ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research

Rājgurunagar, India

ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research

Rājgurunagar, India

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Gawande S.J.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research | Gurav V.S.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research | Ingle A.A.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research | Martin D.P.,University of Cape Town | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2015

The nucleotide sequence of M- and S-RNA segments of an Indian iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) were determined. Sequence comparisons showed that both of these sequences shared less than 95 % identity with those other known IYSV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the S- and M-RNA sequences of known IYSV isolates clustered with those of the tospoviruses, tomato yellow ring virus, polygonum ringspot virus and hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus. Further, multiple recombination detection methods detected inter- and intra-species recombination events that clustered primarily within the intergenic regions of S- and M-RNA, suggesting that these are possibly recombination hotspots in IYSV and closely related tospoviruses. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.


Mahajan V.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research | Devi A.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research | Khar A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Lawande K.E.,Dr BSKKV
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2015

A study was undertaken to determine the LD50 in garlic variety G-41, to create variability for desirable traits using sodium azide (SA), colchicine and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Half cut garlic cloves after treating for 6 and 12 h, were planted in randomized block design. Among the durations of treatments, concentrations required to attain LD50 was higher when treated for 6 hours as compared to 12 h in all the three mutagens. LD50 in SA can be obtained at 0.021 and 0.024%, in colchicine at 0.058 and 0.097% and in EMS at 0.674 and 1.222% concentration in 12 h treatment, whereas, it can be obtained at 0.095 and 0.108% in SA, 0.124 and 0.145% in colchicine and 0.826 and 1.222% in EMS in 6 h treatment, respectively at the time of harvesting and at 45 days after planting. Same concentrations can be tried in other varieties or lines of garlic to create variability for further selection. © 2015, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved.


Tiwari J.K.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute | Gupta S.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute | Gopal J.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research | Kumar V.,ICAR Central Potato Research Station | And 2 more authors.
Potato Journal | Year: 2015

In vitro conservation and micropropagation are key activities of potato germplasm management for maintenance of true-to-type genotypes. Aim of this study was to analyze genetic stability of three-years in vitro conserved plants (mother plants and their derivatives regenerated after 1st, 2nd and 3rd years of conservation) by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 38 (10 RAPDs, 11 ISSRs, 12 SSRs and 5 AFLPs) markers produced total of 360 (42 RAPDs, 54 ISSRs, 96 SSRs and 168 AFLPs) clear, distinct and reproducible bands/peaks. DNA amplification profiles-based cluster analyses showed complete genetic similarity (100%) except for 70-100% by AFLP, among the mother plants and their derivatives in respective cluster of genotype. Cluster analysis based on the Jaccard’s coefficient classified the genotypes into four clusters (I-IV), each cluster consisting of mother plant and its derivatives. Overall, our study shows genetic stability of in vitro conserved microplants for three-years on MS medium supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose, 40 g/l sorbitol and 7 g/l agar at low temperature (7±1°C) under controlled conditions and a safe protocol for regeneration of true-to-type genotypes. © 2015, Indian Potato Association. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research and Auburn University
Type: | Journal: Bulletin of entomological research | Year: 2017

Heteroplasmy is the existence of multiple mitochondrial DNA haplotypes within the cell. Although the number of reports of heteroplasmy is increasing for arthropods, the occurrence, number of variants, and origins are not well studied. In this research, the occurrence of heteroplasmy was investigated in Thrips tabaci, a putative species complex whose lineages can be distinguished by their mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. The results from this study showed that heteroplasmy was due to the occurrence of mitochondrial cytochrome oxydase I (mtCOI) haplotypes from two different T. tabaci lineages. An assay using flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR was then used to quantify the per cell copy number of the two mtCOI haplotypes present in individuals exhibiting heteroplasmy from nine geographically distant populations in India. All of the T. tabaci individuals in this study were found to exhibit heteroplasmy, and in every individual the per cell copy number of mtCOI from lineage 3 comprised 75-98% of the haplotypes detected and was variable among individuals tested. There was no evidence to suggest that the presense of lineage-specific haplotypes was due to nuclear introgression; however, further studies are needed to investigate nuclear introgression and paternal leakage during rare interbreeding between individuals from lineages 2 and 3.


Murkute A.A.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research | Murkute A.A.,ICAR Central Citrus Research Institute | Anandhan S.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2016

In the present study the effect of ethanol, a perception ethylene action suppresser and ethephon, an ethylene inducer (1 and 2 %) was studied as postharvest application on rabi 2012 (May harvest) produce at Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research, Pune. Two onion varieties of the region viz. Bhima Kiran (light red) and B. Shakti (dark red) were used being popularly grown. Top and bottom ventilated storage structure was used and data was recorded before storage and after 2 and 4 months of storage. Results revealed that B. Kiran had more storability than B. Shakti. After 4 months of storage, ethanol treatment (2 %) restricted weight loss to 19.09 % than 38.57 % (control) in B. Shakti and to 14.84 % than 23.81 % (control) in B. Kiran. It also reduced the sprouting significantly to 3.09 % as compared to 4.15 % (control) in B. Kiran and to 6.51 % as compared to 9.98 % (control) in B. Shakti. However, ethephon treatment (1 %) altered the postharvest losses up to 2 months only and effect was non-significant thereafter. Biochemical attributes varied significantly in both varieties. Total sugars and flavonoids decreased during storage irrespective of chemical treatment. Total proteins, total phenols and vitamin-C increased over the storage and were significantly altered due to postharvest applications. © 2016, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Murkute A.A.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2015

