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Rajkumar U.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Vinoth A.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Reddy E.P.K.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Shanmugam M.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Rao S.V.R.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
Animal Biotechnology | Year: 2017

The effects of supplementing the organic forms of selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), and zinc (Zn) on Hsp-70 mRNA expression and body weight in broiler chickens were evaluated. 200 chicks were equally distributed into stainless steel battery brooders at the rate of 5 birds per pen and reared under heat stress condition up to 42nd day. The chicks were fed with three experimental diets supplemented with organic forms of Se (0.30 mg/kg), Cr (2 mg/kg), and Zn (40 mg/kg) during the starter and finisher phases and a control diet without any supplementation. On the 21st and 42nd day, 20 birds from each period were sacrificed and samples were collected for analysis. Organic Se, Cr, and Zn supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the expression of Hsp-70 mRNA levels. The Hsp-70 mRNA expression levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between the tissues studied with spleen having the lowest expression level. Hsp-70 mRNA expression level was not affected by age of the birds. The study concluded that organic trace mineral (oTM) supplementation resulted in low Hsp-70 mRNA expression, indicating reduced heat stress in broilers. © 2017 Taylor & Francis


Shanmugam M.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Vinoth A.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Rajaravindra K.S.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Rajkumar U.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2015

Thermal manipulation during incubation has been shown to improve post hatch performance in poultry. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate thermal manipulation on semen quality of roosters during hot climatic conditions. Eggs obtained after artificial insemination from Dahlem Red layer breeders were randomly divided into two groups control (C) and heat exposed (HE). C group eggs were incubated at 37.5 °C throughout the incubation period while the HE group eggs were exposed to higher temperature 40.5 °C from 15th to 17th day of incubation for 3 h each day. The relative humidity was maintained at 65% in both the groups throughout incubation. The chicks hatched were reared separately under standard husbandry conditions. During high ambient temperature semen from roosters (45 weeks of age) was collected and evaluated for different gross parameters, sperm chromatin integrity and sperm HSP27 and HSP70 gene expression by real-time PCR. The seminal plasma was evaluated for lipid peroxidation, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), triiodothyronine (T3) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. The shed average Temperature Humidity Index (THI) during the experiment period was 78.55. The percent live sperm and FRAP level were significantly (P < 0.05) higher and sperm gene expressions were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the HE group. No differences in other parameters were observed between the groups. Thus from the results it could be concluded that thermal manipulation during incubation improves certain semen parameters of roosters at high ambient temperature. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Vinoth A.,Tamil University | Thirunalasundari T.,Tamil University | Tharian J.A.,Tamil University | Shanmugam M.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Rajkumar U.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
Journal of Thermal Biology | Year: 2015

Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis has been shown to improve thermo tolerance in broilers. Heat shock proteins are a family of proteins produced in response to variety of stress and protect cells from damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermal manipulation (TM) during embryogenesis on HSP gene and protein expression in the embryos and in chronic heat stressed 42nd day old chicks. On 15th day of incubation, fertile eggs from two breeds-Naked neck (NN) and Punjab Broiler-2 (PB-2) were randomly divided in to two groups, namely Control (C) eggs were incubated under standard incubation conditions and Thermal Conditioning (TC) eggs were exposed to higher incubation temperature (40.5 °C) for 3 h on 15th, 16th and 17th day of incubation. The chicks so obtained from each group were further subdivided and reared from 15th-42nd day as normal (N; 25±1 °C, 70% RH) and heat exposed (HE; 35±1 °C, 50% RH) resulting in four treatment groups (CN, CHE, TCN and TCHE). Embryos of two groups (C and TC) on 17th day and birds from four treatment groups on 42nd day were sacrificed. Liver was collected for analysis of gene expression by real-time PCR and protein expression by Western blot of Heat Shock Proteins (HSP 90 alpha, HSP 90 beta, HSP 70, HSP 60, HSP 27 and ubiquitin). The plasma collected on 42nd day was analyzed for biochemical parameters. Thermal challenging of embryos of both the breeds caused significant (P≤0.05) increase in all the HSPs gene and protein expression. The TCHE chicks had significantly (P≤0.05) lower HSPs gene and protein expressions and oxidative stress compared to CHE groups in both NN and PB-2. Based on these findings it can be concluded that TM during incubation provides adaptation to broiler chicks during chronic heat stress. © 2015.


