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Kolhe S.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR | Raj Kamal,Devi Ahilya University | Saini H.S.,Guru Nanak Institutions | Gupta G.K.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

The paper reports an interface designed for three subsystems - the knowledge acquisition subsystem with dynamic disease knowledge base, intelligent disease diagnosis subsystem with object-oriented intelligent-inference model and intelligent tutor for crop disease with audio-visual graphical user web-interface. The paper describes the design features; functionality and development of intelligent multimedia web interface. The results of its evaluation are also presented. A novel approach of rule promotion based on fuzzy logic is used in the system for drawing intelligent inferences for crop disease management. A text-to-speech (TTS) converter is used for providing capability of text-to-talking user interface. It provides the highly-effective interactive user interface on web for live interactions. It helps significantly and gives solutions of plant pathological problems in short spell. The application software is built using the Microsoft.NET framework, ASP.NET web-application framework provided in Visual Studio.NET. The Microsoft Speech SDK (5.1) is used to develop text to voice multimedia interface. The dynamic knowledge base is implemented using SQL server. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chaudhary A.,Devi Ahilya University | Kolhe S.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR | Kamal R.,Devi Ahilya University
IFIP International Conference on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks, WOCN | Year: 2012

The field of Machine learning has developed tremendously with the development of Mobile technology. This paper presents the concept of machine learning and presents a concise study on different machine learning techniques and their applications on mobile devices. It also presents a brief overview of performance parameters of machine learning techniques useful for mobile devices. © 2012 IEEE.


Kolhe S.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR | Kamal R.,Devi Ahilya University | Saini H.S.,Guru Nanak Institutions | Gupta G.K.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2011

This paper suggests a new approach for providing intelligence in the system for diagnosis of diseases of the oilseed-crops. It reports the development of a web-based intelligent disease diagnosis system (WIDDS). The WIDDS is based on a new fuzzy logic approach. The approach is based on use of a rule-promotion methodology. This approach enables the drawing of inferences with the enhanced intelligence. The WIDDS also incorporates new features that improve the presently existing expert systems. The new features are (i) object-oriented (O-O) inference model, (ii) dynamic knowledge base creation strategy. The dynamically promoted rules are derived from those diagnosis sessions, which resulted in successful decisions. This enables more efficient decision-making in the future sessions, (iii) audio-visual-graphical user interface using text-to-speech (TTS) conversion tools. The WIDDS results in decreasing not only the number of interactive question-answer sessions with the clients but also leads to acceptable diagnosis. Further, the inferences are drawn faster compared to the traditional approach, which is the expert based reasoning method. The suggested WIDDS, which is based on rule-promotion approach, has been tested for three oilseeds crops - soybean, groundnut and rapeseed-mustard. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Gireesh C.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gireesh C.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR | Sharma J.B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Prabhu K.V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Euphytica | Year: 2015

The bread wheat line WR95 showed seedling resistance to several Indian stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici) isolates. Genetic analysis of stem rust resistance in WR95 was undertaken in populations derived from crosses NI5439/WR95 and Agra Local/WR95. The F1, F2, and F3 generations derived from the cross NI5439/WR95 were tested against stem rust isolate 40A and genetic analysis showed a recessive gene for resistance. The results were confirmed in another F2 population derived from the cross Agra Local/WR95. Interestingly, genetic analysis in F2 population from the later cross i.e. Agra Local/WR95 identified a dominant gene against isolates 11 and 11A. The recessive gene against isolate 40A was mapped to the long arm of 5D chromosome. WR95 showed resistance to virulent isolates of Sr30 which is also located on 5DL chromosome. The dominant gene in WR95 that conferred the resistance to isolate 11 and 11A was mapped towards telomeric region of the long arm of 2B chromosome. The long arm of chromosome 2B also carries stem rust resistance genes Sr9, Sr16 and Sr28. WR95 showed resistance to virulent isolates to Sr9b (11, 11A, 21A-2 and 40A), Sr9e (15-1 and 40A) and Sr28 (11, 11A, 15-1, 21A-2 and 40A). The map position of dominant gene identified in WR95 is different from Sr9 and Sr28 while Sr16 is towards telomeric region and not mapped so far. Therefore, the dominant gene in WR95 may be either Sr16 or a new gene. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Gireesh C.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR | Vinod,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma J.B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Prabhu K.V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2014

Leaf rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks. is the most regularly occurring rust disease that can cause severe yield losses. Due to relatively lower economic value of durum wheat compared to the common wheat, genetic analysis of leaf rust resistance in durum wheat has been carried out only to a limited extent. Durum wheat genotype Trinakria showed high level and broad spectrum seedling resistance to 18 Indian leaf rust pathotypes. Genetic analysis at seedling stage in F2 and BC1 populations using leaf rust pathotype 77-5 showed a single dominant gene for resistance. The leaf rust resistance gene was mapped to the short arm of 5B chromosome and Xgwm234 was the closest marker at a distance of 6.3cM. The leaf rust resistance gene present in Trinakria is tentatively named as LrTrk. In durum wheat very few Lr genes have been documented, and hence Trinakria could be a promising source of leaf rust resistance for wheat breeders. The Xgwm234 marker linked to leaf rust resistance can be used for transfer of leaf rust resistance from Trinakria to other wheat cultivars through marker assisted selection. © 2014, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, All right reserved.


