ICAR Directorate of Wheat Research

Karnāl, India

ICAR Directorate of Wheat Research

Karnāl, India

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Sinha S.K.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | Rani M.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | Bansal N.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | Gayatri,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | And 3 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Improvement of nutrient use efficiency in cereal crops is highly essential not only to reduce the cost of cultivation but also to save the environmental pollution, reduce energy consumption for production of these chemical fertilizers, improve soil health, and ultimately help in mitigating climate change. In the present investigation, we have studied the morphological (with special emphasis on root system architecture) and biochemical responses (in terms of assay of the key enzymes involved in N assimilation) of two N-responsive wheat genotypes, at the seedling stage, under nitrate-optimum and nitrate-starved conditions grown in hydroponics. Expression profile of a few known wheat micro RNAs (miRNAs) was also studied in the root tissue. Total root size, primary root length, and first- and second-order lateral root numbers responded significantly under nitrate-starved condition. Morphological parameters in terms of root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots have also been observed to be significant between N-optimum and N-starved condition for each genotypes. Nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthatase (GS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity significantly decreased under N-starved condition. Glutamine oxoglutarate amino transferase (GOGAT) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activity was found to be genotype dependent. Most of the selected miRNAs were expressed in root tissues, and some of them showed their differential N-responsive expression. Our studies indicate that one of the N-responsive genotype (NP-890) did not get affected significantly under nitrogen starvation at seedling stage. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Sinha S.K.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | Rani M.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | Bansal N.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | Venkatesh K.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Improvement of nutrient use efficiency in cereal crops is highly essential not only to reduce the cost of cultivation but also to save the environmental pollution, reduce energy consumption for production of these chemical fertilizers, improve soil health, and ultimately help in mitigating climate change. In the present investigation, we have studied the morphological (with special emphasis on root system architecture) and biochemical responses (in terms of assay of the key enzymes involved in N assimilation) of two N-responsive wheat genotypes, at the seedling stage, under nitrate-optimum and nitrate-starved conditions grown in hydroponics. Expression profile of a few known wheat micro RNAs (miRNAs) was also studied in the root tissue. Total root size, primary root length, and first- and second-order lateral root numbers responded significantly under nitrate-starved condition. Morphological parameters in terms of root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots have also been observed to be significant between N-optimum and N-starved condition for each genotypes. Nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthatase (GS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity significantly decreased under N-starved condition. Glutamine oxoglutarate amino transferase (GOGAT) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activity was found to be genotype dependent. Most of the selected miRNAs were expressed in root tissues, and some of them showed their differential N-responsive expression. Our studies indicate that one of the N-responsive genotype (NP-890) did not get affected significantly under nitrogen starvation at seedling stage. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Pandey B.,Plant Biotechnology Unit | Kaur A.,Plant Biotechnology Unit | Gupta O.P.,ICAR Directorate of Wheat Research | Sharma I.,Plant Biotechnology Unit | Sharma P.,Plant Biotechnology Unit
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are chaperones that play an important role in various developmental, biotic and abiotic stresses. The sHSP family possess a conserved domain of approximately 80 to 100 amino acids called alpha-crystalline domain (ACD), flanked by N- and C-terminal regions. Search for complete proteomes and expressed sequenced tag (EST) database of wheat and barley using Hidden Markov Model and BLAST algorithm was conducted. Here, we report genome-wide identification and characterization of 27 newly TaHSP20 candidate genes in wheat and 13 HvHSP20 in barley, describing structures, phylogenetic relationships, conserved protein motifs, and expression patterns. The structural analysis highlights that this gene family possesses a conserved ACD region at the C-terminal. Detailed pattern analysis of HSP20 revealed presence of P-G doublet and I/V/L-X-I/V/L motif that helps in oligomerization. Identification of conserved motif sequences of wheat and barley HSP20 strongly supported their identity as sHSP families. This study illustrates for the first time 3D model prediction of full-length wheat HSP20 (TaHSP20) protein and ACD region. Digital expression analysis was also carried out in order to reveal a widespread distribution of the sHSP family genes at various developmental stages of wheat and barley. In addition, five selected transcripts of both wheat and barley were validated for their expression profile under 35 °C and 42 °C heat stress conditions. Results indicate up-regulation of all the transcripts under heat stress condition except TaCBM38894 candidate, which showed down-regulation in wheat. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Singh R.,ICAR Directorate of Wheat Research | Sharma D.,ICAR Directorate of Wheat Research | Raghav N.,ICAR Directorate of Wheat Research | Chhokar R.S.,ICAR Directorate of Wheat Research | Sharma I.,ICAR Directorate of Wheat Research
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Little seed canary grass (Phalaris minor Retz.) populations resistant to herbicides that inhibit acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) represent an increasingly important weed control problem in northern India. The objective of this study was to develop DNA-based markers to differentiate herbicide-resistant and herbicide-susceptible population of P. minor. Primers were designed to amplify the conserved region carrying two reported mutations Trp2027 to Cys and Ile2041 to Asn conferring ACCase inhibitor resistance in several grass weeds and subjected to single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) to detect the mutations. Five distinctive electrophoretic patterns on non-denaturing PAGE were observed, and four patterns were found to be associated with ACCase herbicide resistance in P. minor. The PCR-SSCP test developed in this study confirmed 17 resistant populations to contain mutations in CT domain of ACCase gene. This is the first report of rapid and easy molecular diagnosis of ACCase herbicide-resistant and herbicide-sensitive population of P. minor through PCR-SSCP analysis. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | ICAR Directorate of Wheat Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied biochemistry and biotechnology | Year: 2015

Little seed canary grass (Phalaris minor Retz.) populations resistant to herbicides that inhibit acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) represent an increasingly important weed control problem in northern India. The objective of this study was to develop DNA-based markers to differentiate herbicide-resistant and herbicide-susceptible population of P. minor. Primers were designed to amplify the conserved region carrying two reported mutations Trp2027 to Cys and Ile2041 to Asn conferring ACCase inhibitor resistance in several grass weeds and subjected to single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) to detect the mutations. Five distinctive electrophoretic patterns on non-denaturing PAGE were observed, and four patterns were found to be associated with ACCase herbicide resistance in P. minor. The PCR-SSCP test developed in this study confirmed 17 resistant populations to contain mutations in CT domain of ACCase gene. This is the first report of rapid and easy molecular diagnosis of ACCase herbicide-resistant and herbicide-sensitive population of P. minor through PCR-SSCP analysis.

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