ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research

Pedavegi, India

ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research

Pedavegi, India
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Ravichandran G.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Murugesan P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Naveen Kumar P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Mathur R.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Ramajayam D.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research
Seed Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Seed dormancy (mechanical) is a persistent problem in oil palm and it takes six months to one year for germination to occur under natural conditions. With existing seed processing methods, germination takes nearly 110 days involving disintegration of the mesocarp and operculum (mechanical barrier for dormancy), pre-Treatment and germination. In this study, we attempted to improve germination by using chemicals to promote disintegration of the operculum and breaking of dormancy. In addition to distilled water as control, CaCl2, MgSO4, KNO3, KH2PO4, K2SO4, NaOH, DMSO and H2O2 at different concentrations were tested. GA3 and thiourea combined with NaOH, DMSO and H2O2 at different concentrations were also used to treat the fresh fruits. MgSO4, KNO3, KH2PO4 and K2SO4 were not effective in the disintegration of the operculum, hence no improvement in germination was observed. However, 0.25-0.75 M NaOH and combinations of 0.25-0.75 M NaOH with 0.13-0.39 M thiourea did result in complete disintegration of the mesocarp and operculum while maintaining the viability of the embryo up to 10 days, as evident from a tetrazolium test and high germination (55-72%). Whereas, water could disintegrate the mesocarp within 10 days, did not affect embryo viability and resulted in 90% germination, there was no effect on the operculum.


Kalyana Babu B.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Mathur R.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Naveen Kumar P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Ramajayam D.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

The oil palm fruit forms (dura, pisifera and tenera) governed by the shell thickness gene (Sh) plays a major role in identification of fruit type and also influences palm oil yield. Identification of desired fruit type is a major asset to the breeders and oil palm workers for applications in breeding, seed certification and to reduce time, space and money spent on identification of fruit form. In the present study, we developed Sh gene specific primer pairs and bulk segregant analysis was done using 300 genomic and 8 genic SSR markers. We identified one cleaved amplified polymorphic site (CAPS) marker for differentiation of oil palm fruit type which produced two alleles (280 and 250bp) in dura genotypes, three alleles in tenera genotypes (550, 280, and 250bp) and one allele in pisifera genotypes (550bp). The shell allele sequencing results showed that two SNPs were present, of which SNP2 contributed for variation of fruit forms. The nucleotide A' was present in only dura genotypes, where as 'T' was present only in pisifera genotypes, which in turn led to the change of amino acid lysine to aspargine. The identified CAPS marker was validated on 300 dura, 25 pisifera and 80 tenera genotypes, 80 dura/ pisifera cross progenies and 60 lines of tenera/ tenera cross progeny. Association mapping of marker data with phenotypic data of eight oil yield related traits resulted in identification of seven significant QTLs by GLM approach, four by MLM approach at a significant threshold (P) level of 0.001. Significant QTLs were identified for fruit to bunch and oil to bunch traits, which explained R2 of 12.9% and 11.5% respectively. The CAPS marker used in the present study facilitate selection and timely distribution of desirable high yielding tenera sprouts to the farmers instead of waiting for 4±5 years. This saves a lot of land, time and money which will be a major breakthrough to the oil palm community. ©2017 Babu et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Saminathan T.,West Virginia State University | Bodunrin A.,West Virginia State University | Singh N.V.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Devarajan R.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | And 4 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, play multiple key roles in plant growth and development and in biotic and abiotic stress response. Knowledge and roles of miRNAs in pomegranate fruit development have not been explored. Results: Pomegranate, which accumulates a large amount of anthocyanins in skin and arils, is valuable to human health, mainly because of its antioxidant properties. In this study, we developed a small RNA library from pooled RNA samples from young seedlings to mature fruits and identified both conserved and pomegranate-specific miRNA from 29,948,480 high-quality reads. For the pool of 15- to 30-nt small RNAs, ~50 % were 24 nt. The miR157 family was the most abundant, followed by miR156, miR166, and miR168, with variants within each family. The base bias at the first position from the 5' end had a strong preference for U for most 18- to 26-nt sRNAs but a preference for A for 18-nt sRNAs. In addition, for all 24-nt sRNAs, the nucleotide U was preferred (97 %) in the first position. Stem-loop RT-qPCR was used to validate the expression of the predominant miRNAs and novel miRNAs in leaves, male and female flowers, and multiple fruit developmental stages; miR156, miR156a, miR159a, miR159b, and miR319b were upregulated during the later stages of fruit development. Higher expression of miR156 in later fruit developmental may positively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis by reducing SPL transcription factor. Novel miRNAs showed variation in expression among different tissues. These novel miRNAs targeted different transcription factors and hormone related regulators. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed predominant metabolic processes and catalytic activities, important for fruit development. In addition, KEGG pathway analyses revealed the involvement of miRNAs in ascorbate and linolenic acid, starch and sucrose metabolism; RNA transport; plant hormone signaling pathways; and circadian clock. Conclusion: Our first and preliminary report of miRNAs will provide information on the synthesis of biochemical compounds of pomegranate for future research. The functions of the targets of the novel miRNAs need further investigation. © 2016 The Author(s).


