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Raja P.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute | Raja P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Srinivas C.V.,Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research | Hari Prasad K.B.R.R.,Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research | Singh N.,Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology
Pure and Applied Geophysics | Year: 2016

Land surface processes in data scarce arid northwestern India and their influence on the regional climate including monsoon are now gaining enhanced scientific attention. In this work the seasonal variation of land surface parameters and surface-energy flux components over Lasiurus sindicus grassland system in Thar Desert, western India were simulated using the mesoscale WRF model. The data on surface fluxes from a micrometeorological station, and basic surface level weather data from the Central Arid Zone Research Institute’s experimental field station (26o59′41″N; 71o29′10″E), Jaisalmer, were used for comparison. Simulations were made for typical fair weather days in three seasons [12–14 January (peak winter); 29–31 May (peak summer), 19–21 August (monsoon)] during 2012. Sensitivity experiments conducted using a 5-layer soil thermal diffusion (5TD) scheme and a comprehensive land surface physics scheme (Noah) revealed the 5TD scheme gives large biases in surface fluxes and other land surface parameters. Simulations show large variations in surface fluxes and meteorological parameters in different seasons with high friction velocities, sensible heat fluxes, deep boundary layers in summer and monsoon season as compared to winter. The shortwave radiation is underestimated during the monsoon season, and is overestimated in winter and summer. In general, the model simulated a cold bias in soil temperature in summer and monsoon season and a warm bias in winter; the simulated surface fluxes and air temperature followed these trends. These biases could be due to a negative bias in net radiation resulting from a high bias in downward shortwave radiation in various seasons. The Noah LSM simulated various parameters more realistically in all seasons than the 5TD soil scheme due to inclusion of explicit vegetation processes in the former. The differences in the simulated fluxes with the two LSMs are small in winter and large in summer. The deep mixed layers are distributed in the northeastern parts in summer, northern areas in southwest monsoon and in southwestern parts during winter seasons and associated with the land-cover and vegetation dynamics. Our results present a baseline simulation study in this data scarce arid region. © 2016, Springer International Publishing. Source

Moharana P.C.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute | Raja P.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute | Raja P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2016

A vast area between Phalodi in Jodhpur and Pokaran in Jaisalmer district of western Rajasthan, is occupied distinctly by rocky, shallow gravelly surfaces and occasional hills. These surfaces exhibit quartz and quartzite pebbles, angular, sub-angular and few rounded sandstone gravels, have slightly convex outline and can be best described as desert pavements. Such land features assume significance because of their extent and variability under a dominantly dry aeolian environment. Morphology and distributional pattern of such formations indicate that sediments are either of in situ origin or may have been transported to a short distance. The present study is based on field level assessment of such surfaces in the above two desert districts. Over much of the area, the profile shows a surficial concentration of gravels followed by thick sand and silt mixed with gravels and then the parent material. There are also occasional rock outcrops of very low relief exhibiting vertical, horizontal and conchoidal pattern of fractures over these surfaces near Pokaran and north of Jaisalmer which indicate disintegration of rocks under extreme diurnal fluctuation of temperature. Such manifestations in the morphology indicate impact of both thermal as well as aeolian processes. In the east of Jaisalmer town near Basanpir and Bhojka, the pavement surfaces are found covered with abundant sub-rounded to rounded pebbles and cobbles. This type of condition would indicate a profound action by fluvial activities followed by wind sorting. Our study found significant spatial variability in the distribution of pavement surfaces, which carried imprints of climatic fluctuations and environment of deposition during Holocene. © 2016, Geological Society of India. Source

Singh R.J.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh R.J.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Ahlawat I.P.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma N.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation
International Journal of Plant Production | Year: 2015