Enhancement of shelf-life is imperative to stabilize the supply chain of onion when the price fluctuations are due to short of supply amid huge postharvest losses. Sprouting has been a major hurdle to alleviate postharvest losses. The screening of available onion cultivars for abscisic acid (ABA), a growth hormone associated with sprouting could be helpful to categories them for storability potential. Twenty two different varieties were analyzed for initial ABA contents and their sprouting up to five months. Results revealed that the highest ABA content was recorded in Bima Red (80.61 ng/g) followed by Phule Safed (60.63 ng/g). Whereas, the lowest ABA contents were observed in Palam Lohit (9.84 ng/g), followed by Agrifound Rose (11.39 ng/g). Despite, comparatively lower ABA contents, sprouting was not observed in Bhima Kiran, N-2-4-1 and Pusa Madhvi up to five months. It was observed that, the dormancy of onion during storage could not be attributed to the initial ABA content. © 2015, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved.


Anandhan S.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research | Nair A.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research | Kumkar D.S.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research | Gopal J.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Ty1-c. opia like elements are distributed throughout the onion (Allium cepa) genome, and are actively transcribed. Sequence analysis by LTR finder identified that the copia element in onion is bound by long terminal repeats (LTR) of length 121. bp. Primer binding site and poly purine tract are located on copia element at 193-211. bp and 4593-4607. bp respectively. To exploit the variation at the insertional locus and to explore its further use as a marker, a method using a primer located on the LTR and an arbitrary primer was developed for detecting variation in onion genotypes. This method resulted in the detection of polymorphism in 22 onion genotypes. Thirty-three polymorphic amplicons were detected in these genotypes. The genetic distance between the varieties varied from 0.83 to 0.99. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Indian short day onion clustered separately from the exotic varieties indicating that the origin of Indian varieties is distinct. Further, variation observed among Indian varieties was less than that of exotic varieties. The marker was detected across eight species of genus Allium and the genetic distance between the species varied from 0.34 to 0.88. Polymorphism detection was better across the species than within A. cepa. This retrotransposon based method is likely to supplement the marker resources for Allium spp. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Thangasamy A.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2016

Understanding the physiology of dry-matter accumulation and nutrient uptake pattern of an onion crop is an essential criteria for optimizing fertilizer practices. An experiment was conducted to estimate the dry-matter accumulation and nutrient uptake pattern of short day onion. The dry-matter accumulation and nutrient uptake followed the sigmoid growth curve pattern. Uptake of nitrogen and potassium was slow for the first 15 days followed by rapid uptake from 15 to 60 days after transplanting and accounted for 76.2–78.2% of total uptake. Takeup of phosphorus, sulfur, manganese, zinc, and copper uptake was greater during 30 to 75 days after transplanting and accounted for 64.9–70.6% of total uptake. The deficiency of nutrients during these period reduces the crop yield significantly. The dry-matter accumulation and nutrient-uptake pattern reported in this study provide an opportunity for optimizing quantity and timing of nutrient application through fertilizers for short day onions. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.


Thangasamy A.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research | Lawande K.E.,ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research | Lawande K.E.,Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2015

Present investigation was carried out to standardize integrated nutrient management for onion production. Results showed that integrated use of 75% recommended fertilizers along with organic manures and biofertilizers produced bulb yield at par with the previous recommendation (150:50:80:50 kg NPKS + 20 t FYM/ha) and improved soil organic carbon. Besides yield, integrated use of fertilizer, manures and biofertilizers increased TSS and total phenols content and decreased pyruvic acid as compared to inorganic fertilizer application alone. Combined application of fertilizers, organic manures and bio-fertilizers maintained initial soil available NPKS status. We conclude that the combined application of inorganic fertilizer (110:40:60:40 kg NPKS/ha) along with organic manures and biofertilizers produced yield at par with previous recommendation, improved bulb quality and maintained soil fertility. Adoption of this practice saved 25% inorganic fertilizers and protect environment from pollution. © 2015, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved.


PubMed | ICAR Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of virology | Year: 2015

The nucleotide sequence of M- and S-RNA segments of an Indian iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) were determined. Sequence comparisons showed that both of these sequences shared less than 95% identity with those other known IYSV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the S- and M-RNA sequences of known IYSV isolates clustered with those of the tospoviruses, tomato yellow ring virus, polygonum ringspot virus and hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus. Further, multiple recombination detection methods detected inter- and intra-species recombination events that clustered primarily within the intergenic regions of S- and M-RNA, suggesting that these are possibly recombination hotspots in IYSV and closely related tospoviruses.

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