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Zhang Y.,Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural science | Zhang Y.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology | Mulpuri S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Liu A.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2016

Defoliation occurs in castor due to several reasons, but the crop has propensity to compensate for the seed yield. Photosynthetic efficiency in terms of functional (gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence) and structural characteristics (photosynthetic pigment profiles and anatomical properties) of castor capsule walls under light- and dark-adapted conditions was compared with that of leaves. Capsule wall showed high intrinsic efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, 0.82) which was comparable to leaves (Fv/Fm, 0.80). With increasing photon flux densities (PFD), actual quantum yields and photochemical quenching coefficients of the capsule walls were similar to that in leaves, while electron transport rates reached a maximum corresponding to about 118 % of the leaves. However, maximum net photosynthetic rate of the capsule walls (2.60 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1) was less than one-fourth of the leaves (15.67 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1) at the CO2 concentration of 400 µmol mol−1, and the difference was attributed to about 80 % lower stomatal density and the 75 % lower total chlorophyll content of capsule walls than the leaves. Furthermore, seed weight in dark-adapted capsules was 2.70–12.42 % less as compared to the capsules developed under light. The results indicate that castor capsule walls are photosynthetically active (about 15–30 % of the leaves) and contribute significantly to carbon fixation and seed yield accounting for 10 % photoassimilates towards seed weight. © 2016, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


Rao E.S.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | Rao E.S.,Genetic Resources and Seed Unit | Kadirvel P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Kadirvel P.,Genetic Resources and Seed Unit | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Association analysis was conducted in a core collection of 94 genotypes of Solanum pimpinellifolium to identify variations linked to salt tolerance traits (physiological and yield traits under salt stress) in four candidate genes viz., DREB1A, VP1.1, NHX1, and TIP. The candidate gene analysis covered a concatenated length of 4594 bp per individual and identified five SNP/Indels in DREB1A and VP1.1 genes explaining 17.0%to 25.8%phenotypic variation for various salt tolerance traits. Out of these five alleles, one at 297 bp in DREB1A had in-frame deletion of 6 bp (CTGCAT) or 12 bp (CTGCATCTGCAT), resulting in two alleles, viz., SpDREB1A-297-6 and SpDREB1A-297-12. These alleles individually or as haplotypes accounted for maximum phenotypic variance of about 25% for various salt tolerance traits. Design of markers for selection of the favorable alleles/haplotypes will hasten markerassisted introgression of salt tolerance from S. pimpinellifolium into cultivated tomato. © 2015 Rao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Jacob J.,ICAR Indian Institute of Millets Research | Sujatha M.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Varaprasad S.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2016

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) inhibiting herbicides have played a significant role in effective weed control in the cultivation of sunflower since their discovery. The development of sunflower lines and hybrids resistant to these herbicides made their post-emergence application possible. In this study, wild Helianthus species were screened phenotypically for imidazolinone (IMI) and sulfonylurea (SU) resistance by herbicide spray and for allelic variations at Ahasl1 (Ahas1 large subunit) locus using simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Helianthus praecox accession 1823 plants showed promising resistance to three classes of SU-based herbicides and Helianthus nuttallii accession NUT05 plants remained green for a longer time after imazethapyr spray. A total of 50 accessions belonging to 21 wild Helianthus species of different ploidy levels were analysed for allelic variation along with some parents of commercial sunflower hybrids. None of the wild species showed the resistant allele (Ahasl1-1) similar to SCG101 (IMI-resistant line), although it is present in some of the parental lines of hybrids. However, the parental lines having Ahasl1-1-type allele failed to survive the field dose of imazethapyr spray. Inter-species and inter-accessional allelic variation could be observed among the species. PRA1823 and NUT05 showed repeat length variations at Ahasl1 locus. Sequencing of full length Ahasl1 gene from both these accessions did not reveal any resistance mutations in the protein sequences. The molecular basis of the phenotypes identified in this study could be explored further and utilized in breeding programmes for imparting herbicide resistance in cultivated hybrids across sunflower growing regions of the world. Copyright © NIAB 2016