PubMed | ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research, West Virginia State University, University of California at Davis and National Research Center on Pomegranate
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC plant biology | Year: 2016

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, play multiple key roles in plant growth and development and in biotic and abiotic stress response. Knowledge and roles of miRNAs in pomegranate fruit development have not been explored.Pomegranate, which accumulates a large amount of anthocyanins in skin and arils, is valuable to human health, mainly because of its antioxidant properties. In this study, we developed a small RNA library from pooled RNA samples from young seedlings to mature fruits and identified both conserved and pomegranate-specific miRNA from 29,948,480 high-quality reads. For the pool of 15- to 30-nt small RNAs, ~50% were 24nt. The miR157 family was the most abundant, followed by miR156, miR166, and miR168, with variants within each family. The base bias at the first position from the 5 end had a strong preference for U for most 18- to 26-nt sRNAs but a preference for A for 18-nt sRNAs. In addition, for all 24-nt sRNAs, the nucleotide U was preferred (97%) in the first position. Stem-loop RT-qPCR was used to validate the expression of the predominant miRNAs and novel miRNAs in leaves, male and female flowers, and multiple fruit developmental stages; miR156, miR156a, miR159a, miR159b, and miR319b were upregulated during the later stages of fruit development. Higher expression of miR156 in later fruit developmental may positively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis by reducing SPL transcription factor. Novel miRNAs showed variation in expression among different tissues. These novel miRNAs targeted different transcription factors and hormone related regulators. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed predominant metabolic processes and catalytic activities, important for fruit development. In addition, KEGG pathway analyses revealed the involvement of miRNAs in ascorbate and linolenic acid, starch and sucrose metabolism; RNA transport; plant hormone signaling pathways; and circadian clock.Our first and preliminary report of miRNAs will provide information on the synthesis of biochemical compounds of pomegranate for future research. The functions of the targets of the novel miRNAs need further investigation.


PubMed | 04 Anne Burras Lane, University of Ferrara, Central University of Jharkhand, Wesemlinstrasse 58 and 16 more.
Type: | Journal: Photosynthesis research | Year: 2016

Using chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence many aspects of the photosynthetic apparatus can be studied, both in vitro and, noninvasively, in vivo. Complementary techniques can help to interpret changes in the Chl a fluorescence kinetics. Kalaji et al. (Photosynth Res 122:121-158, 2014a) addressed several questions about instruments, methods and applications based on Chl a fluorescence. Here, additional Chl a fluorescence-related topics are discussed again in a question and answer format. Examples are the effect of connectivity on photochemical quenching, the correction of F


Behera S.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Suresh K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Rao B.N.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Ramachandrudu K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2017

A survey was conducted for assessment of soil fertility status, leaf nutrient concentration and finding yield-limiting nutrients of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations in Mizoram state situated in the northeastern part of India. Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) (Bray's-P), exchangeable calcium (Ca) (Exch. Ca) and magnesium (Mg) (Exch. Mg), available sulfur (S) (CaCl2-S), and hot-water-soluble boron (B) (HWB) content in surface (0–20 cm depth) and subsurface (20–40 cm depth) soil layers varied widely. Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) norms were established for different nutrient expressions, and DRIS indices were computed. As per DRIS indices, the order of requirement of nutrients was found to be B > K > Mg > P > nitrogen (N). Optimum leaf nutrient ranges as per DRIS norms varied from 1.91% to 2.95%, 0.46% to 0.65%, 0.63% to 1.00%, 0.48% to 0.88%, and 9.41 to 31.0 mg kg− 1 for N, P, K, Mg, and B, respectively. On the basis of DRIS-derived optimum ranges, 32%, 9%, 27%, 12%, and 12% leaf samples had less than optimum concentration of N, P, K, Mg, and B, respectively. The optimum ranges developed could be used as a guide for routine diagnostic and advisory purpose for efficient fertilizer application. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Sunilkumar K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Mathur R.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Sparjan Babu D.S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2017

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is the richest source of vegetable oil in the world. Specifc reproductive nature of the crop necessitates artifcial pollination by collection and storage of pollen for breeding as well as generation of planting material for commercial cultivation. However, little information is available on the pollen viability and storage behavior of oil palm. The present study was conducted to standardize the processing and storage of oil palm pollen in respect of Dura and Pisifera fruit forms/types. Pollen of these two fruit forms were stored up to one year at room temperature (33±2°C), refrigerator(5°C), freezer (-5°C) and in deep freezer (-20°C) and the viability as well as germination were compared. For both the fruit types, pollen viability and germination declined as the storage temperature increased up to room temperature and the maximum germination was recorded in pollen stored under-20°C storage. Therefore, deep freezer can be used without any deleterious effect on pollen viability as well as germination. Pollen longevity was signifcantly reduced when stored at room temperature. Of the two oil palm fruittypes, Pisifera retained greater pollen viability and germination than Dura under all four storage temperatures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the frst report of differential response of pollen from Dura and Pisifera fruit types in oil palm to storage temperatures.


