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Mohanty S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Jha M.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Panda R.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Sudheer K.P.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Water Resources Management | Year: 2015

Reliable forecast of groundwater level is necessary for its sustainable use and for planning land and water management strategies. This paper deals with an application of artificial neural network (ANN) approach to the weekly forecasting of groundwater levels in multiple wells located over a river basin. Gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate backpropagation (GDX) algorithm was employed to predict groundwater levels 1 week ahead at 18 sites over the study area. Based on the domain knowledge and pertinent statistical analysis, appropriate set of inputs for the ANN model was selected. This consisted of weekly rainfall, pan evaporation, river stage, water level in the surface drain, pumping rates of 18 sites and groundwater levels of 18 sites in the previous week, which led to 40 input nodes and 18 output nodes. During training of the ANN model, the optimum number of hidden neurons was found to be 40 and the model performance was found satisfactory (RMSE = 0.2397 m, r = 0.9861, and NSE = 0.9722). During testing of the model, the values of statistical indicators RMSE, r and NSE were 0.4118 m, 0.9715 and 0.9288, respectively. Using the same inputs, the developed ANN model was further used for forecasting groundwater levels 2, 3 and 4 weeks ahead in 18 tubewells. The model performance was better while forecasting groundwater levels at shorter lead times (up to 2 weeks) than that for larger lead times. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Rautaray S.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Verma O.P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Satapathy B.S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Satapathy B.S.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2015

Attempt was made to adjust three rice crops in a cropping sequence in irrigated lowland, and also to compare productivity and efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L.)–rice–rice cropping system with rice–rice and rice–fallow. Results of the 8 years study (2001–09) revealed that rice variety ‘Chandrama’ as winter crop, followed by the same variety as summer crop and ‘Vandana’ as autumn crop could be grown in sequence. The grain yield from the 3 rice cropping sequence was 15.3 t/ha. The productivity of the summer crop (6.8 t/ha) was the highest, followed by the winter crop (5.6 t/ha). The lowest productivity was obtained from autumn crop (2.9 t/ha). Rice–rice cropping system produced the lower grain yield of 12.4 t/ha. However, considering production efficiency (48.8 kg grain/ha/ day), sustainable yield index (0.98), net return (23,187/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (1.43), it was better than rice– rice–rice cropping system. Results on soil chemical properties after eight cropping cycles under rice–rice–rice cropping system revealed that soil pH and available N content were similar to the initial value. However, a buildup of organic carbon (12%), and available phosphorus (39.5%) and potassium (6.4%) in soil was noted. © 2015 Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.


Gupta D.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gupta D.K.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute | Bhatia A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Rice-wheat cropping systems (RWCS) of the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) of India are tillage, water and energy intensive and an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Developing agronomic management in RWCS that lead to minimum adverse impact on soil, enhances water use efficiency, reduces GHG emission and are climate resilient is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate different combinations of GHG mitigation technologies for rice and wheat and to find suitable low carbon options for RWCS in the IGP. Seven management systems i.e. conventionally tilled wheat (CTW); zero tilled wheat (ZTW); transplanted puddled rice (TPR); dry direct seeded rice (DSR); intermittent wetting and drying (IWD); application of neem oil coated urea (NOCU); and surface application of rice residue (RR) were experimented in six combination of rotations [CTW-TPR, ZTW-TPR, ZTW-IWD, ZTW-DSR, ZTW + RR-DSR and (ZTW-TPR) + NOCU] for two consecutive years. Among these rotations, ZTW-DSR and ZTW + RR-DSR showed the lowest global warming potential (GWP) and GHG intensity in both the years. Adoption of these systems in the Indian-IGP can reduce GWP of the conventional RWCS (CTW-TPR) by 44-47% without any significant loss in the system yield. This was mainly due to significantly low CH4 emission (82.3-87.2%) in DSR as compared to TPR due to prolonged aerobic condition under DSR. However, frequent wetting and drying in DSR led to higher denitrification emissions of N2O (60-70%). Significantly higher emissions of N2O were observed in ZTW treatments (8-11%). NOCU was found effective in reducing N2O emission from ZTW (17.8-20.5%) leading to lower GWP as compared to CTW. Application of rice residue in ZTW treatment also reduced N2O emission (11-12.8%). There was no significant effect of different treatments in rice on GHG emission from the succeeding wheat crop; however, ZTW and ZTW + RR were found to enhance CH4 emission from the succeeding rice treatments. © 2016 Elsevier B.V..


