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Premkrishnan G.N.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD | Sood R.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD | Hemadri D.,ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI | Chanu K.V.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD | And 4 more authors.
VirusDisease | Year: 2015

In a cross-sectional study, prevalence of ovine herpesvirus 2 (family: Herpesviridae, subfamily: Gammaherpesvirinae, genus Macavirus and species: Ovine herpesvirus2) infection was estimated in sheep population of Karnataka state in India. Based on the three stage cluster sampling method, whole blood samples (356) of sheep were collected from 11 sheep-dense districts of the state. The samples were tested for presence of OvHV-2 genome by recommended hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The true prevalence of OvHV-2 infection in sheep population of Karnataka was 24.44 %. Of the 11 district surveyed, highest true prevalence of 42.42 % (CI 25.56–59.29) was found in Raichur followed by Tumkur (39.02 %, CI 24.09–53.96). Inverse distance weighted interpolation of prevalence indicated that OvHV-2 prevalence within a given district is not uniform and there are areas of varied prevalence. The nucleotide sequence of the 422 bp DNA fragment, amplified in PCR, matched 99 % with OvHV-2 reference sequence and other sequences reported from India. Grouping of OvHV-2 sequences obtained from Karnataka with those from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Jammu and Kashmir in the neighbour joining tree indicated a close relationship among the OvHV-2s circulating in India. This is the first study in the country where systematic screening of sheep population of a state for the presence of OvHV-2 infection has been carried out, which indicated a widespread prevalence calling for an urgent need for policy measures to prevent economic losses due to the disease in susceptible cattle and buffalo species. © 2015, Indian Virological Society.


PubMed | ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD, Indian Veterinary Research Institute and ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics NIVEDI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Virusdisease | Year: 2015

In a cross-sectional study, prevalence of ovine herpesvirus 2 (family: Herpesviridae, subfamily: Gammaherpesvirinae, genus Macavirus and species: Ovine herpesvirus 2) infection was estimated in sheep population of Karnataka state in India. Based on the three stage cluster sampling method, whole blood samples (356) of sheep were collected from 11 sheep-dense districts of the state. The samples were tested for presence of OvHV-2 genome by recommended hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The true prevalence of OvHV-2 infection in sheep population of Karnataka was 24.44%. Of the 11 district surveyed, highest true prevalence of 42.42% (CI 25.56-59.29) was found in Raichur followed by Tumkur (39.02%, CI 24.09-53.96). Inverse distance weighted interpolation of prevalence indicated that OvHV-2 prevalence within a given district is not uniform and there are areas of varied prevalence. The nucleotide sequence of the 422bp DNA fragment, amplified in PCR, matched 99% with OvHV-2 reference sequence and other sequences reported from India. Grouping of OvHV-2 sequences obtained from Karnataka with those from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Jammu and Kashmir in the neighbour joining tree indicated a close relationship among the OvHV-2s circulating in India. This is the first study in the country where systematic screening of sheep population of a state for the presence of OvHV-2 infection has been carried out, which indicated a widespread prevalence calling for an urgent need for policy measures to prevent economic losses due to the disease in susceptible cattle and buffalo species.


Bhat S.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD | Bhatia S.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD | Pillai A.S.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD | Sood R.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD | And 4 more authors.
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2015

The recurrent circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Indian poultry since 2006 resulted in emergence of the viruses of distinct antigenic clades of haemagglutinin (HA) with the majority of the H5N1 outbreaks since 2011 belonging to clade 2.3.2.1. The present study was aimed to characterize the antigenic profile of a collection of H5N1 HPAI viruses of clade 2.3.2.1 isolated in India by applying antigenic cartography, serological data and phylogenetic analysis. Eleven H5N1 viruses (2 of clade 2.2 and 9 of clade 2.3.2.1) were selected based on genetic analysis and were further characterized by antigenic cartography analysis based on cross HI (hemagglutination inhibition) data. This study highlights the intercladal antigenic differences between clades 2.3.2.1 and 2.2 and the intracladal antigenic divergence among the clade 2.3.2.1 viruses. Five viruses of clade 2.3.2.1 were also studied for analysis of glycosylation pattern of Hemagglutinin (HA) gene and the growth kinetics analysis in MDCK cells in which the viruses CL03485/H5N1 and 03CL488/H5N1 showed better replication kinetics than other viruses. The study presents a baseline data of antigenicity and other factors that can be used in the selection of suitable H5 vaccine strains or HA donor viruses to develop H5 vaccine strains by reverse genetics or other methods for control of currently circulating H5N1 viruses in Indian region. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases NIHSAD
Type: | Journal: Microbial pathogenesis | Year: 2015

The recurrent circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Indian poultry since 2006 resulted in emergence of the viruses of distinct antigenic clades of haemagglutinin (HA) with the majority of the H5N1 outbreaks since 2011 belonging to clade 2.3.2.1. The present study was aimed to characterize the antigenic profile of a collection of H5N1 HPAI viruses of clade 2.3.2.1 isolated in India by applying antigenic cartography, serological data and phylogenetic analysis. Eleven H5N1 viruses (2 of clade 2.2 and 9 of clade 2.3.2.1) were selected based on genetic analysis and were further characterized by antigenic cartography analysis based on cross HI (hemagglutination inhibition) data. This study highlights the intercladal antigenic differences between clades 2.3.2.1 and 2.2 and the intracladal antigenic divergence among the clade 2.3.2.1 viruses. Five viruses of clade 2.3.2.1 were also studied for analysis of glycosylation pattern of Hemagglutinin (HA) gene and the growth kinetics analysis in MDCK cells in which the viruses CL03485/H5N1 and 03CL488/H5N1 showed better replication kinetics than other viruses. The study presents a baseline data of antigenicity and other factors that can be used in the selection of suitable H5 vaccine strains or HA donor viruses to develop H5 vaccine strains by reverse genetics or other methods for control of currently circulating H5N1 viruses in Indian region.

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