Pal R.S.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Bhartiya A.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | Yadav P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Kant L.,ICAR Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The changes in chemical composition, antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of lentil flour after dehulling, germination and cooking of seeds were investigated. Dehulling showed no significant effect on protein content, however, protein content decreased in most of the varieties after germination and cooking. Total soluble sugars (TSS) content increased significantly after dehulling (2.0–41.64 %) and cooking (2.08–31.07 %) whereas, germination had no significant effect on TSS content. Total lipids increased significantly after dehulling (21.56–42.86 %) whereas, it decreased significantly after germination (2.97–26.52 %) and cooking (23.05–58.63 %). Cooking was more effective than other methods in reducing trypsin inhibitors (80.51–85.41 %). Dehulling was most effective in reducing tannins (89.46–92.99 %) and phytic acid (52.63–60.00 %) content over raw seed. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid content decreased while linolenic acid content increased after dehulling. Dehulling, germination and cooking decreased the content of antioxidant metabolite (gallic acid, catechin and quercetin) and also antioxidant activities. Raw samples followed by germinated samples showed the highest concentrations of phytochemicals responsible for antioxidant activity and also the antioxidant capacities. Present study showed germination and cooking would be useful in formulation and development of lentil based functional foods for human health benefits. © 2016 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India)


Parvathy S.T.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Parvathy S.T.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Srinivasan R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Plant Biotechnology Reports | Year: 2016

Cryptic promoter elements play a significant role in evolution of plant gene expression patterns and are prospective tools for creating gene expression systems in plants. In a previous report, a 452 bp promoter fragment designated as cryptic root-specific promoter (AY601849) was identified immediately upstream to T-DNA insertion, in the intergenic region between divergent genes SAHH1 and SHMT4, in T-DNA tagged mutant M57 of Arabidopsis thaliana. In silico analysis of 452 bp promoter revealed typical eukaryotic promoter architecture, presence of root-specific motifs and other cis-regulatory motifs responsible for the spatial and temporal expression. GUS expression driven by 452 bp in M57 was developmentally as well as light-regulated. The AT-rich 452 bp promoter does not show homology to any known sequences. The 452 bp promoter was further proved cryptic and detailed molecular characterization of the promoter carried out through serial 5′ and 3′ deletion analysis, by cloning the promoter fragments upstream to promoter-less GUS vector. A 279 bp fragment obtained by deleting 173 bp from 5′ end of 452 bp was capable of driving root-specific expression, similar to that of full-length promoter. Further, root tip-specific, root-specific and core-regulatory motifs for root-specific expression were identified at positions 173–227, 251–323 and 408–452 bp, respectively, from the 5′ end of 452 bp. The 452 bp promoter was equally functional in inverse orientation, hence bidirectional and symmetric. In heterologous systems, such as Brassica juncea and Oryza sativa, the promoter activity was not significant since GUS was not visually detected in transient assays. © 2016, Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology and Springer Japan.


Mulpuri S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Soni P.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Gonela S.K.,ICAR National Bureau for Plant Genetic Resources Regional Station
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2016

Powdery mildew has become a regular and serious problem on sunflower in India during the past decade. Powdery mildew infected leaves were collected from ten regions in seven major sunflower growing states of India representing kharif, rabi and spring cultivation. Anamorph characteristics were studied to identify the pathogen. Five isolates from each of the location were subjected to molecular analysis using universal primers specific to Erysiphales and the ITS primers specific to three species of powdery mildew (Golovinomyces orontii, Podosphaera xanthii, Leveillula taurica) reported to infect sunflower. Further, the pathogen infecting weeds in sunflower fields, cucumber crops grown in the vicinity of sunflower fields and perpetuating on two wild Helianthus species (H. strumosus, H. hirsutus) for 7 years was characterized. Morphological, molecular and sequence analysis confirmed the fungi infecting sunflower including the wild species as G. orontii. Members of Cucurbitaceae were infected by P. xanthii with the exception of Coccinia sps and Luffa acutangula which showed infection of G. orontii. Common beans, Zinnia elegans and Euphorbia hirta revealed infection of G. orontii while other crops showed infection of P. xanthii. None of the powdery mildew samples showed infection of Leveillula taurica. Blast analysis of the ITS sequences and characteristics of the anamorphs were mostly in agreement with the respective pathogen except for E. hirta which were dimorphic, large and paramoecium shaped. Cross infectivity studies of the pathogen isolated from cucurbits and sprayed on sunflower failed to infect while those from wild sunflowers and Z. elegans caused infection. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Sandeep Kumar D.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Sandeep Kumar D.,Osmania University | Tarakeswari M.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Tarakeswari M.,Osmania University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2016

