content: 0.62). Pair-wise allelic difference between umte and tening groups was not statistically significant. The model-based population structure analysis showed that the hill rices were clustered into two broad groups corresponding to Indica and Japonica. The geographic distribution and cultivars grouping of hill rices were not congruent in genetic clusters. Both distance- and model-based approaches indicated that the hill rices were predominantly japonica or admixture among the groups within the subspecies. These findings were further supported by combined analysis hill rices with 150 reference rice accessions representing major genetic groups of rice.This study collected a valuable set of hill rice germplasm for rice breeding and for evolutionary studies. It also generated a new set of information on genetic and phenotypic diversity of hill rice landraces in North-Eastern region of India. The collected hill rices were mostly japonica or admixture among the subpopulations of Indica or Japonica. The findings are useful for utilization and conservation of hill rice germplasm.


PubMed | ICAR National Rice Research Institute and Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The plant pathology journal | Year: 2016

Early blight of tomato caused by


Adak T.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Munda S.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Kumar U.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Berliner J.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2016

Impact of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation, microbial biomass carbon, and enzymatic activities in rice soil was investigated. Rice (variety Naveen, Indica type) was grown under four conditions, namely, chambered control, elevated CO2 (550 ppm), elevated CO2 (700 ppm) in open-top chambers and open field. Chlorpyriphos was sprayed at 500 g a.i. ha(-1) at maximum tillering stage. Chlorpyriphos degraded rapidly from rice soils, and 88.4% of initially applied chlorpyriphos was lost from the rice soil maintained under elevated CO2 (700 ppm) by day 5 of spray, whereas the loss was 80.7% from open field rice soil. Half-life values of chlorpyriphos under different conditions ranged from 2.4 to 1.7 days with minimum half-life recorded with two elevated CO2 treatments. Increased CO2 concentration led to increase in temperature (1.2 to 1.8 °C) that played a critical role in chlorpyriphos persistence. Microbial biomass carbon and soil enzymatic activities specifically, dehydrogenase, fluorescien diacetate hydrolase, urease, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase responded positively to elevated CO2 concentrations. Generally, the enzyme activities were highly correlated with each other. Irrespective of the level of CO2, short-term negative influence of chlorpyriphos was observed on soil enzymes till day 7 of spray. Knowledge obtained from this study highlights that the elevated CO2 may negatively influence persistence of pesticide but will have positive effects on soil enzyme activities.


Saha S.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Munda S.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Adak T.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

A field experiment was conducted during the wet seasons of 2010 and 2011 at ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack to study the efficacy of azimsulfuron for controlling broad spectrum of weeds in transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) field under rainfed shallow lowland. The present study consisted of 10 treatments which includes seven doses of azimsulfuron, viz. 12.5, 17.5, 22.5, 27.5, 30.0, 35.0 and 40 g/ha each with 0.2% surfactant along with recommended herbicide, pretilachlor at 625 g/ha, weed-free and weedy as check. Yield attributes of rice were significantly (P<0.05) affected by weed control treatments. The highest grain yield (5.72 tonnes/ha) and N-use efficiency (57.2) were obtained in weed free check, realizing 76% increase in grain yield of rice over weedy check. Azimsulfuron at 35 and 40 g/ha applied 18 days after transplanting was found to be very effective (weed control efficiency 92.8 and 95.5%, respectively) in controlling the complex weed flora and produced comparable grain yield with weed-free check. There was more than 45% reduction in the grain yield of rice due to competition with weeds in weedy plots. The negative effect of weed competition in weedy check plot was reflected in significant reduction in crop growth rate (4.66 g/m2/day) and total biomass of rice (6.89 tonnes/ha).


Pradhan S.K.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Barik S.R.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Sahoo A.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Mohapatra S.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Rice exhibits enormous genetic diversity, population structure and molecular marker-traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance to high temperature stress. A set of breeding lines and landraces representing 240 germplasm lines were studied. Based on spikelet fertility percent under high temperature, tolerant genotypes were broadly classified into four classes. Genetic diversity indicated a moderate level of genetic base of the population for the trait studied. Wright's F statistic estimates showed a deviation of Hardy-Weinberg expectation in the population. The analysis of molecular variance revealed 25 percent variation between population, 61 percent among individuals and 14 percent within individuals in the set. The STRUCTURE analysis categorized the entire population into three sub-populations and suggested that most of the landraces in each sub-population had a common primary ancestor with few admix individuals. The composition of materials in the panel showed the presence of many QTLs representing the entire genome for the expression of tolerance. The strongly associated marker RM547 tagged with spikelet fertility under stress and the markers like RM228, RM205, RM247, RM242, INDEL3 and RM314 indirectly controlling the high temperature stress tolerance were detected through both mixed linear model and general linear model TASSEL analysis. These markers can be deployed as a resource for marker-assisted breeding program of high temperature stress tolerance. © 2016 Pradhan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Gautam P.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Lal B.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Tripathi R.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Shahid M.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2016

