ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI

Yelahanka, India

ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI

Yelahanka, India

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PubMed | The Academy of Management, ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI and ICAR Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease
Type: | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to assess the impact of Foot-and-mouth Disease (FMD) outbreak in cattle and buffaloes on farming community in Kolar district, Karnataka state, India. Primary data were collected using pre-tested schedule from 178 sample farms using multistage random cluster sample technique. The results revealed that 78% of surveyed villages were affected with FMD. The FMD incidence risk was high across the herd sizes, whereas the mortality risk was high in small herds. In indigenous cattle, the highest loss due to FMD was distress sale (208 USD) followed by other losses, whereas, in Crossbred cattle, the highest loss was mortality loss (515 USD) followed by distress sale (490 USD), milk yield loss (327 USD), treatment cost (38 USD) and extra labour engagement expenses for nursing of FMD-affected bovines (30 USD). In local and upgraded buffaloes, the mean total loss per affected animal was 440 USD and 513 USD, respectively. A very high variability in the loss per animal was observed across the type of losses in the Crossbred cattle, and it may be due to differences in age of the FMD-infected animal, value of the animal, milking stage, lactation levels, herd sizes and labour engagement levels, etc. In local and upgraded buffaloes, the mean total loss per animal was 639 USD and 1008 USD, respectively. The sensitivity analysis for 5% change in price revealed that the mean total loss per animal was positively correlated with price. Further, the social impact elicitation revealed that majority of the livestock owners perceived FMD had caused permanent asset loss, which in turn increased psychological stress of the family. The estimated losses and social impact due to FMD signify the importance of the intervention to control the disease and thus socio-economic gain to the farmer and society at large.


Uppu D.S.S.M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | Samaddar S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | Hoque J.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | Konai M.M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | And 3 more authors.
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2016

Cationic-amphiphilic antibacterial polymers with optimal amphiphilicity generally target the bacterial membranes instead of mammalian membranes. To date, this balance has been achieved by varying the cationic charge or side chain hydrophobicity in a variety of cationic-amphiphilic polymers. Optimal hydrophobicity of cationic-amphiphilic polymers has been considered as the governing factor for potent antibacterial activity yet minimal mammalian cell toxicity. However, the concomitant role of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity with constant cationic charge in the interactions of antibacterial polymers with bacterial membranes is not understood. Also, degradable polymers that result in nontoxic degradation byproducts offer promise as safe antibacterial agents. Here we show that amide- and ester (degradable)-bearing cationic-amphiphilic polymers with tunable side chain hydrophobicity can modulate antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that an amide polymer can be a potent antibacterial agent with lower hydrophobicity whereas the corresponding ester polymer needs a relatively higher hydrophobicity to be as effective as its amide counterpart. Our studies reveal that at higher hydrophobicities both amide and ester polymers have similar profiles of membrane-active antibacterial activity and mammalian cell toxicity. On the contrary, at lower hydrophobicities, amide and ester polymers are less cytotoxic, but the former have potent antibacterial and membrane activity compared to the latter. Incorporation of amide and ester moieties made these polymers side chain degradable, with amide polymers being more stable than the ester polymers. Further, the polymers are less toxic, and their degradation byproducts are nontoxic to mice. More importantly, the optimized amide polymer reduces the bacterial burden of burn wound infections in mice models. Our design introduces a new strategy of interplay between the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions keeping constant cationic charge density for developing potent membrane-active antibacterial polymers with minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Uppu D.S.S.M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | Samaddar S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | Ghosh C.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | Paramanandham K.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2016

Bacterial biofilms represent the root-cause of chronic or persistent infections in humans. Gram-negative bacterial infections due to nosocomial and opportunistic pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii are more difficult to treat because of their inherent and rapidly acquiring resistance to antibiotics. Due to biofilm formation, A. baumannii has been noted for its apparent ability to survive on artificial surfaces for an extended period of time, therefore allowing it to persist in the hospital environment. Here we report, maleic anhydride based novel cationic polymers appended with amide side chains that disrupt surface established multi-drug resistant A. baumannii biofilms. More importantly, these polymers significantly (p < 0.0001) decrease the bacterial burden in mice with chronic A. baumannii burn wound infection. The polymers also show potent antibacterial efficacy against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii with minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. We observe that optimal hydrophobicity dependent on the side chain chemical structure of these polymers dictate the selective toxicity to bacteria. Polymers interact with the bacterial cell membranes by causing membrane depolarization, permeabilization and energy depletion. Bacteria develop rapid resistance to erythromycin and colistin whereas no detectable development of resistance occurs against these polymers even after several passages. These results suggest the potential use of these polymeric biomaterials in disinfecting biomedical device surfaces after the infection has become established and also for the topical treatment of chronic bacterial infections. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research and ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI
Type: | Journal: Biomaterials | Year: 2015

Bacterial biofilms represent the root-cause of chronic or persistent infections in humans. Gram-negative bacterial infections due to nosocomial and opportunistic pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii are more difficult to treat because of their inherent and rapidly acquiring resistance to antibiotics. Due to biofilm formation, A.baumannii has been noted for its apparent ability to survive on artificial surfaces for an extended period of time, therefore allowing it to persist in the hospital environment. Here we report, maleic anhydride based novel cationic polymers appended with amide side chains that disrupt surface established multi-drug resistant A.baumannii biofilms. More importantly, these polymers significantly (p<0.0001) decrease the bacterial burden in mice with chronic A.baumannii burn wound infection. The polymers also show potent antibacterial efficacy against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of A.baumannii with minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. We observe that optimal hydrophobicity dependent on the side chain chemical structure of these polymers dictate the selective toxicity to bacteria. Polymers interact with the bacterial cell membranes by causing membrane depolarization, permeabilization and energy depletion. Bacteria develop rapid resistance to erythromycin and colistin whereas no detectable development of resistance occurs against these polymers even after several passages. These results suggest the potential use of these polymeric biomaterials in disinfecting biomedical device surfaces after the infection has become established and also for the topical treatment of chronic bacterial infections.


