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Gaur A.,Himachal Pradesh University | Kumar P.,Himachal Pradesh University | Thakur A.K.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Srivastava D.K.,Himachal Pradesh University
Israel Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2015

Genus Populus comprises about 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae which are widely distributed in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere. Populus species are important resources in certain branches of industry and have a special role for the scientific study of biological and agricultural systems. The poplar is known for its remarkable significance among the commercially propagated tree species such as teak, eucalyptus, wild cherry, red wood, and radiata pine. In vitro regeneration refers to growing and multiplications of cells, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid media under aseptic and controlled environments. In vitro clonal propagation of forest trees, due to the high multiplication rate, is an attractive alternative for rapid propagation of elite genotypes of those species that could not easily be propagated through conventional methods. Owing to their widespread uses at the industrial level and for meeting the ever-increasing global demand for biomass production and wood industry, tissue culture techniques can be exploited for rapid cloning and large-scale production of planting material of various poplar species. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture determined this area to be one of the most dynamic and promising for experimental biology. Much work has been carried out on in vitro plant regeneration studies in Populus spp. including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. These reviews provide an insight for in vitro plant regeneration studies in poplar species and their potential in its improvement. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

Sandhu P.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Brar K.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Chauhan J.S.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Meena P.D.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | And 6 more authors.
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2014

A total of 13 strains of oilseed Brassica genotypes were evaluated for their reaction to white rust pathogen Albugo candida Pers. Kuntze during crop seasons 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 at five agroclimatically diverse locations in India. Aided epiphytotic conditions were provided to ensure heavy disease pressure at all the locations. The disease reaction of different genotypes was recorded at 100 days after sowing (DAS) as per cent disease severity based on per cent leaf area affected by the pathogen. Genotypes exhibited variable disease reaction in space and time indicating the prevalence of different isolate(s) of the pathogen. However, some genotypes like PBC 9221, EC 414299 and GSL-1 exhibited resistant reaction to white rust pathogen across the locations consistently during the three cropping seasons. Some of the genotypes showed specific resistant disease reaction at a specific location indicating their suitability for cultivation at that particular location. For example, JMM 07-1, JMM 07-2 and JYM 10 have shown specific resistance reaction to isolate(s) of white rust at Morena location. It can be concluded from the study that some of the genotypes showed resistant reaction to prevalent isolates of an area. Thus, it is advised to test the genotypes for the reaction to a particular/range of diseases for the specificity in performance, if any, before release for general cultivation in a particular area. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Sharma P.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Sharma P.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Singh N.,Gujarat University
Forest Pathology | Year: 2012

A new foliar disease was observed on sissoo in Jaipur and Udaipur districts of Rajasthan, India. The disease occurred in approximately 30% of the trees surveyed. Leaf spots were mostly irregular and these start from leaf margin to inwards. The fungus was identified as Curvularia affinis Boedijn and Koch's postulates fulfilled. On the basis of the literature, this is the first report of C. affinis causing leaf spot of Dalbergia sissoo from India as well as worldwide. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Bhattacharya B.K.,Agriculture Forestry and Environment Group | Chattopadhyay C.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2013

Disease forecasting forms an integral part of crop protection for ensuring quality and quantity of production. In this paper, a new method of multi-stage tracking of Sclerotinia rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) disease in a large mustard growing region over 5. km × 5. km (27.00-27.25°N; 77.25-77.50°E) in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan state of North-West India is demonstrated. In addition to surface weather data, post-facto analysis of 5-year (2003-2007) satellite-based data of surface reflectances in red (R), near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, land surface temperature (LST) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AQUA at day (1:30. pm) and night time (1:30. am) LST, were done to characterize disease outbreak (stage-I) and persistence (stage-II). While stage-I evaluation was based on anomaly in minimum air temperatures and night time LST, stage-II evaluation was carried out using quadrant-based trapezoidal clusters between soil and canopy dryness indicators. Hyperspectral data on two dates from Hyperion sensor at EO-1 platform were used for two-step spectral discrimination to select bands and disease indices specific to rot. Among all the hyperspectral indices, a three-band rot index (ROTI) was found to be the better one in field scale rot discrimination (stage-III evaluation). The reduction in fractional canopy cover in diseased patches in 2005 as compared to a normal year (2007) indirectly validated the disease effect. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Meena P.D.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Gour R.B.,University of Rajasthan | Gupta J.C.,ZARS | Singh H.K.,NDUAT | And 7 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

India is a leading producer of oilseed Brassicas, contributing approximately 23 percent of the country's total oilseed production. In India, the Indian mustard [. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.] crop is ravaged by various diseases, including Alternaria blight, white rust, downy mildew, Sclerotinia rot and powdery mildew, which can contribute to fluctuations in crop yields. A field experiment examining an integrated disease management system for Indian mustard (B. juncea) was conducted under the All India Coordinated Research Project on Rapeseed-Mustard (Indian Council of Agricultural Research or ICAR) during three crop seasons (2006-09) at 11 locations to assess treatments suitable for the management of crop disease. The data from the different locations and years regarding disease severity and incidence were pooled and analyzed. Seed treatments with freshly prepared Allium sativum bulb aqueous extract (1 percent w/v) resulted in significantly higher initial plant stands, across locations and years. Seed treatment with A.sativum bulb extract, followed by its use as a foliar spray, resulted in significantly reduced Alternaria leaf and pod blight severity, reduced white rust severity, fewer stag heads per plot, reduced downy mildew and Sclerotinia rot incidence, and reduced powdery mildew severity, across locations and years. The combination also provided significantly higher seed yields compared with the control across locations and years and was at par with treatment by chemical fungicides. The combination used in the present study was as effective as the combination of seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum and foliar spraying with Pseudomonas fluorescens and T.harzianum. Economic returns were higher when using biorational treatments (A.sativum bulb extract, T.harzianum, P.fluorescens) compared with chemical fungicides. The combination of seed treatments with T.harzianum followed by its use as a foliar spray (17.22), and the similar combination of seed treatments and foliar spraying with the A.sativum bulb extract (17.18), resulted in a higher benefit to cost ratio. This eco-friendly technology can help oilseed Brassica growers in India safeguard the crops from major diseases and increase the stability and productivity of the Indian mustard crop. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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