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Jacob S.R.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Tyagi V.,Germplasm Exchange Unit | Agrawal A.,Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit | Chakrabarty S.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Tyagi R.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly, about 50% of the Indian-origin accessions deposited in SGSV are traditional varieties or landraces with defined traits which form the backbone of any crop gene pool. This paper is also attempting to correlate the global data on Indian-origin germplasm with the national germplasm export profile. The analysis from this paper is discussed with the perspective of possible implications in the access and benefit sharing regime of both the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the newly enforced Nagoya Protocol under the Convention on Biological Diversity. © 2015 Jacob et al.

Henry R.J.,University of Queensland | Rangan P.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Furtado A.,University of Queensland
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Adaptation of cereal crops to variable or changing climates requires that essential quality attributes are maintained to deliver food that will be acceptable to human consumers. Advances in cereal genomics are delivering insights into the molecular basis of nutritional and functional quality traits in cereals and defining new genetic resources. Understanding the influence of the environment on expression of these traits will support the retention of these essential functional properties during climate adaptation. New cereals for use as whole grain or ground to flour for other food products may be based upon the traditional species such as rice and wheat currently used in these food applications but may also include new options exploiting genomics tools to allow accelerated domestication of new species. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Pandey C.D.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Pandey S.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2015

Melochia corchorifolia seeds collected from Odisha were tested for germination before conserving in genebank, exhibited physical dormancy due to hard seededness. In order to determine the most suitable method to reduce the hard seeds and promote rapid and uniform germination, seeds were subjected to hot water treatment at different temperatures and duration. Soaking seeds in water at 70°C for 10 min. was found most effective in breaking dormancy and on an average, germination increased from 7 to 96% in two genotypes. Besides germination, seedling vigour, vigour index and electrolyte leakage were also noticed significantly higher in the treated seeds than in untreated seeds. © 2015, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved.

Rana J.C.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Chaudhary D.P.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2015

Fifty-one accessions collected from remote areas of NWH region (Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir) were evaluated for genetic diversity on the basis of phenotypic and grain quality data. Significant differences were found among accessions for agro-morphological as well as quality traits. These accessions had relatively greater variability for yield per plant (g), grain weight (g), plant height (cm), ear height (cm), kernel rows, number of kernels per row, leaf width (cm) and tryptophan content. The cluster analysis based on the phenotyping and biochemical data divided 51 accessions into four clusters; all accessions from Jammu and Kashmir region grouped into cluster 1. Principal component analysis revealed that plant height, ear height, protein, oil, sugar, starch contents and leaf length (cm) were major contributor towards diversity. The grouping pattern obtained in the cluster analysis and PC biplot was congruent with geographical relationship among the accessions. Accessions such as IC556421 with high protein (13.27%) and sugar (4.53%) content, IC568267 with high oil content (4.94%) and IC568265 with high tryptophan content (0.56%) could be utilized in future research programme. © 2015, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

Dikshit N.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Dikshit S.,University of Auckland
International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences | Year: 2016

Cucumis melo L. subsp. agrestis (Naudin) Pangalo is a weedy and feral form of cultivated melon (Cucumis melo L.) and has a widespread occurrence in Africa, Asia and Australian continents. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to study the in situ diversity of fruit and seed characteristics in 23 accessions of Cucumis melo L. subsp. agrestis (Naudin) Pangalo germplasm collected from Central Indian region. Significant variability was observed among the reproductive traits. High coefficient of variation was observed for fruit weight (38.51%) followed by seed breadth (19.19%), fruit length (14.94%), and fruit breadth (12.29%). The studies revealed strong correlation between fruit weight with fruit breadth (0.921) followed by fruit length and fruit weight (0.881), fruit length and seed weight (0.683) and seed length and seed weight (0.657). Based on Ward's minimum variance dendrogram, the accessions can be grouped into two main clusters and there is no distinct pattern of geographic relationship among the accessions studied. Principal component analysis explained that the first principal component accounted for the maximum proportion (63.66%) of the total variability followed by 17.55% by the second Principal components, third component explain 11.58% and the fourth only 3.98% of the variances.