Paswan C.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Bhattacharya T.K.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Chatterjee R.N.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Nagaraja C.S.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Dushyanth K.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
Indian Journal of Animal Research | Year: 2016

A study was carried out to characterize the nucleotide variability in the promoter of the IGF-1 gene in broiler line of chicken. A PCR product of 375bp was amplified and nucleotide variability was studied using PCR-SSCP technique in chicken control broiler line. Selected sample PCR products were also sequenced to confirm the variability in promoter sequence. Present study revealed that the IGF-1 promoter was monomorphic having similar SSCP pattern in all individuals. Growth data was also analyzed to study the growth performance of the chicken broiler line at different age. Growth performance of male and female differed significantly at six week of age. © 2016, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.


Rao S.V.R.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Raju M.V.L.N.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Prakash B.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Reddy E.P.K.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Panda A.K.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
British Poultry Science | Year: 2015

Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of including toasted (120°C/35 min) guar meal (GM, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) in the diet on performance and egg shell quality of White Leghorn (WL) layers. Totals of 2376 and 2816 layer chickens (Babcock, BV 300) were randomly distributed into 27 and 32 replicates with 88 birds each in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Three diets in Experiment 1 (0, 50 and 100 g GM) and 4 diets in Experiment 2 (0, 50, 100 and 150 g GM/kg) were prepared having similar concentrations of energy and protein. Each diet was fed ad libitum to 9 and 8 replicates, respectively, in Experiments 1 (from 53 to 68 weeks) and 2 (35 to 46 weeks of age). Compared to soya bean meal (SBM) GM contained similar concentrations of protein, but was deficient in all essential amino acids except arginine, which was 70% higher than in SBM. Total non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) content in GM (166 g/kg) was lower than that of SBM (179 g/kg). Amongst different NSP fractions, GM contained higher levels of arabans, xylans, mannans and glucans compared to SBM. The galactomannan gum content in GM was 46 g/kg. Egg production (EP), body weight (BW), food intake (FI), food efficiency (FE) and egg quality (shell weight, shell per cent, shell thickness, Haugh unit score, egg density and egg breaking strength) parameters were not affected by incorporating GM up to 100 g/kg diet in Experiment 1. However, egg weight (EW) and egg mass (EM) were reduced significantly in groups fed on 100 g/kg diet. In Experiment 2, EP and FE were not affected by incorporating GM up to 100 g/kg, but were reduced at 150 g/kg diet. FI, EW, BW and egg quality parameters were not affected by incorporating toasted GM up to 150 g/kg diet. Based on the results of both experiments, it is concluded that toasted GM can be included in WL layer diets up to 100 g/kg without affecting EP, FE, EW, EM, Haugh unit score, BW and egg shell quality parameters. © 2015 British Poultry Science Ltd.


Shanmugam M.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Kannaki T.R.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Vinoth A.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2016

Semen variables are affected by the breed and strain of chicken. The present study was undertaken to compare the semen quality in two lines of adult chickens with particular reference to sperm chromatin condensation, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins. Semen from a PD3 and White Leghorn control line was collected at 46 and 47 weeks and 55 weeks of age. The semen was evaluated for gross variables and sperm chromatin condensation by aniline blue staining. Sperm DNA damage was assessed by using the comet assay at 47 weeks of age and sperm membrane proteins were assessed at 55 weeks of age. The duration of fertility was studied by inseminating 100 million sperm once into the hens of the same line as well as another line. The eggs were collected after insemination for 15. days and incubated. The eggs were candled on 18th day of incubation for observing embryonic development. The White Leghorn control line had a greater sperm concentration and lesser percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm at the different ages where assessments occurred. There was no difference in sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage and membrane proteins between the lines. Only low molecular weight protein bands of less than 95. kDa were observed in samples of both lines. The line from which semen was used had no effect on the duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination either when used in the same line or another line. Thus, from the results of the present study it may be concluded that there was a difference in gross semen variables between the lines that were studied, however, the sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage, membrane proteins and duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination did not differ between the lines. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
Type: | Journal: Journal of biotechnology | Year: 2016

Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscular growth in poultry and other animals. Of several approaches, knocking down the negative regulator is an important aspect to augment muscular growth in chicken. Knock down of myostatin gene has been performed by shRNA acting against the expression of gene in animals. Two methods of knock down of gene in chicken such as embryo manipulation and sperm mediated method have been performed. The hatching percentage in embryo manipulation and sperm mediated method of knock down was 58.0 and 41.5%, respectively. The shRNA in knock down chicken enhanced body weight at 6 weeks by 26.9%. The dressing percentage and serum biochemical parameters such as SGPT and alkaline phosphatase differed significantly (P<0.05) between knock down and control birds. It is concluded that knocking down the myostatin gene successfully augmented growth in chicken.


