Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR

Bharatpur, India

Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR

Bharatpur, India
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Meena P.D.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Chattopadhyay C.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Kumar A.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Singh R.,CCSHAU | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2011

High severity of Altemaria blight disease is a major constraint in production of rapeseed-mustard in India. The aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive potential of chemicals viz., zinc sulphate, borax, sulphur, potash and calcium sulphate, aqueous extracts viz., Eucalyptus globosus (50 g I -1) leaf extract and garlic (Allium sativum) bulb (20 g l -1) extract, cow urine and bio-agents Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescence in comparison with the recommended chemical fungicide (mancozeb), against foliar disease Altemaria blight of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss] under five different geographical locations of India. Mancozeb recorded the lowest mean severity (leaf: 33.1%; pod: 26.3%) of Alternaria blight with efficacy of garlic bulb extract alone (leaf=34.4%; pod = 27.3%) or in combination with cow urine (leaf=34.2%; pod = 28.6%) being statistically at par with the recommended chemical fungicide. Chemicals also proved effective in reducing Altemaria blight severity on leaves and pods of Indian mustard (leaf=36.337.9%; pod = 27.5-30.1%). The effective treatments besides providing significant reduction in disease severity also enabled increase in dry seed yield of the crop (mancozeb = 2052 kg ha -1; garlic=2006 kg ha -1; control = 1561 kg ha -1). © 2011 Triveni Enterprises Vikas Nagar, Lucknow, INDIA.


Sharma P.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Sharma P.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Singh N.,Gujarat University
Forest Pathology | Year: 2012

A new foliar disease was observed on sissoo in Jaipur and Udaipur districts of Rajasthan, India. The disease occurred in approximately 30% of the trees surveyed. Leaf spots were mostly irregular and these start from leaf margin to inwards. The fungus was identified as Curvularia affinis Boedijn and Koch's postulates fulfilled. On the basis of the literature, this is the first report of C. affinis causing leaf spot of Dalbergia sissoo from India as well as worldwide. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Meena P.D.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Gour R.B.,University of Rajasthan | Gupta J.C.,ZARS | Singh H.K.,NDUAT | And 7 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

India is a leading producer of oilseed Brassicas, contributing approximately 23 percent of the country's total oilseed production. In India, the Indian mustard [. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.] crop is ravaged by various diseases, including Alternaria blight, white rust, downy mildew, Sclerotinia rot and powdery mildew, which can contribute to fluctuations in crop yields. A field experiment examining an integrated disease management system for Indian mustard (B. juncea) was conducted under the All India Coordinated Research Project on Rapeseed-Mustard (Indian Council of Agricultural Research or ICAR) during three crop seasons (2006-09) at 11 locations to assess treatments suitable for the management of crop disease. The data from the different locations and years regarding disease severity and incidence were pooled and analyzed. Seed treatments with freshly prepared Allium sativum bulb aqueous extract (1 percent w/v) resulted in significantly higher initial plant stands, across locations and years. Seed treatment with A.sativum bulb extract, followed by its use as a foliar spray, resulted in significantly reduced Alternaria leaf and pod blight severity, reduced white rust severity, fewer stag heads per plot, reduced downy mildew and Sclerotinia rot incidence, and reduced powdery mildew severity, across locations and years. The combination also provided significantly higher seed yields compared with the control across locations and years and was at par with treatment by chemical fungicides. The combination used in the present study was as effective as the combination of seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum and foliar spraying with Pseudomonas fluorescens and T.harzianum. Economic returns were higher when using biorational treatments (A.sativum bulb extract, T.harzianum, P.fluorescens) compared with chemical fungicides. The combination of seed treatments with T.harzianum followed by its use as a foliar spray (17.22), and the similar combination of seed treatments and foliar spraying with the A.sativum bulb extract (17.18), resulted in a higher benefit to cost ratio. This eco-friendly technology can help oilseed Brassica growers in India safeguard the crops from major diseases and increase the stability and productivity of the Indian mustard crop. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Sharma P.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Meena P.D.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Chauhan J.S.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2013

A stem blight disease was observed on the lower portions of Brassica juncea stems during the cropping season (2010-2011). In advanced stages, the lesions were up to 120 cm in length on the stems and also spread to petioles and midribs of leaves. The purified fungus was identified as Nigrospora oryzae (Berk. & Br.) Petch (teleomorph Khuskia oryzae), which produced similar symptoms when healthy B. juncea plants were inoculated, thus proving Koch's postulates. This is the first report of the occurrence of N. oryzae on B. juncea. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Sandhu P.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Brar K.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Chauhan J.S.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Meena P.D.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | And 6 more authors.
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2014