Raina A.P.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Abraham Z.,Kerala Agricultural University | Sivaraj N.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources Regional Station
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

Kaempferia galanga L. (Zingiberaceae) is an important indigenous medicinal plant of India. Plant rhizomes are used in the preparation of Ayurvedic drugs, perfumes and cosmetics. K. galanga germplasm collected from southern states of India were evaluated for essential oil content and oil composition. The volatile composition of essential oil of Kaempferia galanga L. was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results showed wide variations in essential oil content of K. galanga rhizomes ranging from 0.83 to 2.19% on dry weight basis. Thirty-eight compounds were identified in the Kaempferia oil. The oil composition was dominated by two esters viz; ethyl-. trans-p-methoxy cinnamate (28.35-69.96%) and trans-ethyl cinnamate (11.48-26.56%). Other prominent chemical constituents were δ-3-carene (0.13-6.46%), 1,8-cineole (0.19-5.17%), borneol (0.96-2.40%) and pentadecane (6.04-16.53%). DIVA-GIS analysis of K. galanga germplasm for chemical components indicated that diverse accessions can be obtained from Central Kerala, while South Eastern parts of Kerala possessed least diversity indices. Superior accessions were identified based on high content of ethyl-. trans-p-methoxy cinnamate (IC373589, IC087831, IC373591) and trans-ethyl cinnamate (IC087826, IC210748, IC087832). Ethyl-. trans-p-methoxy cinnamate and trans-ethyl cinnamate are found to be the most important constituents present in the essential oil isolated from all the accessions of K. galanga which are reported to be responsible for most of the pharmacological properties of the plant. Hence, these promising accessions of K. galanga can be exploited for large-scale cultivation of this plant for obtaining higher yields of pharmacologically important constituents. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Kumar R.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Radhamani J.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2016

Genetic diversity in any crop species is critical for sustaining and thus continuing our efforts towards successful development of desirable varieties. Among the several methods available to assess diversity among germplasm, the SSR markers based DNA profiling is one of the most reliable approaches to assess differences across accessions or varieties unambiguously. In the present study we identified genic-SSR markers in the vegetable Brassica through transferability studies. The identified genic-SSR markers were also tested for their reproducibility across a panel of related but different Brassica species. The genic-SSR markers showing polymorphism across different Brassica species were employed in understanding relationship of vegetable Brassicas with that of both related and distant Brassica species. © 2016 Horticulture Society of India. All Rights reserved.

PubMed | ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hill Region, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region and ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of virology | Year: 2016

Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) causes significant economic loss to chilli cultivation in northeastern India, as well as in eastern Asia. In this study, we have developed a single-tube one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis of ChiVMV. Amplification could be visualized after adding SYBR Green I (1000) dye within 60min under isothermal conditions at 63C, with a set of four primers designed based on the large nuclear inclusion protein (NIb) domain of ChiVMV (isolate KC-ML1). The RT-LAMP method was 100 times more sensitive than one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with a detection limit of 0.0001ng of total RNA per reaction.

PubMed | ICAR Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Punjab Agricultural University, ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Indian Agricultural Research Institute and North Bengal Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat-Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011-14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab), a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal), a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels.

PubMed | ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources and ICAR National Rice Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC genetics | Year: 2016

Hill rices (Oryza sativa L.) are direct seeded rices grown on hill slopes of different gradients. These landraces have evolved under rainfed and harsh environmental conditions and may possess genes governing adaptation traits such as tolerance to cold and moisture stress. In this study, 64 hill rice landraces were collected from the state of Arunachal Pradesh of North-Eastern region of India, and assessed by agro-morphological variability and microsatellite markers polymorphism. Our aim was to use phenotypic and genetic diversity data to understand the basis of farmers classification of hill rice landraces into two groups: umte and tening. Another goal was to understand the genetic differentiation of hill rices into Indica or japonica subspecies.According to farmers classification, hill rices were categorized into two groups: umte (large-grained, late maturing) and tening (small-grained, early maturing). We did not find significant difference in days to 50% flowering between the groups. Principal component analysis revealed that two groups can be distinguished on the basis of kernel length-to-width ration (KLW), kernel length (KL), grain length (GrL), grain length-to-width ration (GrLW) and plant height (Ht). Stepwise canonical discriminant analysis identified KL and Ht as the main discriminatory characters between the cultivar groups. Genetic diversity analysis with 35 SSR markers revealed considerable genetic diversity in the hill rice germplasm (gene diversity: 0.66; polymorphism information content: 0.62). Pair-wise allelic difference between umte and tening groups was not statistically significant. The model-based population structure analysis showed that the hill rices were clustered into two broad groups corresponding to Indica and Japonica. The geographic distribution and cultivars grouping of hill rices were not congruent in genetic clusters. Both distance- and model-based approaches indicated that the hill rices were predominantly japonica or admixture among the groups within the subspecies. These findings were further supported by combined analysis hill rices with 150 reference rice accessions representing major genetic groups of rice.This study collected a valuable set of hill rice germplasm for rice breeding and for evolutionary studies. It also generated a new set of information on genetic and phenotypic diversity of hill rice landraces in North-Eastern region of India. The collected hill rices were mostly japonica or admixture among the subpopulations of Indica or Japonica. The findings are useful for utilization and conservation of hill rice germplasm.

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