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Ravichandran G.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Murugesan P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Naveen Kumar P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Mathur R.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Ramajayam D.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research
Seed Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Seed dormancy (mechanical) is a persistent problem in oil palm and it takes six months to one year for germination to occur under natural conditions. With existing seed processing methods, germination takes nearly 110 days involving disintegration of the mesocarp and operculum (mechanical barrier for dormancy), pre-Treatment and germination. In this study, we attempted to improve germination by using chemicals to promote disintegration of the operculum and breaking of dormancy. In addition to distilled water as control, CaCl2, MgSO4, KNO3, KH2PO4, K2SO4, NaOH, DMSO and H2O2 at different concentrations were tested. GA3 and thiourea combined with NaOH, DMSO and H2O2 at different concentrations were also used to treat the fresh fruits. MgSO4, KNO3, KH2PO4 and K2SO4 were not effective in the disintegration of the operculum, hence no improvement in germination was observed. However, 0.25-0.75 M NaOH and combinations of 0.25-0.75 M NaOH with 0.13-0.39 M thiourea did result in complete disintegration of the mesocarp and operculum while maintaining the viability of the embryo up to 10 days, as evident from a tetrazolium test and high germination (55-72%). Whereas, water could disintegrate the mesocarp within 10 days, did not affect embryo viability and resulted in 90% germination, there was no effect on the operculum.


Saminathan T.,West Virginia State University | Bodunrin A.,West Virginia State University | Singh N.V.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Devarajan R.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | And 4 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, play multiple key roles in plant growth and development and in biotic and abiotic stress response. Knowledge and roles of miRNAs in pomegranate fruit development have not been explored. Results: Pomegranate, which accumulates a large amount of anthocyanins in skin and arils, is valuable to human health, mainly because of its antioxidant properties. In this study, we developed a small RNA library from pooled RNA samples from young seedlings to mature fruits and identified both conserved and pomegranate-specific miRNA from 29,948,480 high-quality reads. For the pool of 15- to 30-nt small RNAs, ~50 % were 24 nt. The miR157 family was the most abundant, followed by miR156, miR166, and miR168, with variants within each family. The base bias at the first position from the 5' end had a strong preference for U for most 18- to 26-nt sRNAs but a preference for A for 18-nt sRNAs. In addition, for all 24-nt sRNAs, the nucleotide U was preferred (97 %) in the first position. Stem-loop RT-qPCR was used to validate the expression of the predominant miRNAs and novel miRNAs in leaves, male and female flowers, and multiple fruit developmental stages; miR156, miR156a, miR159a, miR159b, and miR319b were upregulated during the later stages of fruit development. Higher expression of miR156 in later fruit developmental may positively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis by reducing SPL transcription factor. Novel miRNAs showed variation in expression among different tissues. These novel miRNAs targeted different transcription factors and hormone related regulators. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed predominant metabolic processes and catalytic activities, important for fruit development. In addition, KEGG pathway analyses revealed the involvement of miRNAs in ascorbate and linolenic acid, starch and sucrose metabolism; RNA transport; plant hormone signaling pathways; and circadian clock. Conclusion: Our first and preliminary report of miRNAs will provide information on the synthesis of biochemical compounds of pomegranate for future research. The functions of the targets of the novel miRNAs need further investigation. © 2016 The Author(s).


PubMed | ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research, West Virginia State University, University of California at Davis and National Research Center on Pomegranate
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC plant biology | Year: 2016

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, play multiple key roles in plant growth and development and in biotic and abiotic stress response. Knowledge and roles of miRNAs in pomegranate fruit development have not been explored.Pomegranate, which accumulates a large amount of anthocyanins in skin and arils, is valuable to human health, mainly because of its antioxidant properties. In this study, we developed a small RNA library from pooled RNA samples from young seedlings to mature fruits and identified both conserved and pomegranate-specific miRNA from 29,948,480 high-quality reads. For the pool of 15- to 30-nt small RNAs, ~50% were 24nt. The miR157 family was the most abundant, followed by miR156, miR166, and miR168, with variants within each family. The base bias at the first position from the 5 end had a strong preference for U for most 18- to 26-nt sRNAs but a preference for A for 18-nt sRNAs. In addition, for all 24-nt sRNAs, the nucleotide U was preferred (97%) in the first position. Stem-loop RT-qPCR was used to validate the expression of the predominant miRNAs and novel miRNAs in leaves, male and female flowers, and multiple fruit developmental stages; miR156, miR156a, miR159a, miR159b, and miR319b were upregulated during the later stages of fruit development. Higher expression of miR156 in later fruit developmental may positively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis by reducing SPL transcription factor. Novel miRNAs showed variation in expression among different tissues. These novel miRNAs targeted different transcription factors and hormone related regulators. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed predominant metabolic processes and catalytic activities, important for fruit development. In addition, KEGG pathway analyses revealed the involvement of miRNAs in ascorbate and linolenic acid, starch and sucrose metabolism; RNA transport; plant hormone signaling pathways; and circadian clock.Our first and preliminary report of miRNAs will provide information on the synthesis of biochemical compounds of pomegranate for future research. The functions of the targets of the novel miRNAs need further investigation.