Thakur A.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Kassam A.,University of Reading | Stoop W.A.,STOOP Consult R&D for Tropical Agriculture | Uphoff N.,Cornell University
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Water scarcity increasingly constrains agricultural production, particularly for rice, one of our most important food crops. Conventional paddy production is the world's largest single consumer of water. Making certain changes in current cultivation practices, as discussed here, can raise rice crop yields while reducing water and other inputs. Diminished greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, less runoff water pollution, and more climate-resilience are additional benefits. Spreading such changes in crop and water management within the rice sector can be a cost-effective response to agricultural water shortages, offering improvement in food security, adaptability to climate change, and environmental sustainability. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Jakhar P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Dass A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Adhikary P.P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Sudhishri S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2016

Soil and water conservation along with crop productivity improvement is indispensable for sustainable development of rainfed areas. Integration of suitable fruit trees within the cropping system can reduce risk allied with rainfed farming. The system of raising multi-height plant species with agricultural crops known as multitier agroforestry system was assessed (2007–2010) for resource conservation and production potential in rainfed conditions of Eastern Ghats region in India. Thirty experimental plots, each of 18 × 12 m dimension with 2 % slope having different multitier agroforestry treatments were assessed for soil erosion, nutrient loss and crop yield. Results revealed that multitier plantation of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) with Gliricidia sepium hedgerow and ginger (Zingiber officinale): pigeonpea (Cajanuscajan) (8:2) intercropping enumerated minimum mean runoff (8.26 %) and soil loss (3.45 Mg ha−1). This treatment saved 74 % more soil organic carbon, 64 % more phosphorus and 66 % more potassium, respectively than broadcasted finger millet cultivation (traditional farmers’ practice). An increase of 24–27 % drumstick fruit yield was observed in Gliricidia hedgerow based multitier agroforestry systems over non-Gliricidia systems. The findings will contribute as a technical reference for the promotion of hedgerow based multitier agroforestry for resource conservation and fertility restoration of sloping lands. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Sethi R.R.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Mandal K.G.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Sarangi A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Behera A.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2016

Crop production is directly related to the water used, which is a major constraint to meet food security for the growing population nowadays. Attempts were made to understand the response of paddy to irrigation by using the FAO AquaCrop model for crop yield data of 8-years. Weather parameters were analyzed for paddy crop growing period to validate the model; crop parameters were calibrated for paddy variety of 120 days duration in Ludhiana, India. Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and irrigation schedule (718-1048.1 mm) was decided by using ET0 calculator and CROPWAT model, respectively. The simulated yield (3.80-4.53 t ha-1) was validated with the actual yield (3.53-4.63 t ha-1) with water use efficiency (3.1-3.7 kg ha-1 mm-1), obtained during the years of observation. The model was evaluated with the percentage error of 0.59, root mean square error of 0.064, mean absolute error of 0.06 indicating higher accuracy of the calibrated model. Thus the model would be useful for predicting the paddy crop yield, irrigation water productivity under different irrigation scenarios. © 2016, World Food Ltd. and WFL Publishers. All Rights Reserved.


Verma O.P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Das M.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Kumar A.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Sethi R.R.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2015