Ten purified crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were tested at concentrations ranging from 2.93 to 3000 ng/cm2 for their toxicity to eri silkworm through protein paint bioassays using castor leaves. Based on LC50 values, Cry1Aa (2.6 ng/cm2) was highly toxic followed by Cry1Ac (29.3 ng/cm2) and Cry1Ab (68.7 ng/cm2). The Cry1Ca and Cry1Ea proteins were moderately toxic to eri silkworm larvae and resulted in 23% and 28% mortality, respectively at the highest concentration tested (3000 ng/cm2). Only reduction in larval weight was observed with Cry2Aa, Cry1Da and Cry9Aa proteins while Cry3Aa and Cry1Ba proteins were found to be nontoxic. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Mulpuri S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Muddanuru T.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research
Australasian Plant Disease Notes | Year: 2016

Symptoms of phyllody on sunflower in India have previously been reported however, lately, the frequency of phyllody observed has increased. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination and PCR including nested PCR analyses using universal primers (P1/P7 and R16F2n/R2) specific to phytoplasma confirmed that the floral abnormalities are due to phytoplasma infection. Nucleotide BLAST analysis of the PCR sequences showed highest identity with sequences of phytoplasma members of the 16SrII group (‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’). Further, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences clustered the sequences of both sunflower (HAP1) and sesame (SIP1) with other members of 16SrII. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species assignment and 16Sr group/subgroup classification using iPhyClassifier confirmed that the phytoplasma causing sunflower phyllody is a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’ related strain and belongs to the 16SrII-D group. The molecular characters of sunflower phytoplasma were compared with that of the phytoplasma associated with sesame phyllody (used as reference) which showed that the R16F2n/R2 sequences of both the phytoplasmas are identical indicating that the 16SrII-D phytoplasma that is associated with sesame phyllody can infect sunflower as well. © 2016, Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.


Kallamadi P.R.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Mulpuri S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research
Nucleus (India) | Year: 2016

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. It is one of the few crops that has been improved for several characteristics through interspecific hybridization. In the present investigation, the ploidy of 43 Helianthus species belonging to diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid status along with 2 accessions of cultivated sunflower was determined. As wide variation exists in the Helianthus species for vegetative characteristics including pigmentation, processing of the leaf samples was tried with incorporation of 1 % polyvinylpyrrolidone while chopping the leaf which gave sharp peaks with low coefficient of variation. Ploidy as determined by flow cytometry was in agreement with the reported status of the Helianthus species used in the study. The mean 1C values for diploids, tetraploids and hexaploids were 3.67, 6.73 and 10.07 pg, respectively. The technique was validated on an interspecific hybrid of cultivated sunflower (2n = 2x) with H. hirsutus (2n = 4x) which confirmed the triploid status of the hybrid. © 2016, Archana Sharma Foundation of Calcutta.


Usha Kiran B.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Mukta N.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Kadirvel P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | Alivelu K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research | And 3 more authors.
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2015

Safflower is a multi-purpose oilseed crop, primarily known for good quality oil containing highest polyunsaturated fatty acid content (>80%) among edible oils. In this study, a core subset of 148 safflower accessions representing 15 countries, predominantly of Indian origin, was evaluated for agronomic traits and characterized for genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) using 44 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci across 11 linkage groups to enable its utilization in breeding and genetic mapping purposes. The collection had substantial variation for seed yield-related traits. SSR allelic variation was low as indicated by average number of alleles (3.6) per locus, gene diversity (0.314) and polymorphism information content (0.284). Cluster analysis (neighbour-joining tree) revealed five major genotypic groups with very low bootstrap support. STRUCTURE analysis showed recognizable population structure; based on membership coefficients ( ≥ 0.75), 52% accessions were classified into four populations (K= 4) and the remaining 48% accessions into admixture group. High F st values (0.30–0.48) suggested that the populations were substantially differentiated. Analysis of molecular variance results showed that maximum of genetic variation (85%) was explained between individuals within the population suggesting that the population structure was only weak. About 1.9% of SSR locus pairs were in LD, which appeared to be low. High phenotypic variation, mild population structure and low level of LD among unlinked loci suggested that the core subset can be explored for association mapping of seed yield components in safflower. Copyright © NIAB 2015

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