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PubMed | Bishop Museum, University of Calcutta, ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources and Marine Biology Regional Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2016

The Metrocoris fauna of India is reviewed and five new species are described from India: M. murtiensis Basu, Polhemus and Subramanian sp. nov. belonging to the nigrofasciatus species group, M. dinendrai Basu, Polhemus and Subramanian sp. nov. and M. darjeelingensis Basu, Polhemus and Subramanian sp. nov. of the compar species group, M. deceptor Basu, Polhemus and Subramanian sp. nov. (previously treated as M. quynhi Tran & Zettel in Basu et al., 2015) of the anderseni species group, and M. lavitra Basu, Polhemus, Subramanian and Saha sp. nov., which does not fit well into any currently established species group. The new species proposed are compared to all other known species, and a key to all the species of Indian Metrocoris is provided, accompanied by a table for comparison of key morphological characters, and a map and table of distributional details.


Mruthunjayaswamy P.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Thiruvengadam V.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Sushil Kumar J.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Crop Protection | Year: 2016

Pink mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a destructive pest of agricultural and horticultural crops. Insecticides are the major tool used to control M. hirsutus. The present study was conducted to evaluate resistance to the commonly used insecticides acephate, dichlorvos, imidacloprid and buprofezin in M. hirsutus collected from seven different geographical locations of mulberry and vineyards in India. Detoxifying enzymes, namely esterase, glutathione S transferase (GST) and cytochrome P-450 (cyt-P450), were quantified in populations. One population from Erode showed a low level of resistance to acephate (resistance ratio [RR] 10.3-fold), one from Salem showed a low level of resistance to dichlorvos (resistance ratio [RR] 13.7-fold), one from Sangli showed a very low level of resistance to imidacloprid (RR 10.2-fold), and one from Chikkaballapur showed a low level of resistance to buprofezin (RR 14.8-fold). Activity ratios for detoxifying enzymes ranged from 1.8- to 4.9-fold for GST, 1.8- to 3.7-fold for esterase and 1.9- to 2.4-fold for cyt-P450. Furthermore, organophosphate resistance and activity of enzymes (esterase, GST and cyt-P450) were positively correlated. To contain the evolution of resistance to M. hirsutus infestation, buprofezin and imidacloprid could be used, supplemented with biointensive integrated management strategies and regular resistance monitoring programs. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Gupta A.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Van Achterberg C.,Naturalis Biodiversity Center | Chitrala M.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Zootaxa | Year: 2016

A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press.


Gupta A.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Venkatesan T.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | More R.P.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Glyptapanteles Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a cosmopolitan group of hyperdiverse parasitic wasps. The genus remains taxonomically challenging in India due to its highly speciose nature, morphological similarity amongst species and negligible host records. The Indian fauna is one of the most diverse and also the least studied. The present study is based on 60 populations reared from 35 host species, 100+ individual caterpillar rearings (1100 wasp specimens pinned and 2000 in alcohol) and from 12 different geographical locations of the country (11 states and one Union territory) that represent 26 provisional Glyptapanteles species within 8 species-groups. Out of 60 populations, phylogenetic analyses were performed on 38 based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods displayed three and four major discrete Glyptapanteles clades, respectively. In clade A very few Indian species were grouped along with Neotropical and Thailand species. The other clades B and C grouped the majority of the Indian species and showed considerable host specificity in both the trees. All parasitic wasp species were gregarious in nature, except for two populations. Three different sets of data (morphology, host records, and COI) were integrated in order to generate accurate boundaries between species/species-groups. Illustrations of all parasitized caterpillars/cocoons and 42 habitus views of Glyptapanteles spp., distributional information, and GenBank accession numbers, are presented. The present study, perhaps the most comprehensive done to date in India, suggests the presence of several additional Glyptapanteles species, which were previously unrecognized. © 2016 Gupta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Kamalanathan V.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Mohanraj P.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Zootaxa | Year: 2016

Pardoteleia, a monotypic genus was described by Kozlov and Lê (1988). A new species Pardoteleia flava from India is now described and imaged. The hitherto unknown male of this genus is also described and imaged for the first time. Par-doteleia prater, the type species is redescribed and imaged with intraspecific variations in the Indian specimens. © 2016 Magnolia Press.


PubMed | Canadian National Collection of Insects, National Museums of Scotland and ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Type: | Journal: ZooKeys | Year: 2016

The unusual species of Cotesia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with the first tergite narrowing at midlength are reviewed. One new species, Cotesia trabalae sp. n. is described from India and compared with Cotesia pistrinariae (Wilkinson) from Africa, the only other species sharing the same character of all the described species worldwide. The generic placement of these two species, based on molecular and morphological analyses as well as parasitoid biology is discussed.


PubMed | Naturalis Biodiversity Center and ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2016

A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrire) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrire (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.


PubMed | ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2016

Pardoteleia, a monotypic genus was described by Kozlov and L (1988). A new species Pardoteleia flava from India is now described and imaged. The hitherto unknown male of this genus is also described and imaged for the first time. Pardoteleia prater, the type species is redescribed and imaged with intraspecific variations in the Indian specimens.


PubMed | ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] | Year: 2016

Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32mol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26mol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.


PubMed | ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Systematic parasitology | Year: 2016

In rearing of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from Karnataka and Goa, India, six species of parasitoids were observed. One new species of parasitic wasp is described and illustrated: Agiommatus thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a solitary parasitoid reared from the egg of G. thyrsis on the natural host plant Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & J. Dransf. Three additional species of parasitic wasps were also reared: Anastatus ramakrishnai (Mani, 1935) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), a solitary hyperparasitoid of A. thyrsisae n. sp.; Sympiesis thyrsisae Gupta, Gawas & Bhambure (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of G. thyrsis on the host plant Cocos nucifera L., and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) reared from pupa of G. thyrsis on the host plant D. lutescens. Additionally, two species of tachinid flies were also reared from the pupae of G. thyrsis: Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann, 1830) and an innominate species close to Blepharella spp. Gangara thyrsis is a new host record for the genus Agiommatus and for A. ramakrishnai and B. lasus. The mean percent parasitism in G. thyrsis eggs was 26.58% with an incubation period of 6-7 days. Amongst the egg parasitoids, 57.14-73.08% were females and 23.08% were males. Hyperparasitism ranged from 3.85 to 42.86%. Dypsis lutescens, a member of Arecaceae, is a new host plant record for G. thyrsis.

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