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Venkatesan G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Balamurugan V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Balamurugan V.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | Bhanuprakash V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Probes | Year: 2016

A Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the highly conserved DNA polymerase gene of capripox virus genome was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of sheep pox and goat pox viruses. The optimized LAMP assay is found specific and sensitive for amplification of target DNA with a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 96.6% and 100% respectively compared to quantitative PCR. The detection rate of LAMP, PCR and Q-PCR assays is found to be 81.5%, 67% and 83% respectively. This LAMP assay has the potential for rapid clinical diagnosis and surveillance of sheep pox and goat pox in field diagnostic laboratories. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Premkrishnan G.N.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD | Sood R.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD | Hemadri D.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | Chanu K.V.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD | And 4 more authors.
VirusDisease | Year: 2015

In a cross-sectional study, prevalence of ovine herpesvirus 2 (family: Herpesviridae, subfamily: Gammaherpesvirinae, genus Macavirus and species: Ovine herpesvirus2) infection was estimated in sheep population of Karnataka state in India. Based on the three stage cluster sampling method, whole blood samples (356) of sheep were collected from 11 sheep-dense districts of the state. The samples were tested for presence of OvHV-2 genome by recommended hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The true prevalence of OvHV-2 infection in sheep population of Karnataka was 24.44 %. Of the 11 district surveyed, highest true prevalence of 42.42 % (CI 25.56–59.29) was found in Raichur followed by Tumkur (39.02 %, CI 24.09–53.96). Inverse distance weighted interpolation of prevalence indicated that OvHV-2 prevalence within a given district is not uniform and there are areas of varied prevalence. The nucleotide sequence of the 422 bp DNA fragment, amplified in PCR, matched 99 % with OvHV-2 reference sequence and other sequences reported from India. Grouping of OvHV-2 sequences obtained from Karnataka with those from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Jammu and Kashmir in the neighbour joining tree indicated a close relationship among the OvHV-2s circulating in India. This is the first study in the country where systematic screening of sheep population of a state for the presence of OvHV-2 infection has been carried out, which indicated a widespread prevalence calling for an urgent need for policy measures to prevent economic losses due to the disease in susceptible cattle and buffalo species. © 2015, Indian Virological Society.


Uppu D.S.S.M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | Samaddar S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | Ghosh C.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | Paramanandham K.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2016

Bacterial biofilms represent the root-cause of chronic or persistent infections in humans. Gram-negative bacterial infections due to nosocomial and opportunistic pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii are more difficult to treat because of their inherent and rapidly acquiring resistance to antibiotics. Due to biofilm formation, A. baumannii has been noted for its apparent ability to survive on artificial surfaces for an extended period of time, therefore allowing it to persist in the hospital environment. Here we report, maleic anhydride based novel cationic polymers appended with amide side chains that disrupt surface established multi-drug resistant A. baumannii biofilms. More importantly, these polymers significantly (p < 0.0001) decrease the bacterial burden in mice with chronic A. baumannii burn wound infection. The polymers also show potent antibacterial efficacy against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii with minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. We observe that optimal hydrophobicity dependent on the side chain chemical structure of these polymers dictate the selective toxicity to bacteria. Polymers interact with the bacterial cell membranes by causing membrane depolarization, permeabilization and energy depletion. Bacteria develop rapid resistance to erythromycin and colistin whereas no detectable development of resistance occurs against these polymers even after several passages. These results suggest the potential use of these polymeric biomaterials in disinfecting biomedical device surfaces after the infection has become established and also for the topical treatment of chronic bacterial infections. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Mitra S.D.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | Mitra S.D.,Assam University | Shome B.R.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | Mani B.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | And 7 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2016

Streptococcus uberis causing mastitis is a growing challenge to the dairy industry. Molecular, epidemiological and population structure studies have revealed clonal diversity among the infecting strains. In this study, mouse intramammary infection model was used to uncover the host immune response to two epidemiologically important live strains of S. uberis (SU1and SU2) obtained from subclinical case of mastitis possessing specific and unique multi locus sequence types (ST), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pulsotypes and virulence profiles. Temporal (2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h) expression of key inflammatory mediators (IL2, IL4, IL6, IL12, TNFα, IFNγ, GMCSF, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, TLR11, TLR12, CD14, IL1β, RANTES, Lactoferrin, and CXCl1) by reverse transcription and probe-based quantitative real-time PCR showed relative mRNA levels higher (p < 0.05) in response to SU2 compared with SU1 with 24 h PI serving as a critical point for the deviating behavior (SU1 versus SU2). Further employing the predicted biological processes under the influence of this pool of tested genes, the delineation of gene regulatory networks suggested SU1-favoring its persistence in the host environment; in contrast, SU2-which elevated gene expression indicating towards pathogen clearance or immune surveillance. This study suggested how these unique strains could manipulate the host immune response to influence the severity of mastitis; our results expand the available information on host pathogen interaction and provide a firm foundation needing further investigations to gain control over this pathogen. © 2016.


Shome R.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | Padmashree B.S.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | Triveni K.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | Krithiga N.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | And 4 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2015

Brucellosis caused by Brucella species is readily transmissible to humans, causing acute febrile illness and undulant fever which may progress to a more chronic form and can also produce serious complications affecting the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. A veterinary livestock inspector presented to the institute with symptoms of intermittent fever, pain involving muscles and joints, loss of weight, anxiety and weakness for about three months has been investigated. The isolation, serological tests and PCR were performed for diagnosis of brucellosis. Based on history of constant professional association with animals, characteristic symptoms, hematological and biochemical, multiple serological and PCR assay results, the patient was diagnosed as brucellosis. Detection of Brucella abortus directly in the clinical samples by gel based PCRs were highly useful for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. This diagnostic protocol will facilitate in a simple way to map major Brucella species infecting humans in a geographical region. © 2015 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.

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