PubMed | Assam University, ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI and BionividPvt Ltd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gene | Year: 2016

Streptococcus uberis causing mastitis is a growing challenge to the dairy industry. Molecular, epidemiological and population structure studies have revealed clonal diversity among the infecting strains. In this study, mouse intramammary infection model was used to uncover the host immune response to two epidemiologically important live strains of S. uberis (SU1and SU2) obtained from subclinical case of mastitis possessing specific and unique multi locus sequence types (ST), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pulsotypes and virulence profiles. Temporal (2h, 4h, 8h, 12h, 24h and 48h) expression of key inflammatory mediators (IL2, IL4, IL6, IL12, TNF, IFN, GMCSF, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, TLR11, TLR12, CD14, IL1, RANTES, Lactoferrin, and CXCl1) by reverse transcription and probe-based quantitative real-time PCR showed relative mRNA levels higher (p<0.05) in response to SU2 compared with SU1 with 24h PI serving as a critical point for the deviating behavior (SU1 versus SU2). Further employing the predicted biological processes under the influence of this pool of tested genes, the delineation of gene regulatory networks suggested SU1-favoring its persistence in the host environment; in contrast, SU2-which elevated gene expression indicating towards pathogen clearance or immune surveillance. This study suggested how these unique strains could manipulate the host immune response to influence the severity of mastitis; our results expand the available information on host pathogen interaction and provide a firm foundation needing further investigations to gain control over this pathogen.


Venkatesan G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Balamurugan V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Balamurugan V.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | Bhanuprakash V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Probes | Year: 2016

A Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the highly conserved DNA polymerase gene of capripox virus genome was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of sheep pox and goat pox viruses. The optimized LAMP assay is found specific and sensitive for amplification of target DNA with a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 96.6% and 100% respectively compared to quantitative PCR. The detection rate of LAMP, PCR and Q-PCR assays is found to be 81.5%, 67% and 83% respectively. This LAMP assay has the potential for rapid clinical diagnosis and surveillance of sheep pox and goat pox in field diagnostic laboratories. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI and Indian Institute of Science
Type: | Journal: Archives of virology | Year: 2016

Orf, or contagious ecthyma, a highly contagious transboundary disease of sheep and goats, is caused by a double-stranded DNA virus (ORFV) belonging to the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. The ORFV genome encodes the major envelope proteins B2L and F1L, which have been found to be highly immunogenic and have multiple functional characteristics. In order to investigate the functional properties of the B2L protein, in this study, the B2L gene of ORFV strain 59/05, encoding recombinant mature B2L (aa


PubMed | Veterinary College and ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Virusdisease | Year: 2015

The phylogenetic analysis of 11 CSFV isolates from Karnataka, India obtained during the year 2012-13 was undertaken to obtain the most reliable genetic typing of the CSFV isolates based on E2, NS5B and 5UTR genomic regions. The study indicated that all the 11 CSFV isolates belonged to subgroup 2.2. The most reliable classification was obtained with sequence data from the NS5B region which separated all the isolates based on the history of outbreak and geographic origin. Analysis of full length E2 amino acid sequences revealed different genetic makeup of Indian 2.2 isolates compared to 2.2 isolates from different countries. The group 2.2 viruses are gradually spreading as confirmed by frequent detection/ isolation of group 2.2 viruses in the recent years and replacing the subgroup 1.1 viruses, which were hitherto predominantly involved in CSF outbreaks in India.


PubMed | ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD, Indian Veterinary Research Institute and ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Virusdisease | Year: 2015

In a cross-sectional study, prevalence of ovine herpesvirus 2 (family: Herpesviridae, subfamily: Gammaherpesvirinae, genus Macavirus and species: Ovine herpesvirus 2) infection was estimated in sheep population of Karnataka state in India. Based on the three stage cluster sampling method, whole blood samples (356) of sheep were collected from 11 sheep-dense districts of the state. The samples were tested for presence of OvHV-2 genome by recommended hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The true prevalence of OvHV-2 infection in sheep population of Karnataka was 24.44%. Of the 11 district surveyed, highest true prevalence of 42.42% (CI 25.56-59.29) was found in Raichur followed by Tumkur (39.02%, CI 24.09-53.96). Inverse distance weighted interpolation of prevalence indicated that OvHV-2 prevalence within a given district is not uniform and there are areas of varied prevalence. The nucleotide sequence of the 422bp DNA fragment, amplified in PCR, matched 99% with OvHV-2 reference sequence and other sequences reported from India. Grouping of OvHV-2 sequences obtained from Karnataka with those from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Jammu and Kashmir in the neighbour joining tree indicated a close relationship among the OvHV-2s circulating in India. This is the first study in the country where systematic screening of sheep population of a state for the presence of OvHV-2 infection has been carried out, which indicated a widespread prevalence calling for an urgent need for policy measures to prevent economic losses due to the disease in susceptible cattle and buffalo species.


PubMed | ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI
Type: | Journal: Experimental parasitology | Year: 2016

Aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine gene expression in liver, kidney and spleen and histopathological changes in mice infected with buffalo and dog isolates of Trypanosoma evansi. Forty-four Swiss albino mice was divided into eleven groups of four mice each and injected subcutaneously with 110

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