PubMed | 04 Anne Burras Lane, University of Ferrara, Central University of Jharkhand, Wesemlinstrasse 58 and 16 more.
Type: | Journal: Photosynthesis research | Year: 2016

Using chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence many aspects of the photosynthetic apparatus can be studied, both in vitro and, noninvasively, in vivo. Complementary techniques can help to interpret changes in the Chl a fluorescence kinetics. Kalaji et al. (Photosynth Res 122:121-158, 2014a) addressed several questions about instruments, methods and applications based on Chl a fluorescence. Here, additional Chl a fluorescence-related topics are discussed again in a question and answer format. Examples are the effect of connectivity on photochemical quenching, the correction of F


Behera S.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Suresh K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Rao B.N.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Manoja K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Estimation of potassium (K) concentration in oil palm leaf tissue is routinely carried out in oil palm plantations to manage fertilizer application for getting higher fresh fruit bunch (FFB) production. Since K in plant tissue is not bound to organic complexes and it is extractable by water, this study was carried out to extract K from oil palm leaf tissue by water extraction method. The results were compared with other established methods like 1 normal (N) ammonium acetate (NH4OAc) extraction, 0.5 N hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction, and diacid digestion. The proposed water extraction method consists of shaking of 0.5 g finely ground oil palm leaf tissue with distilled water at 1:60 ratio [sample-to-water weight (w)/volume (v)] for a period of 20 min in a reciprocating shaker, filtration of the content, and measurement of K concentration in filtrate by flame photometer. The results of analysis of 30 oil palm leaf samples collected from various production systems under different soil types and management practices for K concentration revealed the close agreement of water extraction method with other established methods. The mean value of K extracted by water extraction method was within 1–10% of the K extracted by other established methods. Water-extractable K was significantly correlated with K extracted by other methods and it could be predicted by other methods. The values of standard error and coefficient of variation for K extracted by different methods were very low, which indicated that the water extraction method was comparable with other established methods. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Sunil Kumar K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Mathur R.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Sparjanbabu D.S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2015

The oil palm is the richest source of vegetable oil in the world. The hybrid nature of crop necessitates artificial hybridization between proven parent palms which in turn require the pollen from male parent to be collected and stored without loss of viability for sufficiently long period. Reports suggested that pollen grains of various taxa could be successfully preserved in different organic solvents. In the present study, attempt was made to evaluate the suitability of organic solvents to store the oil palm pollen at 0 to -5°C temperature. Among the five solvents used, there was significant variation for viability and germination percentages. Viability was the maximum for pollen stored in Diethyl ether (90.45 %) as well as in n-Hexane (88.41%) after 200 days of storage. Viability of pollen stored in Chloroform and Acetone were moderate and in case of Methyl alcohol, complete loss of viability was observed. With respect to pollen germination in vitro, similar trend was observed. The trend was same at different intervals/period of storage. This was confirmed through in vivo pollination and fruits set studies. Thus, present method indicated that it is feasible to store oil palm pollen in non polar solvents beyond 200 days without considerable loss of viability or germination.


Behera S.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Suresh K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Narsimha Rao B.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Mathur R.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | And 5 more authors.
Solid Earth | Year: 2016

Mapping spatial variability of soil properties is the key to efficient soil resource management for sustainable crop yield. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the spatial variability of soil properties such as acidity (pH), salinity (electrical conductivity (EC)), organic carbon, available K, available P, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable Mg2+, available S and hot water soluble B in surface (0-20cm) and subsurface (20-40cm) soil layers of oil palm plantations in south Goa district of Goa located in west coastal area of India. A total of 128 soil samples were collected from 64 oil palm plantations of Goa located at an approximate interval of 1-2km and analyzed. Soil was acidic to neutral in reaction. Other soil properties varied widely in both the soil layers. Correlations between soil pH and exchangeable Ca2+, between soil EC and available K, between available P and available S and between exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+ in both the soil layers were found to be positive and significant (P < 0.01). Geostatistical analysis revealed a varied spatial distribution pattern for the measured soil properties. Best-fit models for measured soil properties were exponential, Gaussian, stable, K-Bessel and spherical with moderate to strong spatial dependency. The results revealed that site-specific fertilizer management options needed to be adopted in the oil palm plantations of the study area owing to variability in soil properties. © 2016 Author(s).


