ICAR Directorate of Medicinal Aromatic Plants Research

Ānand, India

ICAR Directorate of Medicinal Aromatic Plants Research

Ānand, India
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Jain S.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Shakil N.A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Dutta A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar J.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2017

Bentonite was modified by quaternary ammonium cations viz. cetytrimethylammonium (CTA), cetylpyridinium (CP), rioctylmethylammonium (TOM) and pcholine (PTC) at 100% cation exchange capacity of bentonite and was characterized by X-ray diffraction, CHNS elemental analyser and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The sorption of imidacloprid on organobentonites/bentonite was studied by batch method. Normal bentonite could adsorb imidacloprid only upto 19.31–22.18% while all organobentonites except PTC bentonite (PTCB), enhanced its adsorption by three to four times. Highest adsorption was observed in case of TOM bentonite (TOMB) (76.94–83.16%). Adsorption kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. For normal bentonite data were best fitted to pseudo-first-order kinetic, while for organobentonites fitted to pseudo-second-order kinetics. Sorption data were analysed using Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. Data were well fitted to Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Product of Freundlich adsorption constant and heterogeneity parameter (Kf.1/n) was in following order: TOMB (301.87) > CTA bentonite (CTAB) (152.12) > CP bentonite (CPB) (92.58) > bentonite (27.25). Desorption study confirmed hysteresis and concentration dependence. The present study showed that the organobentonite could be a good sorbent for removal of imidacloprid from natural water sample also. Percentage adsorption and Distribution coefficient (mL g−1) value of different adsorbent was in following order: TOMB (74.85% and 297.54) > CTAB (55.78% and 126.15) > CPB (45.81% and 84.55) > bentonite (10.65% and 11.92). © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Tripathy V.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal Aromatic Plants Research | Basak B.B.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal Aromatic Plants Research | Varghese T.S.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal Aromatic Plants Research | Saha A.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal Aromatic Plants Research
Phytochemistry Letters | Year: 2015

With the increasing popularity and use of medicinal herbs, their global demand has gained momentum. Developing countries, including China, India and South East Asian (SEA) countries, are the centres of origin and major global suppliers for most of these traditionally used medicinal herbs. One of the factors affecting the quality of these herbs is the contamination of heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticide residues, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fumigants. These contaminants can accumulate during the cultivation, storage and processing of herbs and may have adverse effects on consumer health. There have been various reports regarding the presence of these contaminants in medicinal herbs. This review discusses the important contaminants of medicinal herbs, the frequency and magnitude of their occurrences, the potential causes of contamination and their regulatory limits in medicinal herbs. The major challenge in the international trade of medicinal herbs is the lack of common guidelines, regulatory measures and monitoring body to strictly enforce their regulation. © 2015 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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