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Rajkumar U.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Muthukumar M.,National Research Center on Meat | Haunshi S.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Niranjan M.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | And 3 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2016

A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (<2.5 kg) with 10 birds in each subgroup.The pH of meat did not show any significant variation between Aseel and broiler chickens. The meat from heavier birds had significantly higher pH. Shear force value and hydroxyproline contents were significantly higher in Aseel chickens. Aseel birds had significantly higher red (a*) colouration and lower lightness (L*) than broiler chickens.The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat were significantly higher.Scanning electron microscopy revealed that muscle fibres in Aseels were arranged in a more coiled pattern making the muscle tough. A larger amount of connective tissue was also observed between the muscle fibres compared with the broiler chickens.The dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31–1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73–0.78%).The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability. © 2016 British Poultry Science Ltd Source

Vinoth A.,Tamil University | Thirunalasundari T.,Tamil University | Tharian J.A.,Tamil University | Shanmugam M.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Rajkumar U.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
Journal of Thermal Biology | Year: 2015

Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis has been shown to improve thermo tolerance in broilers. Heat shock proteins are a family of proteins produced in response to variety of stress and protect cells from damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermal manipulation (TM) during embryogenesis on HSP gene and protein expression in the embryos and in chronic heat stressed 42nd day old chicks. On 15th day of incubation, fertile eggs from two breeds-Naked neck (NN) and Punjab Broiler-2 (PB-2) were randomly divided in to two groups, namely Control (C) eggs were incubated under standard incubation conditions and Thermal Conditioning (TC) eggs were exposed to higher incubation temperature (40.5 °C) for 3 h on 15th, 16th and 17th day of incubation. The chicks so obtained from each group were further subdivided and reared from 15th-42nd day as normal (N; 25±1 °C, 70% RH) and heat exposed (HE; 35±1 °C, 50% RH) resulting in four treatment groups (CN, CHE, TCN and TCHE). Embryos of two groups (C and TC) on 17th day and birds from four treatment groups on 42nd day were sacrificed. Liver was collected for analysis of gene expression by real-time PCR and protein expression by Western blot of Heat Shock Proteins (HSP 90 alpha, HSP 90 beta, HSP 70, HSP 60, HSP 27 and ubiquitin). The plasma collected on 42nd day was analyzed for biochemical parameters. Thermal challenging of embryos of both the breeds caused significant (P≤0.05) increase in all the HSPs gene and protein expression. The TCHE chicks had significantly (P≤0.05) lower HSPs gene and protein expressions and oxidative stress compared to CHE groups in both NN and PB-2. Based on these findings it can be concluded that TM during incubation provides adaptation to broiler chicks during chronic heat stress. © 2015. Source

Shanmugam M.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Vinoth A.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Rajaravindra K.S.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Rajkumar U.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2015

Thermal manipulation during incubation has been shown to improve post hatch performance in poultry. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate thermal manipulation on semen quality of roosters during hot climatic conditions. Eggs obtained after artificial insemination from Dahlem Red layer breeders were randomly divided into two groups control (C) and heat exposed (HE). C group eggs were incubated at 37.5 °C throughout the incubation period while the HE group eggs were exposed to higher temperature 40.5 °C from 15th to 17th day of incubation for 3 h each day. The relative humidity was maintained at 65% in both the groups throughout incubation. The chicks hatched were reared separately under standard husbandry conditions. During high ambient temperature semen from roosters (45 weeks of age) was collected and evaluated for different gross parameters, sperm chromatin integrity and sperm HSP27 and HSP70 gene expression by real-time PCR. The seminal plasma was evaluated for lipid peroxidation, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), triiodothyronine (T3) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. The shed average Temperature Humidity Index (THI) during the experiment period was 78.55. The percent live sperm and FRAP level were significantly (P < 0.05) higher and sperm gene expressions were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the HE group. No differences in other parameters were observed between the groups. Thus from the results it could be concluded that thermal manipulation during incubation improves certain semen parameters of roosters at high ambient temperature. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Paswan C.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Bhattacharya T.K.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Chatterjee R.N.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Nagaraja C.S.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Dushyanth K.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
Indian Journal of Animal Research | Year: 2016

A study was carried out to characterize the nucleotide variability in the promoter of the IGF-1 gene in broiler line of chicken. A PCR product of 375bp was amplified and nucleotide variability was studied using PCR-SSCP technique in chicken control broiler line. Selected sample PCR products were also sequenced to confirm the variability in promoter sequence. Present study revealed that the IGF-1 promoter was monomorphic having similar SSCP pattern in all individuals. Growth data was also analyzed to study the growth performance of the chicken broiler line at different age. Growth performance of male and female differed significantly at six week of age. © 2016, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved. Source

Rao S.V.R.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Raju M.V.L.N.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Prakash B.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Reddy E.P.K.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research | Panda A.K.,ICAR Directorate of Poultry Research
British Poultry Science | Year: 2015

Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of including toasted (120°C/35 min) guar meal (GM, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) in the diet on performance and egg shell quality of White Leghorn (WL) layers. Totals of 2376 and 2816 layer chickens (Babcock, BV 300) were randomly distributed into 27 and 32 replicates with 88 birds each in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Three diets in Experiment 1 (0, 50 and 100 g GM) and 4 diets in Experiment 2 (0, 50, 100 and 150 g GM/kg) were prepared having similar concentrations of energy and protein. Each diet was fed ad libitum to 9 and 8 replicates, respectively, in Experiments 1 (from 53 to 68 weeks) and 2 (35 to 46 weeks of age). Compared to soya bean meal (SBM) GM contained similar concentrations of protein, but was deficient in all essential amino acids except arginine, which was 70% higher than in SBM. Total non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) content in GM (166 g/kg) was lower than that of SBM (179 g/kg). Amongst different NSP fractions, GM contained higher levels of arabans, xylans, mannans and glucans compared to SBM. The galactomannan gum content in GM was 46 g/kg. Egg production (EP), body weight (BW), food intake (FI), food efficiency (FE) and egg quality (shell weight, shell per cent, shell thickness, Haugh unit score, egg density and egg breaking strength) parameters were not affected by incorporating GM up to 100 g/kg diet in Experiment 1. However, egg weight (EW) and egg mass (EM) were reduced significantly in groups fed on 100 g/kg diet. In Experiment 2, EP and FE were not affected by incorporating GM up to 100 g/kg, but were reduced at 150 g/kg diet. FI, EW, BW and egg quality parameters were not affected by incorporating toasted GM up to 150 g/kg diet. Based on the results of both experiments, it is concluded that toasted GM can be included in WL layer diets up to 100 g/kg without affecting EP, FE, EW, EM, Haugh unit score, BW and egg shell quality parameters. © 2015 British Poultry Science Ltd. Source

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