Of the several mechanisms that can bring about efficient resource use, the most widelyapplicable one is intercropping systems that can make better use of resources. The aim of this study was to evaluate resource capture and resource use efficiency in transgenic cotton-peanut intercropping system and in their respective sole crops with using 25-50% substitution of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) of cotton through farmyard manure (FYM) along with 100 % RDN through urea and control (0N). Apparent crop water productivity, nutrient use efficiency, economic returns and modern intercropping indices (system productivity index, actual yield loss, intercropping advantage index, nitrogen stress factor, etc.) were measured for making better understanding of resource use efficiency. Comparisons of intercropped peanut with sole peanut were emphasized because of shrinking area of peanut in the south-east Asian region represents a threat to agricultural system sustainability. Cotton + peanut intercropping system resulted in improved water productivity (19%), nutrient use efficiency (15-20%) and monetary advantage index (16,709) as measured with modern tools of intercropping indices compared with sole crops of cotton and peanut. Peanut cultivated as sole crop attained the least resource productivity in terms of apparent crop water productivity (0.71 kg m-3), nutrient use efficiency (4.47 kg grain kg N-1) and total factor productivity (0.07). Among fertility levels, substitution of 25% RDN of cotton through FYM maintained higher apparent crop water productivity (17%), monetary advantage index (6%), system productivity index (9%) and nutrient use efficiencies (15-17%) over 100% RDN through urea only. This work provides basis for efficient resource use by peanut intercropping with cotton which simultaneously enhances domestic oilseed production and reduce import load of cooking oil without sacrificing the productivity of main crop of cotton in India and other cotton growing countries of the world. © 2015, Gorgan Univ Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. All rights reserved. Source

Kumar R.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Shamet G.S.,Himachal Pradesh University | Alam N.M.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Jana C.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation
Compost Science and Utilization | Year: 2016

Pinus gerardiana Wall. is an important nut-producing pine having restricted distribution in the world. It has been observed that natural regeneration in the species is extremely poor or entirely lacking. The species has erratic and infrequent seed years, dormancy-related problems, and slow growth of seedling, which reduces its regeneration process in natural habitats. Therefore, we investigated the effect of growing medium and seed size on germination and seedling growth of the Pinus gerardiana. The seeds were categorized into two sizes, viz, small (<2.35 cm) and large (>2.35 cm) and five growing medium treatments were used, viz, Soil:Sand:FYM; Soil:Sand:Moss:FYM; Soil:Moss:Vermicompost; Soil:Sand:Vermicompost; and Soil:Sand:Moss:Vermicompost, for assessing their impact on germination and seedling growth. It was observed that, among different growing medium treatments, higher germination and seedling growth parameters were recorded, when Soil:Sand:Moss:Vermicompost was used for the study. Between different seed sizes, higher germination and seedling growth were recorded when seed size was large. © 2016 Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation. Source

Dash C.J.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Sarangi A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Adhikary P.P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Singh D.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2016

The groundwater resources of semi-arid region in Indo-Gangetic Plain is declining rapidly and necessitates accurate quantification of potential recharge from different agricultural land uses. The potential recharge on a daily basis for three different land uses, such as fallow, rice and non-rice cropped areas for three cropping seasons, was estimated using soil water balance approach. Beside this, the net groundwater use for eight different crops was also calculated. The potential recharge from fallow land was 126 mm year−1, which was 14.9 % of total rainfall. The mean potential recharge from kharif (rainy) and rabi (winter) seasons was 527.3 and 81.7 mm season−1, respectively. Among the rabi crops, least recharge was observed for winter maize and mustard with 29.3 mm season−1, followed by wheat with 108.4 mm season−1. Among the kharif crops, least recharge was observed for green gram with 59.7 mm season−1, followed by soybean with 113.9 mm season−1. Rice had the highest recharge potential of 929.1 mm season−1, followed by maize with 149.1 mm season−1 and cotton with 132.7 mm season−1. It was observed that the annual average groundwater use was highest for wheat with 190 mm year−1, followed by winter maize with 188 mm year−1, mustard with 169 mm year−1, paddy with 151 mm year−1, kharif maize with 94 mm year−1, green gram with 15 mm year−1. Cotton and soybean crops exhibited an additional potential recharge of 8 and 114 mm year−1 into the groundwater. It was revealed that the maize–wheat cropping system consumed less groundwater than rice–wheat and, therefore, can be considered as a better option for sustainable use of groundwater. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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