Sunil Kumar K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Mathur R.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Sparjanbabu D.S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2015

The oil palm is the richest source of vegetable oil in the world. The hybrid nature of crop necessitates artificial hybridization between proven parent palms which in turn require the pollen from male parent to be collected and stored without loss of viability for sufficiently long period. Reports suggested that pollen grains of various taxa could be successfully preserved in different organic solvents. In the present study, attempt was made to evaluate the suitability of organic solvents to store the oil palm pollen at 0 to -5°C temperature. Among the five solvents used, there was significant variation for viability and germination percentages. Viability was the maximum for pollen stored in Diethyl ether (90.45 %) as well as in n-Hexane (88.41%) after 200 days of storage. Viability of pollen stored in Chloroform and Acetone were moderate and in case of Methyl alcohol, complete loss of viability was observed. With respect to pollen germination in vitro, similar trend was observed. The trend was same at different intervals/period of storage. This was confirmed through in vivo pollination and fruits set studies. Thus, present method indicated that it is feasible to store oil palm pollen in non polar solvents beyond 200 days without considerable loss of viability or germination.


Murugesan P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Ravichandran G.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Shareef M.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

Seed dormancy in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is considered as one of the major causes for low and erratic germination. Oil palm hybrid seeds (dura × pisifera) were subjected to heat treatment for 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 days in a heating room at 39 + 1°C and germination response, ultrastructural changes in embryo, endosperm and operculum structures were observed. The results revealed that seed heating for 50, 60 and 70 days and incubation in germination room (25 to 27 °C) resulted in germination of 90.4, 93.6 and 94.8%, respectively. Heating of seeds for 0, 10 and 20 days had no effect on germination. Structural changes of dormant and germinating seeds were investigated through microtome sectioning and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Endosperm above the embryo is demarcated by several layers of small cells. During the break of seed dormancy, endosperm cleaves in the micropylar region through the small cells. Enlargement of embryo facilitates the dislocation of the operculum during the germination. It is confirmed that heat treatment for 60 to 70 days to be optimum for obtaining maximum oil palm seed germination. Nevertheless, heating oil palm seeds at 50°C is recommended for maximum germination in a short time.


Behera S.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Suresh K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Rao B.N.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Manoja K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research | Manorama K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2016

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a heavy feeder of nutrients and requires balanced and adequate supply of nutrients for optimum growth and yield. Information regarding soil nutrient status and leaf nutrient concentration is very much required for proper fertilizer application. Therefore, a survey was conducted for assessment of soil nutrient status and leaf nutrient concentration in 64 oil palm plantations in the state of Goa lying in the west coastal region of India. Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), available potassium (K) (ammonium acetate-extractable K) (NH4OAc-K), available phosphorus (P) (Bray’s-P), exchangeable calcium (Ca) (Exch. Ca) and magnesium (Mg) (Exch. Mg), available sulphur (S) (calcium chloride-extractable S) (CaCl2-S), and hot water soluble boron (B) (HWB) in surface (0–20 cm depth) soil layers ranged from 4.25 to 6.77, 0.05 to 1.06 dS m–1, 5.07 to 48.4 g kg–1, 58.1 to 1167 mg kg–1, 1.80 to 415 mg kg–1, 200 to 2997 mg kg–1, 36.0 to 744 mg kg–1, 3.00 to 87.7 mg kg–1 and 0.09 to 2.10 mg kg–1, respectively. Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) norms were established for different nutrient expressions and were used to compute DRIS indices. As per DRIS indices, the order of requirement of nutrients in the region was found to be P > Mg > K > nitrogen (N) > B. Optimum leaf nutrient ranges as per DRIS norms varied from 1.64 to 2.79%, 0.36 to 0.52%, 0.37 to 0.75%, 0.89 to 1.97%, 0.35 to 0.63%, 0.89 to 1.50%, 3.10 to 13.9 mg kg−1, 7.50 to 32.2 mg kg−1, 35.0 to 91.1 mg kg−1, 206 to 948 mg kg−1, and 895 to 2075 mg kg−1 for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) respectively. On the basis of DRIS-derived sufficiency ranges, 14, 5, 11, 6, 6, 6, 8, 2, 3, 6, and 16% of leaf samples had less than optimum concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe respectively. The optimum ranges developed can be used as a guide for routine diagnostic and advisory purpose for balanced utilization of fertilizers. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Loading ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research collaborators
Loading ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research collaborators