The rainfed lowland rice ecosystem is affected by not only water deficit but also excess water. Although the rice plant is well adapted to aquatic environments, it is unable to survive if it is completely submerged in water for an extended period. The impact of submergence on survival, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, post-recovery growth and anti-oxidant capacities in four rice cultivars namely IR 64, IR 64-Sub1, Swarna and Swarna-Sub1 having differential response to potassium application were examined. All the cultivars showed inhibition of photosynthesis, this was accompanied with decrease in stomatal conductance, chlorophyll and carbohydrate contents; the decrease was more pronounced in non-sub1 cultivars. The activity of anti-oxidants was found to be significantly high and lipid peroxidation was low in sub1 cultivars. Potassium application improved the survival mainly because of maintenance of carbohydrates, chlorophyll and contributing to less lodging and leaf senescence. Furthermore, K application resulted in inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increase in catalase and Peroxidase activities. Potassium at higher levels was more beneficial in terms of improving survival, photosynthesis and growth after recovery. The germplasm improvement is beneficial if provided with best management practices, modification in plant nutrition by K application enhance the survival, recovery and growth of rice during complete submergence. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | ICAR National Rice Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety | Year: 2016

Application of pesticide in agricultural fields is unnecessary evil for non-target microflora and fauna. Hence, to identify the safer pesticide molecules against non-target microbes, a long-term pesticide experiment was initiated at National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, India. In the present study, the effect of continuous application of chlorpyrifos (0.5kgha


PubMed | ICAR National Rice Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Rice exhibits enormous genetic diversity, population structure and molecular marker-traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance to high temperature stress. A set of breeding lines and landraces representing 240 germplasm lines were studied. Based on spikelet fertility percent under high temperature, tolerant genotypes were broadly classified into four classes. Genetic diversity indicated a moderate level of genetic base of the population for the trait studied. Wrights F statistic estimates showed a deviation of Hardy-Weinberg expectation in the population. The analysis of molecular variance revealed 25 percent variation between population, 61 percent among individuals and 14 percent within individuals in the set. The STRUCTURE analysis categorized the entire population into three sub-populations and suggested that most of the landraces in each sub-population had a common primary ancestor with few admix individuals. The composition of materials in the panel showed the presence of many QTLs representing the entire genome for the expression of tolerance. The strongly associated marker RM547 tagged with spikelet fertility under stress and the markers like RM228, RM205, RM247, RM242, INDEL3 and RM314 indirectly controlling the high temperature stress tolerance were detected through both mixed linear model and general linear model TASSEL analysis. These markers can be deployed as a resource for marker-assisted breeding program of high temperature stress tolerance.


PubMed | ICAR National Rice Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2016

Impact of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation, microbial biomass carbon, and enzymatic activities in rice soil was investigated. Rice (variety Naveen, Indica type) was grown under four conditions, namely, chambered control, elevated CO2 (550 ppm), elevated CO2 (700 ppm) in open-top chambers and open field. Chlorpyriphos was sprayed at 500 g a.i. ha(-1) at maximum tillering stage. Chlorpyriphos degraded rapidly from rice soils, and 88.4% of initially applied chlorpyriphos was lost from the rice soil maintained under elevated CO2 (700 ppm) by day 5 of spray, whereas the loss was 80.7% from open field rice soil. Half-life values of chlorpyriphos under different conditions ranged from 2.4 to 1.7 days with minimum half-life recorded with two elevated CO2 treatments. Increased CO2 concentration led to increase in temperature (1.2 to 1.8 C) that played a critical role in chlorpyriphos persistence. Microbial biomass carbon and soil enzymatic activities specifically, dehydrogenase, fluorescien diacetate hydrolase, urease, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase responded positively to elevated CO2 concentrations. Generally, the enzyme activities were highly correlated with each other. Irrespective of the level of CO2, short-term negative influence of chlorpyriphos was observed on soil enzymes till day 7 of spray. Knowledge obtained from this study highlights that the elevated CO2 may negatively influence persistence of pesticide but will have positive effects on soil enzyme activities.

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