A field experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive years 2008–09 and 2009–10 at Deras, Mendhasal, Odisha, to study the effect of conjunctive use of water sources and fertilizer levels on yield and water use of winter (rabi) season groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The treatments included 3 levels of conjunctive use of water [C1– (2 irrigations through canal water only, C2–2 irrigations with canal water + 1 irrigation with ground water and C3–2 irrigations with canal and 2 irrigations with ground water)] and 5 fertilizer treatments, [(F0, no NPK; F1, 100% NPK (20, 40 and 40 kg/ha as N, P2O5 and K2O), F2, sugarcane trash bio-compost (STBC) alone (1 t/ha); F3, 75% NPK + sugarcane trash bio-compost (0.25 t/ha) and F4, 50% NPK+ sugarcane trash bio-compost (0.50 t/ha)]. Pod and haulm yields of groundnut were significantly increased with conjunctive-use of water sources (ground and canal water) compared to canal water irrigation alone. The increase in pod yield was 45.3% and haulm yield 40.3% with conjunctive use of 2 irrigations through canal and 2 irrigations through ground water over 2 irrigations with canal water. This treatment also gave the maximum gross returns (₹447,714/ha), net returns (₹35,166/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (2.80). With application of 75% NPK + STBC (0.25 t/ha) 70.3% and 73.4% increase in pod and haulm yields was observed compared to the control (no fertilizer application). The highest water use (434 mm), water-use efficiency (5.06 kg/ha-mm) and benefit: cost ratio (3.11) were recorded with application of 75% NPK + STBC (0.25 t/ha). © 2015, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.


Raychaudhuri S.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Raychaudhuri S.,ICAR Indian Institute of water Management | Raychaudhuri M.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region
Legume Research | Year: 2015

The rhizobial products for groundnut contain different strains. The lack of information regarding the efficacy of commercial rhizobial products in different agro ecological regions, often leads to erratic results. Field experiment was conducted to study the symbiotic efficiency of the commercially available standard strains of Rhizobium viz TAL 1000, IGR 6, NC 92 and JCG 48 for two groundnut cultivars viz JL 24 and TKG 19A on the nodulation, nutrient uptake, yield attributes and yield, of groundnut in an acid hill Ultisol. IGR-6 increased dry nodular mass maximum by 43 % followed by 29% with NC-92 and JCG-48 both in JL-24, however, TKG 19A responded differently. The variety x strain interaction was significant for both the pod (P0.05= 1.57 q/ha) and straw (P0.05= 2.87 q/ha) yield. N and P uptake in pod as well as straw increased significantly with all strains except TAL-1000 in JL-24. Rhizobial strains NC 92 and IGR 6 showed better performance than TAL 1000 in an acid hill Ultisol. © 2015, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All Rights Reserved.


Panigrahi P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Srivastava A.K.,ICAR Central Citrus Research Institute
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Water scarcity is one of the major causes of low productivity and decline of citrus orchards. Deficit irrigation (DI) is a recently proposed water saving technique in irrigated agriculture. The impact DI versus full irrigation (FI: 100% crop water requirement) was evaluated in citrus orchards under a hot sub-humid climate of central India. Two DI strategies applied to citrus trees were DI1: 20% FI during initial fruit growth period (IFGP) + 40% FI during final fruit growth period (FFGP) + FI during rest of the period, and DI2: 70% FI during entire irrigation season. Fully irrigated trees had the highest vegetative growth. However, DI1 produced 18% higher fruit yield with superior quality fruits, resulting 30% improvement in water productivity under this treatment compared to FI. Fruit yield prediction based on vegetative growth and leaf physiological parameters of the trees using principal component regression analysis technique was found reasonable accurate. These results suggest for adoption of DI1 in citrus orchards of central India and elsewhere having similar agro-climate of this study region. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Sethi R.R.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Srivastava R.C.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Das M.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Anand P.S.B.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Tripathy J.K.,Government of Odisha
Nature Environment and Pollution Technology | Year: 2016

Most of the coastal ecosystems face double whammy problems in terms of excess water congestion during the monsoon period and non availability of freshwater during the post monsoon period. Ingression of saline water due to high tide is a challenge to humanity, in general, and agriculture, freshwater resource, fisheries and aquaculture in particular. Eastern part of India is highly populated with plenty of natural resources. But due to lack/poor irrigation infrastructure, maximum freshwater flows to the sea. Hence, this ecosystem requires adequate attention to develop and refine appropriate technological options to facilitate more freshwater availability throughout the year and check the saline water ingression in order to increase the overall land and water productivity of the area. Geographic, engineering, socioeconomic and environmental factors which are closely associated with the water management issues have been reviewed for proper water management options in the coastal ecosystem.

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