Ramesh S.V.,Washington State University | Ramesh S.V.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR | Raikhy G.,Washington State University | Brown C.R.,Vegetable and Forage Crops Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2014

Potato mop-top virus (PMTV; family Virgaviridae) was reported recently in the Pacific Northwestern USA. To better understand the genetic diversity of this virus, the complete genome of an isolate from Washington State (WA), USA, was characterized. Sequence comparisons of the WA isolate with other known sequences revealed that the RNA-Rep-encoded RdRp protein and the RNA-CP-encoded coat protein displayed >99 % amino acid sequence identity to those of two Nordic (RdRp) and several European and North American isolates (CP), respectively. The RNA-TGB-encoded TGB 1 and TGB 3 protein sequences had >99 % amino acid sequence identity to the corresponding proteins of Czech and Danish isolates, whereas the TGB 2 protein is identical to those of Colombian isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral genes of the WA isolate reflected the close relationship between WA and European isolates. RFLP analysis of corresponding DNA of RNA TGB and RNA CP revealed that the WA isolate has the RNA TGB-II and RNA CP-B types, which are prevalent in Europe and other parts of world. This is the first report of the complete genome characterization of PMTV from the Americas. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.


Kumar V.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR | Rani A.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR | Rawal R.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2013

Genetic elimination of kunitz trypsin inhibitor in soybean seed would obviate the need for boiling required to inactivate the antinutritional factor and therefore economize the soy processing. PI542044, the source of null variant of kunitz trypsin inhibitor gene is being used in the development of kunitz trypsin inhibitor free soybean genotypes in India. Gene specific marker can expedite the genetic elimination of this undesirable trait from popular soybean genotypes. In the present study, we tested the DNA amplification of soybean genotype PI542044 and kunitz trypsin inhibitor null lines derived from this genotype with a gene specific primer developed from the null variant of PI157740. The amplicons so obtained corresponded to the absence of kunitz trypsin inhibitor protein band on 10% polyacrylamide gel. The gene specific marker also amplified the null allele of template DNA of F1, BC1F1 and BC2F1 plants developed during marker assisted introgression of null allele of kunitz trypsin inhibitor into elite soybean cultivar JS97-52. The results presented show the utility of this gene specific marker developed from null allele of kunitz trypsin inhibitor for identification of kunitz trypsin inhibitor free genotypes developed from PI542044, the only source of null variant available in India.


Rani A.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR | Kumar V.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR | Rawal R.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Off-flavour generated in soy products is ascribed to soybean seed lipoxygenase-1, lipoxygenase-2 and lipoxygenase-3, controlled by single dominant genes Lox1, Lox2 and Lox3, respectively. Lox2 locus has already been mapped and reported to be tightly linked with Lox1 locus. The objective of the present study was to map Lox1 locus by investigating the SSR markers reported to be linked with Lox2 locus and the neighbouring SSR markers in two mapping populations of 116 and 91 plants developed from LSb1 × PI408251 and JS335 × PI408251, respectively. Parental polymorphism was surveyed using SSR markers Sat_074, Satt522 reported to be linked with Lox2 locus and the SSR markers in its proximity. F2:3 seeds were used for assaying lipoxygenase-1 to identify the genotype of the F2 individuals. SSR marker Satt656 was found to be tightly linked with Lox1 locus at distance of 3.6 and 4.8 cM in the mapping population of LSb1 × PI408251 and JS335 × PI408251, respectively. SSR marker Satt656 can be useful for marker assisted selection for transferring recessive allele of lipoxygenase-1 in the background of high yielding soybean genotypes. © 2012 Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology.


Sharma M.P.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR | Srivastava K.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR | Sharma S.K.,Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2010

Soybean cultivation in many zones of India shows occurrence of native rhizobia besides other exotically adapted strains. In the current study, 22 rhizobial isolates (recovered from 12 different soybean growing sites) and 8 reference strains were selected for biochemical and metabolic characterization. Of 22 isolates, 18 were recovered as fast growing isolates while the rest were slow growing based on bromothymol blue (BTB) test. Unlike earlier belief that rhizobia have no ability to grow on glucose peptone agar medium, in this study, some isolates and some reference strains grew well on this medium. Similarly, when all the isolates were subjected to ketolactose test, some of the isolates were found to show growth on the medium. In contrast, based on C-utilization pattern (15 carbohydrates) a remarkable metabolic diversity was observed among the rhizobial isolates recovered in the study. The clustering and matching analysis showed that most of isolates were matching with slow growing reference strains, a few were with fast growing reference strains and some were found to be unique and hence not matching with any of reference strains. Such analysis suggests the occurrence of metabolically distinct types of rhizobia besides commonly known types (B. japonicum, B. elkanii and S. fredii) of soybean rhizobia and further validation is suggested through 16SrRNA gene sequencing technique.


PubMed | Directorate of Soybean Research ICAR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of experimental biology | Year: 2014

Genetic elimination of kunitz trypsin inhibitor in soybean seed would obviate the need for boiling required to inactivate the antinutritional factor and therefore economize the soy processing. PI542044, the source of null variant of kunitz trypsin inhibitor gene is being used in the development of kunitz trypsin inhibitor free soybean genotypes in India. Gene specific marker can expedite the genetic elimination of this undesirable trait from popular soybean genotypes. In the present study, we tested the DNA amplification of soybean genotype PI542044 and kunitz trypsin inhibitor null lines derived from this genotype with a gene specific primer developed from the null variant of PI157740. The amplicons so obtained corresponded to the absence of kunitz trypsin inhibitor protein band on 10% polyacrylamide gel. The gene specific marker also amplified the null allele of template DNA of F1, BC1F1 and BC2F1 plants developed during marker assisted introgression of null allele of kunitz trypsin inhibitor into elite soybean cultivar JS97-52. The results presented show the utility of this gene specific marker developed from null allele of kunitz trypsin inhibitor for identification of kunitz trypsin inhibitor free genotypes developed from PI542044, the only source of null variant available in India.

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