PubMed | ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
Type: | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2015

Thermal manipulation during incubation has been shown to improve post hatch performance in poultry. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate thermal manipulation on semen quality of roosters during hot climatic conditions. Eggs obtained after artificial insemination from Dahlem Red layer breeders were randomly divided into two groups control (C) and heat exposed (HE). C group eggs were incubated at 37.5C throughout the incubation period while the HE group eggs were exposed to higher temperature 40.5C from 15th to 17th day of incubation for 3h each day. The relative humidity was maintained at 65% in both the groups throughout incubation. The chicks hatched were reared separately under standard husbandry conditions. During high ambient temperature semen from roosters (45 weeks of age) was collected and evaluated for different gross parameters, sperm chromatin integrity and sperm HSP27 and HSP70 gene expression by real-time PCR. The seminal plasma was evaluated for lipid peroxidation, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), triiodothyronine (T3) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. The shed average Temperature Humidity Index (THI) during the experiment period was 78.55. The percent live sperm and FRAP level were significantly (P<0.05) higher and sperm gene expressions were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the HE group. No differences in other parameters were observed between the groups. Thus from the results it could be concluded that thermal manipulation during incubation improves certain semen parameters of roosters at high ambient temperature.


PubMed | ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research and Tamil University
Type: | Journal: Journal of thermal biology | Year: 2015

Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis has been shown to improve thermo tolerance in broilers. Heat shock proteins are a family of proteins produced in response to variety of stress and protect cells from damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermal manipulation (TM) during embryogenesis on HSP gene and protein expression in the embryos and in chronic heat stressed 42nd day old chicks. On 15th day of incubation, fertile eggs from two breeds-Naked neck (NN) and Punjab Broiler-2 (PB-2) were randomly divided in to two groups, namely Control (C) eggs were incubated under standard incubation conditions and Thermal Conditioning (TC) eggs were exposed to higher incubation temperature (40.5C) for 3h on 15th, 16th and 17th day of incubation. The chicks so obtained from each group were further subdivided and reared from 15th-42nd day as normal (N; 251C, 70% RH) and heat exposed (HE; 351C, 50% RH) resulting in four treatment groups (CN, CHE, TCN and TCHE). Embryos of two groups (C and TC) on 17th day and birds from four treatment groups on 42nd day were sacrificed. Liver was collected for analysis of gene expression by real-time PCR and protein expression by Western blot of Heat Shock Proteins (HSP 90 alpha, HSP 90 beta, HSP 70, HSP 60, HSP 27 and ubiquitin). The plasma collected on 42nd day was analyzed for biochemical parameters. Thermal challenging of embryos of both the breeds caused significant (P0.05) increase in all the HSPs gene and protein expression. The TCHE chicks had significantly (P0.05) lower HSPs gene and protein expressions and oxidative stress compared to CHE groups in both NN and PB-2. Based on these findings it can be concluded that TM during incubation provides adaptation to broiler chicks during chronic heat stress.


PubMed | ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
Type: | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2016

Semen variables are affected by the breed and strain of chicken. The present study was undertaken to compare the semen quality in two lines of adult chickens with particular reference to sperm chromatin condensation, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins. Semen from a PD3 and White Leghorn control line was collected at 46 and 47 weeks and 55 weeks of age. The semen was evaluated for gross variables and sperm chromatin condensation by aniline blue staining. Sperm DNA damage was assessed by using the comet assay at 47 weeks of age and sperm membrane proteins were assessed at 55 weeks of age. The duration of fertility was studied by inseminating 100 million sperm once into the hens of the same line as well as another line. The eggs were collected after insemination for 15days and incubated. The eggs were candled on 18th day of incubation for observing embryonic development. The White Leghorn control line had a greater sperm concentration and lesser percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm at the different ages where assessments occurred. There was no difference in sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage and membrane proteins between the lines. Only low molecular weight protein bands of less than 95kDa were observed in samples of both lines. The line from which semen was used had no effect on the duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination either when used in the same line or another line. Thus, from the results of the present study it may be concluded that there was a difference in gross semen variables between the lines that were studied, however, the sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage, membrane proteins and duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination did not differ between the lines.

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