A total of 13 strains of oilseed Brassica genotypes were evaluated for their reaction to white rust pathogen Albugo candida Pers. Kuntze during crop seasons 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 at five agroclimatically diverse locations in India. Aided epiphytotic conditions were provided to ensure heavy disease pressure at all the locations. The disease reaction of different genotypes was recorded at 100 days after sowing (DAS) as per cent disease severity based on per cent leaf area affected by the pathogen. Genotypes exhibited variable disease reaction in space and time indicating the prevalence of different isolate(s) of the pathogen. However, some genotypes like PBC 9221, EC 414299 and GSL-1 exhibited resistant reaction to white rust pathogen across the locations consistently during the three cropping seasons. Some of the genotypes showed specific resistant disease reaction at a specific location indicating their suitability for cultivation at that particular location. For example, JMM 07-1, JMM 07-2 and JYM 10 have shown specific resistance reaction to isolate(s) of white rust at Morena location. It can be concluded from the study that some of the genotypes showed resistant reaction to prevalent isolates of an area. Thus, it is advised to test the genotypes for the reaction to a particular/range of diseases for the specificity in performance, if any, before release for general cultivation in a particular area. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Gaur A.,Himachal Pradesh University | Kumar P.,Himachal Pradesh University | Thakur A.K.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Srivastava D.K.,Himachal Pradesh University
Israel Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2015

Genus Populus comprises about 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae which are widely distributed in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere. Populus species are important resources in certain branches of industry and have a special role for the scientific study of biological and agricultural systems. The poplar is known for its remarkable significance among the commercially propagated tree species such as teak, eucalyptus, wild cherry, red wood, and radiata pine. In vitro regeneration refers to growing and multiplications of cells, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid media under aseptic and controlled environments. In vitro clonal propagation of forest trees, due to the high multiplication rate, is an attractive alternative for rapid propagation of elite genotypes of those species that could not easily be propagated through conventional methods. Owing to their widespread uses at the industrial level and for meeting the ever-increasing global demand for biomass production and wood industry, tissue culture techniques can be exploited for rapid cloning and large-scale production of planting material of various poplar species. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture determined this area to be one of the most dynamic and promising for experimental biology. Much work has been carried out on in vitro plant regeneration studies in Populus spp. including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. These reviews provide an insight for in vitro plant regeneration studies in poplar species and their potential in its improvement. © 2015 Taylor & Francis


Kumar A.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Sharma P.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Sharma P.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR | Gour H.N.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) is an important vegetable, which is an integral component of the regular daily diet of human beings world over, consumed both in raw and cooked form. The alternaria blight and fusarium wilt diseases of tomato, earlier reported from several countries, were observed occurring in moderate to severe form in all farmer's fields surveyed extensively in south Rajasthan. In the present study, attempts have been made to partially purify the toxic metabolites produced by the blight and wilt inducing pathogens and the effects of the toxins thus obtained were examined using different bio-assay methods. Results obtained in the present study clearly show that the toxins affected the germination of seeds, the root and shoot length of seedlings and caused significant leakage of electrolytes. © 2013 The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Bhattacharya B.K.,Agriculture Forestry and Environment Group | Chattopadhyay C.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2013

Disease forecasting forms an integral part of crop protection for ensuring quality and quantity of production. In this paper, a new method of multi-stage tracking of Sclerotinia rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) disease in a large mustard growing region over 5. km × 5. km (27.00-27.25°N; 77.25-77.50°E) in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan state of North-West India is demonstrated. In addition to surface weather data, post-facto analysis of 5-year (2003-2007) satellite-based data of surface reflectances in red (R), near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, land surface temperature (LST) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AQUA at day (1:30. pm) and night time (1:30. am) LST, were done to characterize disease outbreak (stage-I) and persistence (stage-II). While stage-I evaluation was based on anomaly in minimum air temperatures and night time LST, stage-II evaluation was carried out using quadrant-based trapezoidal clusters between soil and canopy dryness indicators. Hyperspectral data on two dates from Hyperion sensor at EO-1 platform were used for two-step spectral discrimination to select bands and disease indices specific to rot. Among all the hyperspectral indices, a three-band rot index (ROTI) was found to be the better one in field scale rot discrimination (stage-III evaluation). The reduction in fractional canopy cover in diseased patches in 2005 as compared to a normal year (2007) indirectly validated the disease effect. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research ICAR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of environmental biology | Year: 2011

High severity of Altemaria blight disease is a major constraint in production of rapeseed-mustard in India. The aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive potential of chemicals viz., zinc sulphate, borax, sulphur, potash and calcium sulphate, aqueous extracts viz., Eucalyptus globosus (50 g l-1) leaf extract and garlic (Allium sativum) bulb (20 g l-1) extract, cow urine and bio-agents Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescence in comparison with the recommended chemical fungicide (mancozeb), against foliar disease Alternaria blight of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss] under five different geographical locations of India. Mancozeb recorded the lowest mean severity (leaf: 33.1%; pod: 26.3%) of Alternaria blight with efficacy of garlic bulb extract alone (leaf = 34.4%; pod = 27.3%) or in combination with cow urine (leaf = 34.2%; pod = 28.6%) being statistically at par with the recommended chemical fungicide. Chemicals also proved effective in reducing Alternaria blight severity on leaves and pods of Indian mustard (leaf = 36.3-37.9%; pod = 27.5-30.1%). The effective treatments besides providing significant reduction in disease severity also enabled increase in dry seed yield of the crop (mancozeb = 2052 kg ha-1; garlic = 2006 kg ha-1; control = 1561 kg ha-1).

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