Murugesan P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Ravichandran G.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Shareef M.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

Seed dormancy in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is considered as one of the major causes for low and erratic germination. Oil palm hybrid seeds (dura × pisifera) were subjected to heat treatment for 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 days in a heating room at 39 + 1°C and germination response, ultrastructural changes in embryo, endosperm and operculum structures were observed. The results revealed that seed heating for 50, 60 and 70 days and incubation in germination room (25 to 27 °C) resulted in germination of 90.4, 93.6 and 94.8%, respectively. Heating of seeds for 0, 10 and 20 days had no effect on germination. Structural changes of dormant and germinating seeds were investigated through microtome sectioning and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Endosperm above the embryo is demarcated by several layers of small cells. During the break of seed dormancy, endosperm cleaves in the micropylar region through the small cells. Enlargement of embryo facilitates the dislocation of the operculum during the germination. It is confirmed that heat treatment for 60 to 70 days to be optimum for obtaining maximum oil palm seed germination. Nevertheless, heating oil palm seeds at 50°C is recommended for maximum germination in a short time.


Behera S.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Rao B.N.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Suresh K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Ramachandrudu K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Manorama K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

A survey was conducted for assessment of soil fertility status, leaf nutrient concentration and identification of yield limiting nutrients in twenty six oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations in Surat district of Gujarat. Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), available potassium (K) (NH4OAc-K), available phosphorus (P) (Olsen-P), exchangeable calcium (Ca) (Exch. Ca) and magnesium (Mg) (Exch. Mg), available sulphur (S) (CaCI2- S) and hot water soluble boron (B) (HWB) content in surface (0-20 cm depth) and subsurface (20-40 cm depth) soil layers varied widely. Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) norms were established for different nutrient expressions and it was used to compute DRIS indices. As per DRIS indices, the order of requirement of nutrients in the area was found to be K > nitrogen (N) > B > P > Mg. Optimum leaf nutrient ranges as per DRIS norms varied from 2.63 to 2.85%, 0.16 to 0.18%, 0.56 to 0.88%, 0.34 to 0.84% and 9.10 to 32.5 mg/kg for N, P, K, Mg and B respectively. On the basis of DRIS derived optimum ranges, 65, 31, 35 and 8 per cent leaf samples had less than optimum concentration of N, P, K and B respectively. The optimum ranges developed could be used for efficient nutrient management.


Behera S.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Suresh K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Rao B.N.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Manoja K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Manorama K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2016

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a heavy feeder of nutrients and requires balanced and adequate supply of nutrients for optimum growth and yield. Information regarding soil nutrient status and leaf nutrient concentration is very much required for proper fertilizer application. Therefore, a survey was conducted for assessment of soil nutrient status and leaf nutrient concentration in 64 oil palm plantations in the state of Goa lying in the west coastal region of India. Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), available potassium (K) (ammonium acetate-extractable K) (NH4OAc-K), available phosphorus (P) (Bray’s-P), exchangeable calcium (Ca) (Exch. Ca) and magnesium (Mg) (Exch. Mg), available sulphur (S) (calcium chloride-extractable S) (CaCl2-S), and hot water soluble boron (B) (HWB) in surface (0–20 cm depth) soil layers ranged from 4.25 to 6.77, 0.05 to 1.06 dS m–1, 5.07 to 48.4 g kg–1, 58.1 to 1167 mg kg–1, 1.80 to 415 mg kg–1, 200 to 2997 mg kg–1, 36.0 to 744 mg kg–1, 3.00 to 87.7 mg kg–1 and 0.09 to 2.10 mg kg–1, respectively. Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) norms were established for different nutrient expressions and were used to compute DRIS indices. As per DRIS indices, the order of requirement of nutrients in the region was found to be P > Mg > K > nitrogen (N) > B. Optimum leaf nutrient ranges as per DRIS norms varied from 1.64 to 2.79%, 0.36 to 0.52%, 0.37 to 0.75%, 0.89 to 1.97%, 0.35 to 0.63%, 0.89 to 1.50%, 3.10 to 13.9 mg kg−1, 7.50 to 32.2 mg kg−1, 35.0 to 91.1 mg kg−1, 206 to 948 mg kg−1, and 895 to 2075 mg kg−1 for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) respectively. On the basis of DRIS-derived sufficiency ranges, 14, 5, 11, 6, 6, 6, 8, 2, 3, 6, and 16% of leaf samples had less than optimum concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe respectively. The optimum ranges developed can be used as a guide for routine diagnostic and advisory purpose for balanced utilization of fertilizers. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

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